Charles-Valentin Alkan was a French-Jewish composer and virtuoso pianist. At the height of his fame in the 1830s and 1840s he was, alongside his friends and colleagues Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt, among the leading pianists in Paris, a city in which he spent his entire life. Alkan earned many awards at the Conservatoire de Paris, his career in the salons and concert halls of Paris was marked by his occasional long withdrawals from public performance, for personal reasons. Although he had a wide circle of friends and acquaintances in the Parisian artistic world, including Eugène Delacroix and George Sand, from 1848 he began to adopt a reclusive life style, while continuing with his compositions – all of which are for the keyboard. During this period he published, among other works, his collections of large-scale studies in all the major keys and all the minor keys; the latter includes his Symphony for Solo Piano and Concerto for Solo Piano, which are considered among his masterpieces and are of great musical and technical complexity.
Alkan emerged from self-imposed retirement in the 1870s to give a series of recitals that were attended by a new generation of French musicians. Alkan's attachment to his Jewish origins is displayed both in his work, he was the first composer to incorporate Jewish melodies in art music. Fluent in Hebrew and Greek, he devoted much time to a complete new translation of the Bible into French; this work, like many of his musical compositions, is now lost. Alkan never married, but his presumed son Élie-Miriam Delaborde was, like Alkan, a virtuoso performer on both the piano and the pedal piano, edited a number of the elder composer's works. Following his death Alkan's music became neglected, supported by only a few musicians including Ferruccio Busoni, Egon Petri and Kaikhosru Sorabji. From the late 1960s onwards, led by Raymond Lewenthal and Ronald Smith, many pianists have recorded his music and brought it back into the repertoire. Alkan was born Charles-Valentin Morhange on 30 November 1813 at 1, Rue de Braque in Paris to Alkan Morhange and Julie Morhange, née Abraham.
Alkan Morhange was descended from a long-established Jewish Ashkenazic community in the region of Metz. Charles-Valentin was the second of six children -- four younger brothers. Alkan Morhange supported the family as a musician and as the proprietor of a private music school in le Marais, the Jewish quarter of Paris. At an early age, Charles-Valentin and his siblings adopted their father's first name as their last, his brother Napoléon became professor of solfège at the Conservatoire, his brother Maxim had a career writing light music for Parisian theatres, his sister, Céleste, was a singer. His brother Ernest was a professional flautist, while the youngest brother Gustave was to publish various dances for the piano. Alkan was a child prodigy, he entered the Conservatoire de Paris at an unusually early age, studied both piano and organ. The records of his auditions survive in the Archives Nationales in Paris. At his solfège audition on 3 July 1819, when he was just over 5 years 7 months, the examiners noted Alkan as "having a pretty little voice".
The profession of Alkan Morhange is given as "music-paper ruler". At Charles-Valentin's piano audition on 6 October 1820, when he was nearly seven, the examiners comment "This child has amazing abilities."Alkan became a favourite of his teacher at the Conservatoire, Joseph Zimmerman, who taught Georges Bizet, César Franck, Charles Gounod, Ambroise Thomas. At the age of seven, Alkan won a first prize for solfège and in years prizes in piano and organ. At the age of seven-and-a-half he gave his first public performance, appearing as a violinist and playing an air and variations by Pierre Rode. Alkan's Opus 1, a set of variations for piano based on a theme by Daniel Steibelt, dates from 1828, when he was 14 years old. At about this time he undertook teaching duties at his father's school. Antoine Marmontel, one of Charles-Valentin's pupils there, to become his bête noire, wrote of the school: Young children Jewish, were given elementary musical instruction and learnt the first rudiments of French grammar...
I received a few lessons from the young Alkan, four years my senior... I see once more... that parochial environment where the talent of Valentin Alkan was formed and where his hard-working youth blossomed... It was like a juvenile annexe of the Conservatoire. From about 1826 Alkan began to appear as a piano soloist in leading Parisian salons, including those of the Princesse de la Moskova, the Duchesse de Montebello, he was introduced to these venues by his teacher Zimmermann. At the same time, Alkan Morhange arranged concerts featuring Charles-Valentin at public venues in Paris, in association with leading musicians including the sopranos Giuditta Pasta and Henriette Sontag, the cellist Auguste Franchomme and the violinist Lambert Massart
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Gabriel Urbain Fauré was a French composer, organist and teacher. He was one of the foremost French composers of his generation, his musical style influenced many 20th-century composers. Among his best-known works are his Pavane, Sicilienne, nocturnes for piano and the songs "Après un rêve" and "Clair de lune". Although his best-known and most accessible compositions are his earlier ones, Fauré composed many of his most regarded works in his years, in a more harmonically and melodically complex style. Fauré was born into a cultured but not musical family, his talent became clear. At the age of nine, he was sent to a music college in Paris, where he was trained to be a church organist and choirmaster. Among his teachers was Camille Saint-Saëns, who became a lifelong friend. After graduating from the college in 1865, Fauré earned a modest living as an organist and teacher, leaving him little time for composition; when he became successful in his middle age, holding the important posts of organist of the Église de la Madeleine and director of the Paris Conservatoire, he still lacked time for composing.
By his last years, Fauré was recognised in France as the leading French composer of his day. An unprecedented national musical tribute was held for him in Paris in 1922, headed by the president of the French Republic. Outside France, Fauré's music took decades to become accepted, except in Britain, where he had many admirers during his lifetime. Fauré's music has been described as linking the end of Romanticism with the modernism of the second quarter of the 20th century; when he was born, Chopin was still composing, by the time of Fauré's death and the atonal music of the Second Viennese School were being heard. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, which describes him as the most advanced composer of his generation in France, notes that his harmonic and melodic innovations influenced the teaching of harmony for generations. During the last twenty years of his life, he suffered from increasing deafness. In contrast with the charm of his earlier music, his works from this period are sometimes elusive and withdrawn in character, at other times turbulent and impassioned.
Fauré was born in Pamiers, Ariège, Occitanie, in the south of France, the fifth son and youngest of six children of Toussaint-Honoré Fauré and Marie-Antoinette-Hélène Lalène-Laprade. According to the biographer Jean-Michel Nectoux, the Fauré family dates to the 13th century in that part of France; the family had at one time been substantial landowners, but by the 19th century its means had become reduced. The composer's paternal grandfather, was a butcher whose son became a schoolmaster. In 1829 Fauré's parents married, his mother was the daughter of a minor member of the nobility. He was the only one of the six children to display musical talent; the young Fauré was sent to live with a foster mother. When his father was appointed director of the École Normale d'Instituteurs, a teacher training college, at Montgauzy, near Foix, in 1849, Fauré returned to live with his family. There was a chapel attached to the school, which Fauré recalled in the last year of his life: I grew up, a rather quiet well-behaved child, in an area of great beauty....
But the only thing I remember clearly is the harmonium in that little chapel. Every time I could get away I ran there – and I regaled myself.... I played atrociously... no method at all, quite without technique, but I do remember that I was happy. An old blind woman, who came to listen and give the boy advice, told his father of Fauré's gift for music. In 1853 Simon-Lucien Dufaur de Saubiac, of the National Assembly, heard Fauré play and advised Toussaint-Honoré to send him to the École de Musique Classique et Religieuse, better known as the École Niedermeyer de Paris, which Louis Niedermeyer was setting up in Paris. After reflecting for a year, Fauré's father agreed and took the nine-year-old boy to Paris in October 1854. Helped by a scholarship from the bishop of his home diocese, Fauré boarded at the school for 11 years; the régime was austere, the rooms gloomy, the food mediocre, the required uniform elaborate. The musical tuition, was excellent. Niedermeyer, whose goal was to produce qualified organists and choirmasters, focused on church music.
Fauré's tutors were Clément Loret for organ, Louis Dietsch for harmony, Xavier Wackenthaler for counterpoint and fugue, Niedermeyer for piano and composition. When Niedermeyer died in March 1861, Camille Saint-Saëns took charge of piano studies and introduced contemporary music, including that of Schumann and Wagner. Fauré recalled in old age, "After allowing the lessons to run over, he would go to the piano and reveal to us those works of the masters from which the rigorous classical nature of our programme of study kept us at a distance and who, moreover, in those far-off years, were scarcely known.... At the time I was 15 or 16, from this time dates the filial attachment... the immense admiration, the unceasing gratitude I had for him, throughout my life."Saint-Saëns took great pleasure in his pupil's progress, which he helped whenever he could. The close friendship betwe
Artus Aux-Cousteaux was a French singer and composer, active in Picardy and Paris. He was born in Picardy in either Saint-Quentin, his family coat of arms contains a pun on his name. He was a singer in the church of Noyon, he became Maistre de la Sainte Chapelle at Paris. According to the preface to Antoine Godeau's 1656 psalter published by Pierre Le Petit, he was a haute-contre in the chapel of Louis XIII, he left many masses and chansons, all printed by Pierre I Ballard of Paris. His style is remarkably in advance of his contemporaries, François-Joseph Fétis believes him to have studied the Italian masters. Jean-Paul C. Montagnier, The Polyphonic Mass in France, 1600-1780: The Evidence of the Printed Choirbooks, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. Free scores by Artus Aux-Cousteaux at the International Music Score Library Project This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Grove, George, ed.. "Auxcousteaux, Arthur d'". A Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
London: Macmillan and Company
Tony Louis Alexandre Aubin was a French composer. From 1925-30, Aubin studied at the Paris Conservatory under Samuel Rousseau, Noel Gallon, Philippe Gaubert, Paul Dukas, he was awarded the Prix de Rome for the cantata Actaeon in 1930. He was artistic director at Paris-Mondial from 1937–44, professor at the Paris Conservatory from 1944-77, he conducted works for French radio between 1945 and 1960. His works indebted to the impressionism of Ravel and Dukas, include a large number of film scores, his pupils included Olivier Alain, Garbis Aprikian, Raynald Arseneault, Jocelyne Binet, Jacques Castérède, Pierre Cochereau, Marius Constant, Ginette Keller, Talivaldis Kenins, Yüksel Koptagel, Ron Nelson and Makoto Shinohara. Piano Sonata, 1930 Quatuor à cordes, 1930/1933 Prélude, Récitatif et Finale for piano, 1930/1933 Six poèmes de Verlaine, 1932/1933 Cressida, Melodrama, 1934 1. Sinfonie "Romantique", 1935/1937 Le sommeil d'Iskender, 1936 Cantilène variée for cello and piano, 1937 La Chasse infernale, Scherzo Symphonique, 1941/1942 Jeanne d'Arc à Orléans, Oratorio, 1942 Suite danoise, 1942/1945 Athalie, 1943 Symphony No.
2, 1944 François Villon, 1945 Fourberies, Ballet, 1950/1952 Variations on a theme of Franz Schubert, Ballet, 1953 Grand pas on a theme of Johannes Brahms, Ballet, 1953 Suite éolienne for flute and orchestra, 1956 Périls, Lyrical drama, 1956/1958 La Source, 1960 Hymne à d'espérance, 1961 Concertinetto for violin and piano, 1964 Concertinetto del amicizia for flute and piano, 1965 Concertino della Brughiera for bassoon and piano, 1966/1975 Divertimento del incertezza for clarinet and piano or orchestra, 1967/ 1973 La jeunesse de Goya, Opera, 1968/1970 Concertino delle scoiattolo for oboe and strings, 1970 Au fil de l'eau, 1970 Toccatrotta, 1972 Hidalgoyas for guitar, 1975 Passacaglia dell'addio for viola and piano 1941: The Pavilion Burns 1942: À l'assaut des Aiguilles du Diable 1943: Les Ailes blanches 1943: Le Corbeau 1943: Sondeurs d'abîmes 1943: Ceux du rivage 1944: La Collection Ménard The Pretty Miller Girl 1952: Groenland, 20 000 lieues sur les glaces 1952: Victoire sur l'Annapurna 1966: Illusions perdues Don Randel.
The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music. Harvard, 1996, p. 31
Joseph Bodin de Boismortier
Joseph Bodin de Boismortier was a French baroque composer of instrumental music, cantatas, opéra-ballets, vocal music. Boismortier was one of the first composers to have no patrons: having obtained a royal licence for engraving music in 1724, he made enormous sums of money by publishing his music for sale to the public; the Boismortier family moved from the composer's birthplace in Thionville to the town of Metz where he received his musical education from Joseph Valette de Montigny, a well-known composer of motets. The Boismortier family followed Montigny and moved to Perpignan in 1713 where Boismortier found employment in the Royal Tobacco Control. Boismortier married Marie Valette, the daughter of a rich goldsmith and a relative of his teacher Montigny. In 1724 Boismortier and his wife moved to Paris where he began a prodigious composition career, writing for many instruments and voices, he was prolific: his first works appeared in Paris in 1724, by 1747 he had published more than 100 works in various vocal and instrumental combinations.
His music for the voice, was popular and made him wealthy without the aid of patrons. He died in Roissy-en-Brie. Boismortier was the first French composer to use the Italian concerto form, in his six concertos for five flutes op. 15.. He wrote the first French solo concerto for any instrument, a concerto for cello, viol, or bassoon. Much of his music is for the flute, for which he wrote an instruction method, his six sonatas for flute and harpsichord op. 91, first published in Paris in 1742, were printed with an homage to the celebrated French flautist and composer, Michel Blavet. Today, they are his most popular pieces, for they indeed show Boismortier at his most creative and graceful. A notable piece of Boismortier's, still performed is the Deuxieme serenade ou simphonie. Boismortier and Rameau both lived during the Rococo era of Louis XV and upheld the French tradition, composing music of beauty and sophistication, appreciated by the French musical public. Although known as a composer, Bodin de Boismortier was famed during his lifetime for his excessively inattentive and wandering mind that kept him from conducting his own works.
A full-length biography on the composer, Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, by Stephan Perreau, was published in France in 2001. The playwright and novelist Suzanne Bodin de Boismortier was his daughter; the music theorist Jean-Benjamin de la Borde wrote in his Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne in 1780 about Boismortier: Bienheureux Boismortier, dont la fertile plume peut tous les mois, sans peine, enfanter un volume. In response to such comments, it is said that Boismortier would answer: "I'm earning money." Les quatre saisons, cantatas Six concertos for five flutes op. 15. Concerto for cello, viol, or bassoon Les voyages de l'amour, opera ballet Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse, comic ballet Daphnis et Chloé, pastorale Cinquante-neuvieme oeuvre de M. Boismortier, contenant quatre suites de pieces de clavecin for harpsichord Daphné, tragédie lyrique Les quatre parties du monde Les gentillesses, cantatilles Numerous concerti and sonatas Hervé Niquet has a made a substantial number of recordings of Boismortier's works: Ballets de Villages performed by Le Concert Spirituel under the direction of Hervé Niquet Motets avec Symphonies performed by Le Concert Spirituel under the direction of Hervé Niquet Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse performed by Le Concert Spirituel under the direction of Hervé Niquet Daphnis & Chloe performed by Le Concert Spirituel under the direction of Hervé Niquet Sonates Pour Basses performed by Le Concert Spirituel under the direction of Hervé Niquet French Music for Two Harpsichords played Hervé Niquet and Luc Beauséjour Other recordings include: Sonates à deux flûtes traversières sans basse played by Stéphan Perreau and Benjamin Gaspon Sonatas for flute and harpsichord, op. 91 played by Rebecca Stuhr-Rommereim and John Stuhr-Rommereim Joseph Bodin de Boismortier: Six Suites, Op. 35 for Unaccompanied Flute played by Rebecca Stuhr Les Maisons de Plaisance played by Wieland Kuijken and Sigiswald Kuijken Joseph Bodin de Boismortier: Sonatas for Flute and Harpsichord, Op. 91, played by American Baroque Boismortier: Six Little Suites, Op. 27, played by Reversio-Darius Klisys Cook, Weller, Philip, "Boismortier, Joseph Bodin de", in Sadie, The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, New York, 1997, ISBN 978-0-19-522186-2, I, pp. 526–7 Free scores by Joseph Bodin de Boismortier at the International Music Score Library Project Flute duett Article on Boismortier by Stéphan Perreau on the Eventail Baroque Dance Company site Le magazine de l'opéra baroque Amadeusonline Almanach
Paul Marie Théodore Vincent d'Indy was a French composer and teacher. Paul Marie Théodore Vincent d'Indy was born in Paris into an aristocratic family of royalist and Catholic persuasion, he had piano lessons from an early age from his paternal grandmother, who passed him on to Antoine François Marmontel and Louis Diémer. From the age of 14 he studied harmony with Albert Lavignac. At age 19, during the Franco-Prussian War, he enlisted in the National Guard, but returned to musical life as soon as the hostilities were over; the first of his works he heard performed was a Symphonie italienne, at an orchestral rehearsal under Jules Pasdeloup. On the advice of Henri Duparc, he became a devoted student of César Franck at the Conservatoire de Paris; as a follower of Franck, d'Indy came to admire what he considered the standards of German symphonism. In the summer of 1873 he visited Germany, where he met Johannes Brahms. On 25 January 1874 his overture Les Piccolomini was performed at a Pasdeloup concert, sandwiched between works by Bach and Beethoven.
Around this time he married one of his cousins. In 1875 his symphony dedicated to János Hunyadi was performed; that same year he played a minor role – the prompter – at the premiere of Bizet's opera Carmen. In 1876 he was present at the first production of Richard Wagner's Ring Cycle at Bayreuth; this made a great impression on him and he became a fervent Wagnerite. In 1878 d'Indy's symphonic ballad La Forêt enchantée was performed. In 1882 he heard Wagner's Parsifal. In 1883 his choral work Le Chant. In 1884 his symphonic poem Saugefleurie was premiered, his piano suite called. In 1887 appeared his Suite in D for trumpet, 2 flutes and string quartet; that same year he was involved in Lamoureux's production of Wagner's Lohengrin as choirmaster. His music drama Fervaal occupied him between 1889 and 1895. Inspired by his own studies with Franck and dissatisfied with the standard of teaching at the Conservatoire de Paris, d'Indy, together with Charles Bordes and Alexandre Guilmant, founded the Schola Cantorum de Paris in 1894.
D'Indy taught there and at the Paris Conservatoire until his death. Among his many students were Isaac Albéniz, Leo Arnaud, Joseph Canteloube, Pierre Capdevielle, Jean Daetwyler, Arthur Honegger, Eugène Lapierre, Leevi Madetoja, Albéric Magnard, Rodolphe Mathieu, Darius Milhaud, Helena Munktell, Cole Porter, Albert Roussel, Adrien Rougier, Erik Satie, Georges-Émile Tanguay, Otto Albert Tichý, Emiliana de Zubeldia and Xian Xinghai, Ahmet Adnan Saygun. Xian was one of the earliest Chinese composers of western classical music See: List of music students by teacher: C to F#Vincent d'Indy. While A. A. Saygun became one of the pioneers of classical music in Turkey. Few of d'Indy's works are performed today, his best known pieces are the Symphony on a French Mountain Air for piano and orchestra, Istar, a symphonic poem in the form of a set of variations in which the theme appears only at the end. Among d'Indy's other works are other orchestral music, chamber music, including two of the most regarded string quartets of the latter nineteenth century, piano music, songs and a number of operas, including Fervaal and L'Étranger.
His music drama Le Légende de Saint Christophe, based on themes from Gregorian chant, was performed for the first, last, time, on 6 June 1920. His comédie musicale had its premiere in paris on 10 June 1927, his Lied for cello and orchestra, Op. 19, was recorded by Julian Lloyd Webber and the English Chamber Orchestra conducted by Yan Pascal Tortelier in 1991. As well as Franck, d'Indy's works show the influence of Berlioz and of Wagner. D'Indy helped revive a number of largely forgotten early works, for example, making his own edition of Claudio Monteverdi's opera L'incoronazione di Poppea, his musical writings include the co-written three-volume Cours de composition musicale, as well as studies of Franck and Beethoven. D'Indy died. D'Indy was a committed monarchist, joining the League of the French Fatherland during the Dreyfus affair, he did not extend that bias to his Jewish colleagues. Opera critic Arthur Elson, writing in 1901, while appreciating d'Indy, prefers another composer. Of the younger men, Vincent d'Indy has shown himself abreast of the times, his Fervaal, with a libretto of "rhythmic prose," is a worthy example of the school of operatic realism and musical complexity.
But the most prominent composer for the Paris stage at present is Alfred Bruneau. N Le Réve, on a libretto from Zola's novel, he began the career that has won him his present position. In a post-Wagner age under "the artistic domination of Bayreuth," Elson describes two "paths" in contemporary opera, one path being more conservative while the other has led to the uttermost regions of modern polyphony and dissonance. Among the more radical group, corresponding to Bruneau, d'Indy and Franck, the most daring work has been done by Richard Strauss. In Elson's opinion, those following the more conservative path are Cornelius, Humperdinck, Saint-Saëns and Massenet; the privat