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List of French consorts

This is a list of the women who have been queens consort or empresses consort of the French monarchy. All monarchs of France were male. 53 women were married to French monarchs: three empresses. Ingeborg of Denmark and Anne of Brittany were each queen more than once. Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy was queen de jure during the Republican and Imperial periods, but never wife of the de facto head of the French state. From 1285 to 1328, the crowns of Navarre and France were united by virtue of the marriage of Joan I of Navarre to Philip IV of France, by the succession of their three sons, Louis X, Philip V, Charles IV. Thus, the wives of these three kings were queens consort of Navarre as well as of France. With the death of Charles IV, Navarre passed out of the hands of the French kings until 1589, when Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France. Upon Henry IV's succession, his wife, Margaret of Valois, queen consort of Navarre became queen consort of France. Thereafter, until 1791, queens of France were queens of Navarre.

The crown of Navarre merged with the French crown in 1620, but the French kings continued to call themselves King of Navarre until 1791. The title of King of Navarre was reassumed with the Restoration of 1814–15, but dropped with the Revolution of 1830. Many French consorts acted as regents for their husbands or their children during the children's minorities; these were: Anne of Kiev, 1060–66, during the minority of her son, Philip I Adèle of Champagne, 1190–92, while her son was participating in the Third Crusade Blanche of Castile: 1226–1234: During the minority of her son Louis IX 1248–1252: During the absence of her son Louis IX on crusade. Joan the Lame, who governed for her husband Philip VI whilst he was fighting. Isabeau of Bavaria, during the insanity of her husband Charles VI, during which she vied for power with her husband's uncles and brothers. Catherine de' Medici: 1552: While her husband Henry II left the kingdom for the campaign of Metz 1560–1563: During the minority of her second son, Charles IX 1574: During the absence of her third son, Henry III, in Poland Marie de' Medici, 1610–1614, during the minority of her son, Louis XIII Anne of Austria, 1643–1651, during the minority of her son Louis XIV Empress Eugenie, three times for her husband, Napoleon III, during his absence.

Madame de Maintenon, mistress of Louis XIV, married the king in the winter of 1685–1686 by François de Harlay de Champvallon, archbishop of Paris, in the presence, it is believed, of Père la Chaise, the king's confessor, the Marquis de Montchevreuil, the chevalier de Forbin, Alexandre Bontemps. Owing to the inequality of social status and the King did not marry openly. No written proof of the marriage is extant, but that it took place is certain, it is important to remember that Madame de Maintenon was never queen of France a royal consort. Some sources refer to Margaret of Anjou as Queen of France, but her right to enjoy that title is disputed, she was recognized only in English-controlled territories of France. Kings of France family tree List of French monarchs Joy Law, Fleur de lys: The kings and queens of France. ISBN 978-0-07-036695-4 Rene de La Croix, duc de Castries, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of France. ISBN 0-394-50734-7 Elsie Thornton-Cook, Royal Line of France: The Story of the Kings and Queens of France.

ISBN 978-0-8369-0939-5

James Branch

James Branch, was a British boot manufacturer and Liberal politician. Branch was born in Bethnal Green in the East End of London. An active member of the Liberal Party, he was president of the Bethnal Green Liberal Association for twenty years. In 1889 he was elected to the first London County Council as a member of the Liberal-backed Progressive Party representing Bethnal Green South West until 1907, he was a justice of the peace for the County of London, well known for his philanthropic work in the East End and as a prominent member of the Congregational Church. At the 1906 general election Branch contested the parliamentary constituency of Enfield, one of many Liberals who unseated sitting Conservative MPs, he was defeated at the next election in January 1910, following a campaign where his Conservative opponents alleged that he was a Polish Jew and was using a false name. They falsely claimed that he had discharged his British employees in favour of foreign workers, he attempted to regain the seat at the next election in December of the same year, but failed to be elected.

Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James Branch

John Bowden (theologian)

John Stephen Bowden was an English Anglican priest and theologian. Born on 17 May 1935 in Halifax, Bowden was educated at St Paul's School and Corpus Christi College, where he came under the influence of Christopher Evans, he was ordained as a priest in the Diocese of Southwell in 1962. Bowden was a lecturer in theology at the University of Nottingham when, in 1966, he was appointed managing director of the religious publisher SCM Press, which published works by leading continental theologians such as Martin Hengel, Gerd Theissen, Edward Schillebeeckx, Hans Küng, Jürgen Moltmann, he held the post until his retirement in 2000. He translated a number of theological works, including Martin Noth's Exodus, Aloys Grillmeier's Christ in Christian Tradition, Martin Hengel's Judaism and Hellenism, Henning Graf Reventlow's The Authority of the Bible and the Rise of the Modern World. Winner of the Schlegel-Tieck Prize twice, for the Hengel and Graf Reventlow translations, in total Bowden translated more than 200 books and authored a number himself.

Bowden died of prostate cancer on 6 December 2010 and was survived by his wife and their three children