Basch Viktor Vilém, or Victor-Guillaume Basch was a French politician and professor of germanistics and philosophy at the Sorbonne descending from Hungary. He was engaged in the Ligue des droits de l'homme and in Anti-nazism, his father was political activist, Raphael Basch. Born in Budapest in 1863, Victor Basch emigrated with his family to France as a child, studied at the Sorbonne. In 1885 he was appointed professor at the University of Nancy, in 1887 at the University of Rennes, where he became friend with Jean Jaurès. During the Dreyfus affair Basch was the leader of the Dreyfusards at Rennes, who were placed in a serious and difficult position when the case was tried in that city. Both as a Jew and a Dreyfusard, Basch was subjected to persecution at the hands of the fanatical anti-Semitic populace. In a 1916 interview cited by his biographer and granddaughter, the French historian Françoise Basch, Victor Basch declared, " I'm a Jew. I struggle and suffered for my Jewishness." However, biographer Françoise Basch underscores that her grandfather identified with his family history and the suffering of persecuted Jews, not with Judaism as a religion per se.
As both a member of the League against Imperialism created in Brussels in 1927, as President of the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme from 1926–1944, Basch was one of the architects of the Popular Front. He suffered for the principles of legal and social justice as well as human rights. On 10 January 1944, Victor Basch and his wife, Ilona Basch aged 81, were taken from their home in Lyon and assassinated by Joseph Lecussan and Henri Gonnet of the antisemitic Vichy French Milice Française under orders of the regional chief Paul Touvier, his published works include an important study: " L'Esthétique de Kant", Paris, 1896. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore Singer. "Victor Basch". In Singer, Isidore; the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Basch, Françoise. Victor Basch: de l'affaire Dreyfus au crime de la milice. Librairie Plon. Paris: 1994. George R. Whyte, The Dreyfus affair: a chronological history, Basingstoke 2008 Media related to Victor Basch at Wikimedia Commons
Henri-Louis Bergson was a French-Jewish philosopher, influential in the tradition of continental philosophy during the first half of the 20th century until the Second World War. Bergson is known for his arguments that processes of immediate experience and intuition are more significant than abstract rationalism and science for understanding reality, he was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented". In 1930 France awarded him the Grand-Croix de la Legion d'honneur. Bergson's great popularity created a controversy in France where his views were seen as opposing the secular and scientific attitude adopted by the Republic's officials. Bergson was born in the Rue Lamartine in Paris, not far from the Palais Garnier in 1859, his father, the pianist Michał Bergson, was of a Polish Jewish background. His great-grandmother, Temerl Bergson, was a well-known patroness and benefactor of Polish Jewry those associated with the Hasidic movement.
His mother, Katherine Levison, daughter of a Yorkshire doctor, was from an English and Irish Jewish background. The Bereksohns were a famous Jewish entrepreneurial family of Polish descent. Henri Bergson's great-great-grandfather, Szmul Jakubowicz Sonnenberg, called Zbytkower, was a prominent banker and a protégé of Stanisław II Augustus, King of Poland from 1764 to 1795. Henri Bergson's family lived in London for a few years after his birth, he obtained an early familiarity with the English language from his mother. Before he was nine, his parents settled in Henri becoming a naturalized French citizen. Henri Bergson married Louise Neuberger, a cousin of Marcel Proust, in 1891. Henri and Louise Bergson had a daughter, born deaf in 1896. Bergson's sister, Mina Bergson, married the English occult author Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, a founder of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the couple relocated to Paris as well. Bergson lived the quiet life of a French professor, marked by the publication of his four principal works: in 1889, Time and Free Will in 1896, Matter and Memory in 1907, Creative Evolution in 1932, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion In 1900 the Collège de France selected Bergson to a Chair of Greek and Roman Philosophy, which he held until 1904.
He replaced Gabriel Tarde in the Chair of Modern Philosophy, which he held until 1920. The public attended his open courses in large numbers. Bergson attended the Lycée Fontanes in Paris from 1868 to 1878, he had received a Jewish religious education. Between 14 and 16, however, he lost his faith. According to Hude, this moral crisis is tied to his discovery of the theory of evolution, according to which humanity shares common ancestry with modern primates, a process sometimes construed as not needing a creative deity. While at the lycée Bergson won a prize for his scientific work and another, in 1877 when he was eighteen, for the solution of a mathematical problem, his solution was published the following year in Nouvelles Annales de Mathématiques. It was his first published work. After some hesitation as to whether his career should lie in the sphere of the sciences or that of the humanities, he decided in favour of the latter, to the dismay of his teachers; when he was nineteen, he entered the École Normale Supérieure.
During this period, he read Herbert Spencer. He obtained there the degree of licence ès lettres, this was followed by that of agrégation de philosophie in 1881 from the University of Paris; the same year he received a teaching appointment at the lycée in Angers, the ancient capital of Anjou. Two years he settled at the Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, capital of the Puy-de-Dôme département; the year after his arrival at Clermont-Ferrand Bergson displayed his ability in the humanities by the publication of an edition of extracts from Lucretius, with a critical study of the text and of the materialist cosmology of the poet, a work whose repeated editions attest to its value in promoting Classics among French youth. While teaching and lecturing in this part of his country, Bergson found time for private study and original work, he crafted his dissertation Time and Free Will, submitted, along with a short Latin thesis on Aristotle, for his doctoral degree, awarded by the University of Paris in 1889.
The work was published in the same year by Félix Alcan. He gave courses in Clermont-Ferrand on the Pre-Socratics, in particular on Heraclitus. Bergson dedicated Time and Free Will to Jules Lachelier public education minister, a disciple of Félix Ravaisson and the author of a philosophical work On the Founding of Induction. Lachelier endeavoured "to substitute everywhere force for inertia, life for death, liberty for fatalism". Bergson settled again in Paris in 1888, after teaching for some months at the municipal college, known as the College Rollin, he received an appointment at the Lycée Henri-Quatre, where he remained for eight years. There, he gave a course on his theories. Alth
Claude-Frédéric Bastiat was a French economist, writer and a prominent member of the French Liberal School. A Freemason and a member of the French National Assembly, Bastiat developed the economic concept of opportunity cost and introduced the parable of the broken window; as an advocate of classical economics and the economics of Adam Smith, his views favored a free market and influenced the Austrian School. Bastiat was born on 29 June 1801 in Bayonne, Aquitaine, a port town in the south of France on the Bay of Biscay, his father, Pierre Bastiat, was a prominent businessman in the town. His mother died in 1808, his father moved inland to the town of Mugron, with Frédéric following soon afterward. The Bastiat estate in Mugron had been acquired during the French Revolution and had belonged to the Marquis of Poyanne. Pierre Bastiat died in 1810, he was fostered by his maiden aunt Justine Bastiat. He attended a school in Bayonne, but his aunt thought poorly of it and so enrolled him in the school Saint-Sever.
At age 17, he left school at Sorèze to work for his uncle in his family's export business. It was the same firm. Bastiat began to develop an intellectual interest as he no longer wished to work with his uncle and desired to go to Paris for formal studies; this hope never came true as his grandfather was in poor health and wished to go to the Mugron estate. Bastiat cared for him; the next year when Bastiat was 24, his grandfather died, leaving him the family estate, thereby providing him with the means to further his theoretical inquiries. Bastiat developed intellectual interests in several areas including philosophy, politics, travel, political economy and biography. After the middle-class Revolution of 1830, Bastiat became politically active and was elected justice of the peace of Mugron in 1831 and to the Council General of Landes in 1832. Bastiat was elected to the national legislative assembly soon after the French Revolution of 1848, his public career as an economist began only in 1844, when his first article was published in the Journal des économistes during October of that year and it was ended by his untimely death in 1850.
Bastiat contracted tuberculosis during his tours throughout France to promote his ideas and that illness prevented him from making further speeches and ended his life. During the autumn of 1850, he was sent to Italy by his doctors and he first traveled to Pisa to Rome. On 24 December 1850, Bastiat called those with him to approach his bed and murmured twice the words "the truth" before he died. Bastiat was the author of many works on economics and political economy characterized by their clear organization, forceful argumentation and acerbic wit. Economist Murray Rothbard wrote that "Bastiat was indeed a lucid and superb writer, whose brilliant and witty essays and fables to this day are remarkable and devastating demolitions of protectionism and of all forms of government subsidy and control, he was a scintillating advocate of an unrestricted free market". However, Bastiat himself declared that subsidy should be available, albeit limited under extraordinary circumstances, saying the following: Under extraordinary circumstances, for urgent cases, the State should set aside some resources to assist certain unfortunate people, to help them adjust to changing conditions".
Among his better known works is Economic Sophisms, a series of essays which contain a defence of free trade and many worded attacks on statist policies. Bastiat wrote the work while living in England to advise the shapers of the French Republic on perils to avoid. Economic Sophisms was translated and adapted for an American readership in 1867 by the economist and historian of money Alexander del Mar, writing under the pseudonym Emile Walter. Contained within Economic Sophisms is the satirical parable known as the candlemakers' petition in which candlemakers and tallow producers lobby the Chamber of Deputies of the French July Monarchy to block out the Sun to prevent its unfair competition with their products. Included in the Sophisms is a facetious petition to the king asking for a law forbidding the usage of everyone's right hand, based on a presumption by some of his contemporaries that more difficulty means more work and more work means more wealth. Bastiat's most famous work is The Law published as a pamphlet in 1850.
It defines a just system of laws and demonstrates how such law facilitates a free society. In The Law, Bastiat wrote that everyone has a right to protect "his person, his liberty, his property"; the state should be only a "substitution of a common force for individual forces" to defend this right. According to Bastiat, justice has precise limits, but if government power extends further into philanthropic endeavors government becomes so limitless that it can grow endlessly; the resulting statism is "based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of mankind, the omnipotence of the law, the infallibility of the legislator". The public becomes engineered by the legislator and must bend to the legislators' will "like the clay to the potter", saying: Socialism, like the ancient ideas from which it springs, confuses the distinction between government and society; as a result of this, every time we object to a thing being done by government, the socialists conclude that we object to its being done at all.
Émile-Auguste Chartier known as Alain, was a French philosopher and pacifist. He adopted his pseudonym in homage to the 15th-century Norman poet Alain Chartier. Alain was born in 1868, he studied there for five years. On 13 June 1956, the lycée was renamed lycée Alain, after its most famous student. After Alain qualified at the École Normale Supérieure and received the agrégation in philosophy, he taught at various institutions: Pontivy, Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen, and, in Paris:. From 1903, he contributed to several journals using Alain, he was most referred to as "Alain" by his pupils and peers. In 1909, he was appointed a teacher at the Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, he influenced his pupils, who included Raymond Aron, Simone Weil, Georges Canguilhem, André Maurois. Reviewing the beneficial effect he had on his former pupils Simone Weil and Simone de Beauvoir, Professor John Hellman writes that Alain was the greatest teacher of their generation. Among his most important publications are The Dreamer, 81 chapters about the spirit and passions, About Happiness and The citizen against powers.
He was a leading theorist of radicalism, his influence extended through the Third and Fourth Republics. He stressed individualism, he warned against all forms of power – military and economic. To oppose them he exalted the small farmer, the small shopkeeper, the small town, the little man, he saw Paris as a dangerous font of power. He died in 1951, he is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery. Petit Traité d'Harmonie 1918 Mars. D. 1930 Alain on Happiness, New York, Ungar, 1973 The Gods, New directions, 1974 Media related to Alain at Wikimedia Commons Works written by or about Émile Chartier at Wikisource Quotations related to Émile Chartier at Wikiquote Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Alain Works by or about Émile Chartier in libraries About Alain Alain and Humanistic Norman Works by Alain
Jean Bodin was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse. He is best known for his theory of sovereignty. Bodin lived during the aftermath of the Protestant Reformation and wrote against the background of religious conflict in France, he remained a nominal Catholic throughout his life but was critical of papal authority over governments, favouring the strong central control of a national monarchy as an antidote to factional strife. Toward the end of his life he wrote, but did not publish, a dialogue among different religions, including representatives of Judaism and natural theology, in which all agreed to coexist in concord. Bodin was successively a friar, professional lawyer, political adviser. An excursion as a politician having proved a failure, he lived out his life as a provincial magistrate. Bodin was born near Angers the son of a master tailor, into a modestly prosperous middle-class background, he received a decent education in the Carmelite monastery of Angers, where he became a novice friar.
Some claims made about his early life remain obscure. There is some evidence of a visit to Geneva in 1547/48 in which he became involved in a heresy trial; the records of this episode, are murky and may refer to another person. He went to Paris, he studied at the university, but at the humanist-oriented Collège des Quatre Langues. His education was not only influenced by an orthodox Scholastic approach but was apparently in contact with Ramist philosophy. In the 1550s he studied Roman law at the University of Toulouse, under Arnaud du Ferrier, taught there, his special subject at that time seems to have been comparative jurisprudence. Subsequently he worked on a Latin translation of Oppian of Apamea, under the continuing patronage of Gabriel Bouvery, Bishop of Angers. Bodin failed to raise local support, he left in 1560. From 1561 he was licensed as an attorney of the Parlement of Paris, his religious convictions on the outbreak of the Wars of Religion in 1562 cannot be determined, but he affirmed formally his Catholic faith, taking an oath that year along with other members of the Parlement.
He continued to pursue his interests in legal and political theory in Paris, publishing significant works on historiography and economics. Bodin became a member of the discussion circles around the Prince François d'Alençon, he was the intelligent and ambitious youngest son of Henry II, was in line for the throne in 1574, with the death of his brother Charles IX. He withdrew his claim, however, in favor of his older brother Henry III who had returned from his abortive effort to reign as the King of Poland. Alençon was a leader of the politiques faction of political pragmatists. After the failure of Prince François' hopes to ascend the throne, Bodin transferred his allegiance to the new king Henry III. In practical politics, however, he lost the king's favor in 1576–7, as delegate of the Third Estate at the Estates-General at Blois, leader in his Estate of the February 1577 moves to prevent a new war against the Huguenots, he attempted to exert a moderating influence on the Catholic party, tried restrict the passage of supplemental taxation for the king.
Bodin retired from political life. His wife, Françoise Trouillart, was the widow of Claude Bayard, sister of Nicolas Trouillart who died in 1587. Bodin was in touch with William Wade in Paris, Lord Burghley's contact, at the time of publication of the Six livres, he accompanied Prince François, by Duke of Anjou, to England in 1581, in his second attempt to woo Elizabeth I of England. On this visit Bodin saw the English Parliament, he brushed off a request to secure better treatment for English Catholics, to the dismay of Robert Persons, given that Edmund Campion was in prison at the time. Bodin saw some of Campion's trial, he is said to have witnessed Campion's execution in December 1581, making the hanging the occasion for a public letter against the use of force in matters of religion. Bodin became a correspondent of Francis Walsingham. Prince François became Duke of Brabant in 1582, embarked on an adventurer's campaign to expand his territory; the disapproving Bodin accompanied him, was trapped in the Prince's disastrous raid on Antwerp that ended the attempt, followed shortly by the Prince's death in 1584.
In the wars that followed the death of Henry III, the Catholic League attempted to prevent the succession of the Protestant Henry of Navarre by placing another king on the throne. Bodin gave support to the powerful League, he died, during one of the many plague epidemics of the time. Bodin wrote in French, with Latin translations. Several of the works have been seen. Bodin wrote in turn books on history, politics and natural philosophy. A modern edition of Bodin's works was begun in 1951 as Oeuvres philosophiques de Jean Bodin by Pierre Mes
Roland Gérard Barthes was a French literary theorist, philosopher and semiotician. Barthes' ideas explored a diverse range of fields and he influenced the development of many schools of theory, including structuralism, social theory, design theory and post-structuralism. Roland Barthes was born on 12 November in the town of Cherbourg in Normandy, his father, naval officer Louis Barthes, was killed in a battle during World War I in the North Sea before Barthes' first birthday. His mother, Henriette Barthes, his aunt and grandmother raised him in the village of Urt and the city of Bayonne; when Barthes was eleven, his family moved to Paris, though his attachment to his provincial roots would remain strong throughout his life. Barthes showed great promise as a student and spent the period from 1935 to 1939 at the Sorbonne, where he earned a licence in classical literature, he was plagued by ill health throughout this period, suffering from tuberculosis, which had to be treated in the isolation of sanatoria.
His repeated physical breakdowns disrupted his academic career, affecting his studies and his ability to take qualifying examinations. They exempted him from military service during World War II, his life from 1939 to 1948 was spent obtaining a licence in grammar and philology, publishing his first papers, taking part in a medical study, continuing to struggle with his health. He received a diplôme d'études supérieures from the University of Paris in 1941 for his work in Greek tragedy. In 1948, he returned to purely academic work, gaining numerous short-term positions at institutes in France and Egypt. During this time, he contributed to the leftist Parisian paper Combat, out of which grew his first full-length work, Writing Degree Zero. In 1952, Barthes settled at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he studied lexicology and sociology. During his seven-year period there, he began to write a popular series of bi-monthly essays for the magazine Les Lettres Nouvelles, in which he dismantled myths of popular culture.
Consisting of fifty-four short essays written between 1954–1956, Mythologies were acute reflections of French popular culture ranging from an analysis on soap detergents to a dissection of popular wrestling. Knowing little English, Barthes taught at Middlebury College in 1957 and befriended the future English translator of much of his work, Richard Howard, that summer in New York City. Barthes spent the early 1960s exploring the fields of semiology and structuralism, chairing various faculty positions around France, continuing to produce more full-length studies. Many of his works challenged traditional academic views of literary criticism and of renowned figures of literature, his unorthodox thinking led to a conflict with a well-known Sorbonne professor of literature, Raymond Picard, who attacked the French New Criticism for its obscurity and lack of respect towards France's literary roots. Barthes' rebuttal in Criticism and Truth accused the old, bourgeois criticism of a lack of concern with the finer points of language and of selective ignorance towards challenging theories, such as Marxism.
By the late 1960s, Barthes had established a reputation for himself. He traveled to the Japan, delivering a presentation at Johns Hopkins University. During this time, he wrote his best-known work, the 1967 essay "The Death of the Author," which, in light of the growing influence of Jacques Derrida's deconstruction, would prove to be a transitional piece in its investigation of the logical ends of structuralist thought. Barthes continued to contribute with Philippe Sollers to the avant-garde literary magazine Tel Quel, developing similar kinds of theoretical inquiry to that pursued in Barthes' writings. In 1970, Barthes produced what many consider to be his most prodigious work, the dense, critical reading of Balzac's Sarrasine entitled S/Z. Throughout the 1970s, Barthes continued to develop his literary criticism. In 1971, he served as visiting professor at the University of Geneva. In 1975 he wrote an autobiography titled Roland Barthes and in 1977 he was elected to the chair of Sémiologie Littéraire at the Collège de France.
In the same year, his mother, Henriette Barthes, to whom he had been devoted, aged 85. They had lived together for 60 years; the loss of the woman who had raised and cared for him was a serious blow to Barthes. His last major work, Camera Lucida, is an essay about the nature of photography and a meditation on photographs of his mother; the book contains many reproductions of photographs. On 25 February 1980, Roland Barthes was knocked down by a laundry van while walking home through the streets of Paris. One month on March 26, he died from the chest injuries he sustained in that collision. Barthes' earliest ideas reacted to the trend of existentialist philosophy, prominent in France during the 1940s to the figurehead of existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre's What Is Literature? Expresses a disenchantment both with established forms of writing and more experimental, avant-garde forms, which he feels alienate readers. Barthes’ response was to try to discover that which may be considered unique and original in writing.
In Writing Degree Zero, Barthes argues that conventions inform both language and style, rendering neither purely creative. Instead, form, or what Barthes calls "writing" (the specific way an individual chooses to manipulate conventions of
Étienne Balibar is a French philosopher. He has taught at the University of Paris X-Nanterre, at the University of California Irvine and is an Anniversary Chair Professor at the Centre for Research in Modern European Philosophy at Kingston University and a Visiting Professor at the Department of French and Romance Philology at Columbia University. Balibar was born in Avallon, Burgundy, France in 1942, first rose to prominence as one of Althusser's pupils at the École normale supérieure, he entered the École normale supérieure in 1960. In 1961, Balibar joined, he was expelled in 1981 for critiquing the party's policy on immigration in an article. Balibar participated in Louis Althusser's seminar on Karl Marx's Das Kapital in 1965; this seminar resulted in the book Reading Capital, co-authored by his students. Balibar's chapter, "On the Basic Concepts of Historical Materialism," was republished along with those of Althusser in the book's abridged version, until a complete translation was published in 2016.
In 1987, he received his doctorate degree in philosophy from the Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen in the Netherlands. He received his habilitation from the Université Paris I in 1993. Balibar joined the University of Paris X-Nanterre as a professor in 1994, the University of California, Irvine in 2000, he became Professor Emeritus of Paris X in 2002. His daughter with the physicist Françoise Balibar is the actress Jeanne Balibar. In Masses and Ideas, Balibar argues that in Das Kapital, the theory of historical materialism comes into conflict with the critical theory that Marx begins to develop in his analysis of the category of labor, which in capitalism becomes a form of property; this conflict involves two distinct uses of the term "labor": labor as the revolutionary class subject and labor as an objective condition for the reproduction of capitalism. In The German Ideology, Marx conflates these two meanings, treats labor as, in Balibar’s words, the "veritable site of truth as well as the place from which the world is changed..."
In Capital, the disparity between the two senses of labor becomes apparent. One manifestation of this is the virtual disappearance in the text of the term "proletariat." As Balibar points out, the term appears only twice in the first edition of Capital, published in 1867: in the dedication to Wilhelm Wolff and in the two final sections on the "General Law of Capitalist Accumulation". For Balibar, this implies that "the emergence of a revolutionary form of subjectivity... is never a specific property of nature, therefore brings with it no guarantees, but obliges us to search for the conditions in a conjuncture that can precipitate class struggles into mass movements...". Moreover, "here is no proof… that these forms are always and eternally the same." In "The Nation Form: History and Ideology," Balibar critiques modern conceptions of the nation-state. He states that he is undertaking a study of the contradiction of the nation-state because "Thinking about racism led us back to nationalism, nationalism to uncertainty about the historical realities and categorization of the nation".
Balibar contends that it is impossible to pinpoint the beginning of a nation or to argue that the modern people who inhabit a nation-state are the descendants of the nation that preceded it. Balibar argues that, because no nation-state has an ethnic base, every nation-state must create fictional ethnicities in order to project stability on the populace: "the idea of nations without a state, or nations'before' the state, is thus a contradiction in terms, because a state always is implied in the historic framework of a national formation, but this contradiction is masked by the fact that national states, whose integrity suffers from internal conflicts that threaten its survival, project beneath their political existence to a preexisting'ethnic' or'popular' unity" In order to minimize these regional and race conflicts, nation-states fabricate myths of origin that produce the illusion of shared ethnicity among all their inhabitants. In order to create these myths of origins, nation-states scour the historical period during which they were "formed" to find justification for their existence.
They create the illusion of shared ethnicity through linguistic communities: when everyone has access to the same language, they feel as if they share an ethnicity. Balibar argues that "schooling is the principal institution which produces ethnicity as linguistic community". In addition, this ethnicity is created through the "nationalization of the family," meaning that the state comes to perform certain functions that might traditionally be performed by the family, such as the regulation of marriages and administration of social security. 1965: Lire le Capital. With Louis Althusser et al. 1974: Cinq Etudes du Matérialisme Historique. 1976: Sur La Dictature du Prolétariat. 1985: Spinoza et la politique. 1988: Race, Classe. With Immanuel Wallerstein. 1991: Écrits pour Althusser. 1993: La philosophie de Marx. 1997: La crainte des masses. 1998: Droit de cité. Culture et politique en démocratie. 1999: Sans-papiers: l’archaïsme fatal. 2001: Nous, citoyens d’Europe? Les frontières, l’État, le peuple. 2003: L'Europe, l'Amérique, la Guerre.
Réflexions sur la médiation européenne. 2005: Europe, Frontière. 2010: La proposition de l'égaliberté. 2010: Violence et Civilité 2011: Citoyen sujet et autres essais d'anthropologie philosophique 2012: Sa