The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as Pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years; this absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all French, all under the influence of the French Crown. In 1376, Gregory XI moved his court to Rome, but after Gregory's death in 1378, deteriorating relations between his successor Urban VI and a faction of cardinals gave rise to the Western Schism. This started a second line of Avignon popes.
The last Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France. The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance, after two popes had reigned in opposition to the papacy in Rome. Among the popes who resided in Avignon, subsequent Catholic historiography grants legitimacy to these: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 The two Avignon-based antipopes were: Clement VII: 1378–1394 Benedict XIII: 1394–1423 Benedict XIII was succeeded by three antipopes, who had little or no public following, were not resident at Avignon: Clement VIII: 1423–1429 Benedict XIV: 1424–1429 or 1430 Benedict XIV: 1430?–1437The period from 1378 to 1417, when there were rival claimants to the title of pope, is referred to as the "Western Schism" or "the great controversy of the antipopes" by some Roman Catholic scholars and "the second great schism" by many secular and Protestant historians.
Parties within the Roman Church were divided in their allegiance among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance resolved the controversy in 1417 when the election of Pope Martin V was accepted by all. Avignon and the small enclave to the east remained part of the Papal States until 1791, under pressure from French revolutionaries, they were absorbed by the short-lived revolutionary Kingdom of France, which, in turn, was abolished in favor of the French First Republic the following year; the papacy in the Late Middle Ages played a major temporal role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor was fundamentally a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its importance had peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries; the success of the early Crusades added to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of Christendom, with monarchs like those of England and the Holy Roman Emperor acting as marshals for the popes and leading "their" armies.
One exception was Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, twice excommunicated by the Pope during a Crusade. Frederick II was moderately successful in the Holy Land; this state of affairs culminated in the unbridled declaration of papal supremacy, Unam sanctam, in November 1302. In that papal bull, Pope Boniface VIII decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff." This was directed to King Phillip IV of France who responded by saying, "Your venerable conceitedness may know that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters." In 1303 AD, Pope Boniface VIII followed up with a bull that would excommunicate the king of France and put the interdict over France, depose the entire clergy of France. Before this was finalized, Italian allies of the King of France broke into the papal residence and beat Pope Boniface VIII, he died shortly thereafter. Nicholas Boccasini was elected as his successor and took the name Pope Benedict XI, he absolved King Phillip IV and his subjects of their actions against Pope Boniface VIII.
However, Benedict XI died within eight months of being elected to the papacy. After eleven months, Bertrand de Got, a French man and a personal friend of King Phillip IV, was elected as pope and took the name Pope Clement V. Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the Avignon papacy were French. However, this makes. Southern France at that time had a culture quite independent from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France were based; the Kingdom of Arles was still independent at that time, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. The literature produced by the troubadours in the Languedoc is unique and distinct from that of Royal circles in the north. In terms of religion, the South produced its own variety of Christianity, declared heretical; the movement was fueled in no small part by the strong sense of independence in the
Pope Urban V
Pope Urban V, born Guillaume de Grimoard, was Pope from 28 September 1362 until his death in 1370 and was a member of the Order of Saint Benedict. He was the sixth Avignon Pope, the only Avignon pope to be beatified. After his election as pontiff, he continued to follow the Benedictine Rule and modestly, his habits did not always gain him supporters. Urban V pressed for reform throughout his pontificate and oversaw the restoration and construction of churches and monasteries. One of the goals he set himself upon his election to the Papacy was the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches, he did not succeed. Guillaume de Grimoard was born in 1310 in the Castle of Grizac in the French region of Languedoc, the second son of Guillaume de Grimoard, Lord of Bellegarde, of Amphélise de Montferrand, he had two brothers, Étienne and Anglic, the future cardinal, a sister Delphine. In 1327, Guillaume Grimoard became a Benedictine monk in the small Priory of Chirac, near his home, a dependency of the ancient Abbey of St. Victor near Marseille.
He was sent to St. Victor for his novitiate. After his profession of monastic vows, he was ordained a priest in his own monastery in Chirac in 1334, he studied literature and law at Montpellier, he moved to the University of Toulouse, where he studied law for four years. He earned a doctorate in Canon Law on 31 October 1342, he was appointed Prior of Nôtre-Dame du Pré in the diocese of Auxerre by Pope Clement VI, which he held until his promotion to Saint-Germain en Auxerre in 1352. He began both financial reforms, his new bishop, Jean d'Auxois, however, in concert with the Archbishop of Sens, Guillaume de Melun, made heavy demands on their hospitality, when the latter attempted to impose new exactions, which were resisted by Grimoard, the Archbishop physically abused the Prior, who nonetheless would not submit. Prior Grimoard became Procurator-General for the Order of St. Benedict at the Papal Curia, he became a noted canonist, teaching at Montpellier and Avignon. He was appointed by the Bishop of Clermont, Pierre de Aigrefeuille to be his Vicar General, which meant in effect that he ruled the diocese on behalf of the bishop.
When Bishop Pierre was transferred to Uzès, Guillaume Grimond became Vicar General of Uzès. Guillaume was named abbot of the monastery of Saint-Germain en Auxerre on 13 February 1352 by Pope Clement VI. In 1359 the town and abbey were subjected to heavy imposts. In the summer of 1352 Pope Clement VI summoned Abbot Guillaume for an assignment. Northern Italy had been in a chaotic state for some time, thanks to the ambitions of the Visconti of Milan, led by Archbishop Giovanni Visconti, he had conquered much of Lombardy, seized the Papal city of Bologna, was invading the borders of Florentine territory. In order to keep a hold on the territory for the Church, the Pope had hit on the scheme of making Archbishop Visconti his Vicar of Bologna for the present, he drew up an agreement on 27 April 1352, which absolved the Visconti of all their transgressions and signed away much of northern Italy. The Pope made the first payment on the subsidy which he was going to provide them; the Visconti, on their part, had no intention of observing the terms of the pact, one of, the return of the Legation of Bologna to the Papacy, despite the fine words and promises they made in Avignon.
On 26 July, Abbot Grimoard and Msgr. Azzo Manzi da Reggio, the Dean of the Cathedral of Aquileia, were presented with written instructions by Pope Clement to go to northern Italy as Apostolic nuncios to deal with the situation. Guillaume was to receive the city of Bologna from the Visconti, who were illegal occupiers, hand it over to Giovanni Visconti as the Papal Vicar, to threaten with ecclesiastical censures any parties who did not adhere to the treaty; this he did on 2 October 1352. Guillaume was allotted 8 gold florins a day for his expenses, his associate Anzo only 4 florins. While he was in Milan he was able to get the Archbishop to renew the treaty, expiring with the King and Queen of Sicily, he was back in Avignon in November 1352. In 1354 Abbot Grimoard was sent to Italy again, this time to Rome, where there was business that needed to be transacted for the Apostolic Camera. There were serious disorders in the Basilica of S. Peter which needed to be sorted out. In August 1361, he was elected the abbot of the Abbey of Saint-Victor in Marseille.
Despite the appointment, he continued to teach as a professor, at least for the next academic year. Cardinal Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz had been sent to Italy in 1353, to bring under control the notorious Giovanni di Vico of Viterbo, as well as the Malatesta of Rimini and the Ordelaffi family of Forlì. In 1360 Abbot Guillaume was sent to assist him by dealing with Archbishop Visconti's nephew and successor, Bernabò Visconti, their confrontation was so hostile and threatening that the Abbot left and reported back to Pope Innocent the treachery of his vassal. The Pope sent him back to Italy but the utter defeat of Visconti's army, besieging Bologna by Cardinal Albornoz eased the situation considerably. Nonetheless after he was elected pope, Grimoard excommunicated Bernabò Visconti, he returned to France, retired to his castle of Auriol, where he was found on 10 June 1362. The reason for his retirement to Auriol is not far to seek; the plague was raging in southern France again in 1361 and 1362.
Cardinal Pierre des Près died on 16 May 136
Pope Innocent V
Pope Innocent V, born Pierre de Tarentaise, was pope from 21 January to 22 June 1276. He was a member of the Order of Preachers and was a close collaborator of Pope Gregory X during his pontificate, he was beatified in 1898 by Pope Leo XIII. He was born around 1225 near Moûtiers in the Tarentaise region of the County of Savoy. An alternative popular hypothesis, suggests that he was born in La Salle in the Aosta valley in Italy. Both places were part of the Kingdom of Arles in the Holy Roman Empire, but now the first is in southeastern France and the second in northwestern Italy. Another hypothesis, favored by some French scholars, is that Peter originated in a Tarantaise in Burgundy, or Tarantaise in the Department of the Loire in the Arrondisement of S. Etienne. In early life, around 1240, he joined the Dominican Order, at their convent in Lyons. In the summer of 1255, he was transferred to the studium generale of the Convent of S. Jacques in Paris; this move was essential for someone, to study at the University of Paris.
He obtained the degree of Master of Theology, acquired great fame as a preacher. Between 1259 and 1264 he held the "Chair of the French", one of the two chairs that were allocated to the Dominicans. In 1259, Peter took part because of his status as a Master at Paris as an elected Definitor for the Province of France, in the General Chapter of the Dominican Order at Valenciennes, under the leadership of the Master General, Humbertus de Romans. Peter participated together with Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, Bonushomo Britto, Florentius; this General Chapter established a ratio studiorum, or program of studies, to be implemented for the entire Dominican Order, that featured the study of philosophy as a preparative for those not sufficiently trained to study theology. This innovation initiated the tradition of Dominican scholastic philosophy, to be put into practice in every Dominican convent, if possible, for example, in 1265 at the Order's studium provinciale at the convent of Santa Sabina in Rome.
Each convent was expected to have an elected Lector to supervise the preparative studies and an elected Master for theological studies. In the next year he was assigned the title of Preacher General. In 1264 a new Master General of the Order of Preachers was elected, John of Vercelli, it was taken as an opportunity to engage in some academic politics, since Humbertus de Romans, Peter's patron, was dead. One hundred and eight of Peter's statements in his Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard were denounced as heretical. But, though Peter withdrew from his professorship, John of Vercelli appointed Thomas Aquinas to write a defense of the 108 propositions. Peter's reputation was such that he was elected Provincial of the French Province for a three-year term, he was granted his release from office at the General Chapter, held in Bologna in May, 1267. At the conclusion of his term, after Thomas of Aquinas' rejoinder to his critics was circulated, Peter returned to his Chair at the University of Paris.
In 1269 he was reelected to the office of Provincial of the French Province, he held the post until he was named Archbishop of Lyons. On 6 June 1272, Pope Gregory X himself named Peter of Tarantaise to be Archbishop of Lyons, a post he held until he was appointed to be Bishop of Ostia, it is said, that Peter was never consecrated. He did, take the oath of fealty in early December, 1272, to King Philip III of France. Pope Gregory himself arrived in Lyons in mid-November, 1273, intent upon bringing as many prelates as possible to his planned ecumenical council, he met with King Philip III of France. Their conversations were harmonious, since Philip ceded to the Church the Comtat Venaissin, which he had inherited from his uncle Alphonse, Count of Toulouse; the Second Council of Lyons opened on 1 May 1274. The first session was held on 7 May; the principal items on the agenda were the Crusade, the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches. Peter of Tarantaise was elevated to the cardinalate on 3 June 1273, in a Consistory held at Orvieto by Pope Gregory X, named Bishop of the suburbicarian See of Ostia.
He participated in the Second Ecumenical Council of Lyons. During the Council, he sang the Funeral Mass and delivered the sermon at the funeral of Cardinal Bonaventure, Bishop of Albano, who had died on 15 July 1274, was buried on the same day in the Church of the Franciscans in Lyons. Pope Gregory, the Fathers of the Council and the Roman Curia all attended. After the conclusion of the Council, Pope Gregory spent the Winter in Lyons, he and his suite departed Lyons in May, 1275. There he met with the Emperor-elect Rudolph, King of the Romans, on October 20 received his oath of fealty. There were seven cardinals with the Pope at the time, their names are mentioned in the record of the oath-taking: Petrus Ostiensis, Ancherus Pantaleone of S. Prassede, Guglelmus de Bray of S. Marco, Ottobono Fieschi of S. Adriano, Giacomo Savelli of S. Maria in Cosmedin, Gottifridus de Alatri of S. Giorgio in Velabro, Mattheus Rosso Orsini of S. Maria in Porticu; the party reached Milan on Tuesday, 12 November 1275, Florence on 18 December.
The papal party reached Arezzo in time for Christmas. The stay in Arezzo was prolonged until Gregory X died, on 10 January 1276. Only three cardinals were at his deathbed: Peter of Tarantaise, Peter Juliani of Tusculum, Bertrand de Saint-Martin of Sabina, all cardinal-bishops. According to the Constitution "Ubi Peri
Pope Sylvester II
Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003. Known as Gerbert of Aurillac, he was a prolific scholar and teacher, he endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Greco-Roman arithmetic and astronomy, reintroducing to Europe the abacus and armillary sphere, lost to Latin Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era. He is said to be the first to introduce in Europe the decimal numeral system using Hindu-Arabic numerals, he was the first French Pope. Gerbert was born about 946 in the town of Belliac, near the present-day commune of Saint-Simon, France. Around 963, he entered the monastery of St. Gerald of Aurillac. In 967, Borrell II, Count of Barcelona visited the monastery, the abbot asked the Count to take Gerbert with him so that the lad could study mathematics in Catalonia and acquire there some knowledge of Arabic learning. In the following years, Gerbert studied under the direction of Atto, Bishop of Vic, some 60 km north of Barcelona, also at the nearby Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll.
Neither place was under Islamic rule at the time. Borrell II of Barcelona was facing major defeat from the Andalusian powers so he sent a delegation to Córdoba to request a truce. Bishop Atto was part of the delegation that met with al-Ḥakam II of Cordoba, who received him with honor. Gerbert was fascinated by the stories of the Mozarab Christian Bishops and judges who dressed and talked like the Arabs, well-versed in mathematics and natural sciences like the great teachers of the Islamic madrasahs; this sparked his passion for mathematics and astronomy. In 969, Count Borrell II made a pilgrimage to Rome. There Gerbert met Pope John XIII and the Emperor Otto I, nicknamed "the Great"; the Pope persuaded Otto I to employ Gerbert as a tutor for his young son, the future Emperor Otto II. Some years Otto I gave Gerbert leave to study at the cathedral school of Rheims where he was soon appointed a teacher by Archbishop Adalberon; when Otto II became Holy Roman Emperor in 973, he appointed Gerbert the abbot of the monastery of Bobbio and appointed him as count of the district, but the abbey had been ruined by previous abbots, Gerbert soon returned to Rheims.
After the death of Otto II in 983, Gerbert became involved in the politics of his time. In 985, with the support of his archbishop, he opposed Lothair of France's attempt to take the Lorraine from Emperor Otto III by supporting Hugh Capet. Hugh became King of France, ending the Carolingian line of Kings in 987. Adalberon died on 23 January 989. Gerbert was a natural candidate for his succession, but Hugh Capet appointed Arnulf, an illegitimate son of Lothair instead. Arnulf was deposed in 991 for alleged treason against the King, Gerbert was elected his successor. There was so much opposition to Gerbert's elevation to the See of Rheims, that Pope John XV sent a legate to France who temporarily suspended Gerbert from his episcopal office. Gerbert sought to show that this decree was unlawful, but a further synod in 995 declared Arnulf's deposition invalid. Gerbert now became the teacher of Otto III, Pope Gregory V, Otto III's cousin, appointed him Archbishop of Ravenna in 998. With the Emperor's support, he was elected to succeed Gregory V as Pope in 999.
Gerbert took the name of Sylvester II, alluding to Pope Sylvester I, the advisor to Emperor Constantine I. Soon after he was elected pope, Sylvester II confirmed the position of his former rival Arnulf as archbishop of Rheims; as pope, he took energetic measures against the widespread practices of simony and concubinage among the clergy, maintaining that only capable men of spotless lives should be allowed to become bishops. In 1001, the Roman populace revolted against the Emperor, forcing Otto III and Sylvester II to flee to Ravenna. Otto III led two unsuccessful expeditions to regain control of the city and died on a third expedition in 1002. Sylvester II returned to Rome soon after the Emperor's death, although the rebellious nobility remained in power, died a little later. Sylvester is buried in St. John Lateran; the legend of Gerbert grows from the work of the English monk William of Malmesbury in De Rebus Gestis Regum Anglorum and a polemical pamphlet, Gesta Romanae Ecclesiae contra Hildebrandum, by Cardinal Beno, a partisan of Emperor Henry IV who opposed Pope Gregory VII in the Investiture Controversy.
According to the legend, while studying mathematics and astrology in the Muslim cities of Córdoba and Seville, was accused of having learned sorcery. Gerbert was supposed to be in possession of a book of spells stolen from an Arab philosopher in Spain. Gerbert fled, pursued by the victim, who could trace the thief by the stars, but Gerbert was aware of the pursuit, hid hanging from a wooden bridge, suspended between heaven and earth, he was invisible to the magician. Gerbert was supposed to have built a brazen head; this "robotic" head would answer his questions with "yes" or "no". He was reputed to have had a pact with a female demon called Meridiana, who had appeared after he had been rejected by his earthly love, with whose help he managed to ascend to the papal throne. According to the legend, Meridiana told Gerbert that if he should read a mass in Jerusalem, the Devil would come for him. Gerbert cancelled a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but when he read mass in the church Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rom
Pope Gregory XI
Pope Gregory XI was Pope from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378. He was the most recent French pope. In 1377, Gregory XI returned the Papal court to Rome, ending nearly 70 years of papal residency in Avignon, France, his death shortly after was followed by the Western Schism. He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort in Maumont in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, around 1330; the nephew of Pope Clement VI, he succeeded Pope Urban V at the papal conclave of 1370 and was the seventh and last of the Avignon Popes. During his pontificate, vigorous measures were taken against proponents of Lollardy, which had found acceptance in Germany and other parts of Europe. Efforts were made to reform corrupt practices in the various monastic orders, such as collecting fees from persons visiting holy sites and the exhibiting of faux relics of saints. Gregory confirmed a treaty between Sicily and Naples at Villeneuve-lès-Avignon on 20 August 1372, which brought about a permanent settlement between the rival kingdoms, which were both papal fiefs.
John Wycliffe's 19 reformation articles on church-related items as he wrote in his On Civil Dominion and 21 proposed reformation articles of Johannes Klenkok's Decadicon that he wrote against the Sachsenspiegel law-book. The Decadicon was submitted to Pope Gregory XI in the early part of the 1370s by French canonist and cardinal of the Curia Pierre de la Vergne. Gregory formally condemned fourteen articles of the Sachsenspiegel in 1374 and nineteen propositions of Wycliffe's On Civil Dominion in 1377, his decision to return to Rome is attributed in part to the incessant pleas and threats of Catherine of Siena. A return had been attempted by Gregory's predecessor, Urban V, but the demands of the Hundred Years' War brought him north of the Alps again, Avignon was still the seat of the Bishop of Rome; the project of returning again to Rome was delayed by a conflict between the pope and Florence, known as the War of the Eight Saints. The pope put Florence under interdict during 1376; the return of the Curia to Rome began on 13 September 1376 and was concluded with the arrival of Gregory XI on 17 January 1377.
Gregory XI did not long survive this trip, dying in Rome on 27 March 1378. He was buried the following day in the church of Santa Maria Nuova. After his death the College of Cardinals was pressured by a Roman mob that broke into the voting chamber to force an Italian pope into the papacy; the Italians chose Urban VI. Soon after being elected, Urban gained the Cardinals' enmity; the cardinals withdrew from Rome to Fondi, where they annulled their election of Urban and elected a French pope, Clement VII, before returning to Avignon in 1378. Subsequently, the Western Schism created by the selection of rival popes forced the people of Europe into a dilemma of papal allegiance; this schism was not resolved until the Council of Constance was called by a group of cardinals. Boldly, the council, in 1417, elected Martin V as their successor; the chaos of the Western Schism thus brought about reforming councils and gave them the power over, elected, replacing the College of Cardinals. List of popes Ameilh, Pierre.
Le voyage de Grégoire XI ramenant la Papauté d'Avignon à Rome, 1376-1377 suivi du texte latin et de la traduction franç. de l'Itinerarium Gragerii XI de Pierre Ameilh.. Florence: Coppini. Hanawalt, G. Barbara; the Middle Ages: An Illustrated History, 1998, Oxford Univ. Press, p. 143 Cairns, E. Earl. Christianity Throughout the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church, 1996, Zondervan, pp. 241 & 248–250. Gherardi, Alessandro. La guerra dei Fiorentini con Papa Gregorio XI detta la guerra degli otto santi memoria compilata sui documenti dell' archivio fiorentino. Firenze: Tipi di Cellini. Jugie, Pierre. La formation intellectuelle du cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, le pape Grégoire XI: nouveau point sur la question. Florence: Sismel. Mirot, Léon. La politique pontificale et le retour du Saint-Siège à Rome en 1376. Paris: É. Bouillon. Ocker, Johannes Klenkok: a friar's life, c. 1310–1374, American Philosophical Society, 1993, ISBN 0-87169-835-8 Thibault, Paul R.. Pope Gregory XI: the failure of tradition.
Lanham MD USA: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-8191-5463-7
Pope Innocent VI
Pope Innocent VI, born Étienne Aubert, was Pope from 18 December 1352 to his death in 1362. He was the fifth Avignon Pope and the only one with the pontifical name of "Innocent". Étienne's father was Adhemar seigneur de Montel-de-Gelat in Limousin province. He was a native of the hamlet of Les Monts, Diocese of Limoges, after having taught civil law at Toulouse, he became successively Bishop of Noyon in 1338 and Bishop of Clermont in 1340. On 20 September 1342, he was raised to the position of Cardinal Priest of SS. John and Paul, he was made cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri on 13 February 1352, by Pope Clement VI, whom he succeeded. Etienne was crowned pope on 30 December 1352 by Cardinal Gaillard de la Mothe after the papal conclave of 1352. Upon his election, he revoked a signed agreement stating the college of cardinals was superior to the pope, his subsequent policy compares favourably with that of the other Avignon Popes. He introduced many needed reforms in the administration of church affairs, through his legate, Cardinal Albornoz, accompanied by Rienzi, he sought to restore order in Rome.
In 1355, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned in Rome with Innocent's permission, after having made an oath that he would quit the city on the day of the ceremony. It was through the exertions of Innocent VI that the Treaty of Brétigny between France and England was brought about. During his pontificate, the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus offered to submit the Greek Orthodox Church to the Roman See in return for assistance against John VI Cantacuzenus; the resources at the disposal of the Pope, were all required for exigencies nearer home, the offer was declined. Most of the wealth accumulated by John XXII and Benedict XII had been lost during the extravagant pontificate of Clement VI. Innocent VI economised by cutting the chapel staff from twelve to eight. Works of art were sold rather than commissioned, his pontificate was dominated by the war in Italy and by Avignon's recovery from the plague, both of which made draining demands on his treasury. By 1357, he was complaining of poverty.
Innocent VI was a liberal patron of letters. If the extreme severity of his measures against the Fraticelli is ignored, he retains a high reputation for justice and mercy. However, St. Bridget of Sweden denounced him as a persecutor of Christians, he died on 12 September 1362 and was succeeded by Urban V. Today his tomb can be found in the Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction, the Carthusian monastery in Villeneuve-les-Avignon. List of popes Modified text from the 9th edition of an unnamed encyclopedia Tomasello and ritual at Papal Avignon 1309–1403. Louis XI,Josepf Frederic, Louis Vaesen,Etienne Charavay,Bernard Edouard de Mandrot-1905. Societe' d'etudes de la province de Cambrai,Lille-1907 Antoine Pellisier. Innocent VI:le reformateur, deuxième pape Limousin
Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI, born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352. He was the fourth Avignon pope. Clement reigned during the first visitation of the Black Death, during which he granted remission of sins to all who died of the plague. Roger steadfastly resisted temporal encroachments on the Church's ecclesiastical jurisdiction and, as Clement VI, entrenched French dominance of the Church and opened its coffers to enhance the regal splendour of the Papacy, he recruited composers and music theorists for his court, including figures associated with the then-innovative Ars Nova style of France and the Low Countries. His nepotism was reflected in the 44 statues of relatives which surrounded his sarcophagus. Pierre Roger was born in the château of Maumont, today part of the commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Corrèze, in Limousin, the son of the lord of Maumont-Rosiers-d'Égletons, he had an elder brother, who married three times and had thirteen children. Pierre had two sisters: Delphine, who married Jacques de Besse.
His brother Guillaume became Seigneur de Chambon, thanks to his wife's dowry, with the benefit of his papal brother's influence on King Philip VI, became Vicomte de Beaufort. Roger entered the Benedictine order as a boy in 1301, at the Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu in the diocese of Clermont in the Auvergne. After six years there, he was directed to higher studies by the Bishop of Le Puy, Jean de Cumenis, his own abbot, Hugues d'Arc. In 1307 he took up studies in Paris at the College de Sorbonne, where he entered the Collège de Narbonne. To support him, beyond what was supplied by his bishop and his abbot, he was granted the post of Prior of St. Pantaléon in the diocese of Limoges. In the summer of 1323, after Pierre had been studying both theology and canon law in Paris for sixteen years, the Chancellor of Paris was ordered by Pope John XXII, on the recommendation of King Charles IV, to confer on him the doctorate in Theology, a chair, a license to teach. Pierre was in his thirty-first year, he lectured publicly on the Sententiae of Peter Lombard, defended and promoted the works of Thomas Aquinas.
He was appalled by the Defensor Pacis of Marsilius of Padua, wrote a treatise in 1325 condemning its principles and defending Pope John XXII. He was granted the priory of St. Baudil, a dependency of the Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu, on 24 April 1324, at the personal order of Pope John XXII, he held the position until 1329. Pierre Roger was called to Avignon through the influence of his friend and protector, Cardinal Pierre de Mortemart, both of whom were close to King Charles IV. King Charles IV died on 1 February 1328, the last Capetian king of France in the direct line; as Abbot of Fécamp, therefore a feudal subject of Edward III, Pierre was assigned the task in 1328 of summoning Edward III of England to pay homage to Philip VI of France for the duchy of Aquitaine. He received no reply, from King Edward, was forced to return to France, his mission unaccomplished. On 3 December 1328 Peter Roger was named Bishop of Arras, in which capacity he became a royal councilor of King Philip VI, he held the diocese of Arras only until 24 November 1329, less than a year, when he was promoted to the Archdiocese of Sens.
He held the Archbishopric of Sens for one year and one month, until his promotion to the See of Rouen on 14 December 1330. In 1329, while Pierre Roger was still Archbishop-elect of Sens, a major assembly of the French Clergy was held at Vincennes in the presence of King Philip VI, to deal with issues involving the judicial powers of ecclesiastical authorities. Many propositions were put forward against ecclesiastical jurisdiction, which were ably argued by Pierre de Cugnières. Pierre Roger made the rejoinders on 22 December 1329, on behalf of the ecclesiastical authority; when Pierre Roger became Archbishop of Rouen in December 1330, he was expected to swear allegiance to his feudal overlord. King Philip VI had given his son Jean the Dukedom of Normandy as an apanage, Pierre was worried about what might happen if someone other than a member of the French royal family might become Duke of Normandy, he therefore asked the King for time to consider his position, but the King was firm and seized the temporalities of the Archbishop.
Pierre was forced to go to Paris, where an agreement was worked out that, should someone other than a member of the royal family become Duke the Archbishop would swear fealty directly to the King. As Archbishop of Rouen, Roger was one of the Peers of France and he was a member of the embassy sent by King Philip and Prince John, in 1333, to swear in their name to take the cross and serve in a crusade in the Holy Land. In the year, in Paris in the Prés des Clercs, the King received the cross from the hands of Archbishop Roger, it is said that he was promoted to the office of Chancellor of France, though there is no documentary proof. The earliest claim that he was Chancellor is made by Alfonso Chacon. In 1333, the issue of the Beatific Vision, under discussion since a sermon of Pope John XXII in 1329, reached a serious stage; the French Royal Court had been hearing complaints from various quarters, the King and Queen decided to seek competent advice. The Pope knew that the University of Paris was hostile to his id