Léon Charles Albert Calmette ForMemRS was a French physician and immunologist, an important officer of the Pasteur Institute. He discovered the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, an attenuated form of Mycobacterium bovis used in the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis, he developed the first antivenom for snake venom, the Calmette's serum. Calmette was born in France, he wanted to serve in the Navy and be a physician, so in 1881 he joined the School of Naval Physicians at Brest. He started to serve in 1883 in the Naval Medical Corps in Hong Kong, where he worked with Dr Patrick Manson, who studied the mosquito transmission of the parasitic worm, the cause of elephantiasis. Calmette completed his medical degree on the subject of filariasis, he was assigned to Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, where he arrived in 1887. Afterwards, he served in West Africa, in Gabon and French Congo, where he researched malaria, sleeping sickness and pellagra. Upon his return to France in 1890, Calmette met Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux, his professor in a course on bacteriology.
He became an associate and was charged by Pasteur to found and direct a branch of the Pasteur Institute at Saigon, in 1891. There, he dedicated himself to the nascent field of toxicology, which had important connections to immunology, he studied snake and bee venom, plant poisons and curare, he organized the production of vaccines against smallpox and rabies and carried out research on cholera, the fermentation of opium and rice. In 1894, he came back to France again and develop the first antivenoms for snake bites using immune sera from vaccinated horses. Work in this field was taken up by Brazilian physician Vital Brazil, in São Paulo at the Instituto Butantan, who developed several other antivenoms against snakes and spiders, he took part in the development in the first immune serum against the bubonic plague, in collaboration with the discoverer of its pathogenic agent, Yersinia pestis, by Alexandre Yersin, went to Portugal to study and to help fight an epidemic at Oporto. In 1895, Roux entrusted him with the directorship of the Institute's branch at Lille, where he was to remain for the next 25 years.
In 1901, he founded the first antituberculosis dispensary at Lille, named it after Emile Roux. In 1904, he founded the "Ligue du Nord contre la Tuberculose". In 1909, he helped to establish the Institute branch in Algiers. In 1918, he accepted the post of assistant director of the Institute in Paris. Calmette's main scientific work, to bring him worldwide fame and his name permanently attached to the history of medicine was the attempt to develop a vaccine against tuberculosis, which, at the time, was a major cause of death; the German microbiologist Robert Koch had discovered, in 1882, that the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was its pathogenic agent, Louis Pasteur became interested in it too. In 1906, a veterinarian and immunologist, Camille Guérin, had established that immunity against tuberculosis was associated with the living tubercle bacilli in the blood. Using Pasteur's approach, Calmette investigated how immunity would develop in response to attenuated bovine bacilli injected in animals.
This preparation received the name of its two discoverers. Attenuation was achieved by cultivating them in a bile-containing substrate, based on idea given by a Norwegian researcher, Kristian Feyer Andvord. From 1908 to 1921, Guérin and Calmette strived to produce less and less virulent strains of the bacillus, by transferring them to successive cultures. In 1921, they used BCG to vaccine newborn infants in the Charité in Paris; the vaccination program, suffered a serious setback when 72 vaccinated children developed tuberculosis in 1930, in Lübeck, due to a contamination of some batches in Germany. Mass vaccination of children was reinstated in many countries after 1932, when new and safer production techniques were implemented. Notwithstanding, Calmette was shaken by the event, dying one year in Paris, he was the brother of Gaston Calmette, the editor of Le Figaro, murdered in 1914 by Henriette Caillaux. Today, his name is one of the few remaining French names in the streets of Ho Chi Minh City.
A new bridge is named "Calmette" connecting district 1 to district 4 connected to the exit of the new Thu Thiem tunnel connecting the district 1 to the future residential Thu Thiem area in district 2. In Cambodia, a major hospital was named after Calmette Hospital. Nègre, Noël. Albert Calmette, sa vie, son oeuvre scientifique. Paris: Masson et Cie. OCLC 23392606. Calmette, A.. "The Treatment of Animals Poisoned with Snake Venom by the Injection of Antivenomous Serum". BMJ. 2: 399–400. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1859.399. PMC 2509956. PMID 20756388. Hawgood BJ. "Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin: the C and G of BCG vaccine". Journal of Medical Biography. 15: 139–46. Doi:10.1258/j.jmb.2007.06-15. PMID 17641786. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Daniel TM. "Leon Charles Albert Calmette and BCG vaccine". The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 9: 944–5. PMID 16158885. Milleliri JM. "Unpublished letter from Albert Calmette to Marcel Léger. A new mission for China?" [Unpublished letter from Albert Calmette to Marc
José Achache is the founder and CEO of ALTYN, a Swiss Space company involved in the design and development of satellite projects, providing advisory on the commercial utilization of space infrastructure as well as on investments in Space companies. After 15 years of research in Geophysics, 15 years of executive management in French and international R&D and space agencies, José Achache is now involved in the development of space systems as well as applications and services relying on satellites, he is Managing Director of AP-Swiss, a joint programme of the European Space Agency and the Swiss Space Office, which fosters the development of commercial applications and services powered by satellites. José Achache is Director or Advisor of several Space companies in Switzerland and Italy: Chairman of the Board of Media Lario Srl, a world leader in advanced optical components and systems for space missions. José Achache is co-founder and Director of Groupe Plani, a Paris-based company providing end-to-end equipment and services for video and TV production, Director of ILTOO Pharma, a biotech company developing new treatments for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
A graduate of Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, he holds a PhD in Geophysics from Université Pierre et Marie Curie, a PhD in Physical Sciences from Université Denis Diderot and was Postdoctoral Fellow at Stanford University. He has been professor at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, director of the French Geological Survey's research division, deputy director general of CNES the French space agency and director of Earth observation at ESA, the European Space Agency, he was the Secretariat Director of Global Earth Observation System of Systems from 2005 to 2012. He was the first to serve in the position, having taken the post in 2005, when the Group on Earth Observations was established in Geneva, he is the Architect of the Sentinel series of satellites of the Copernicus/GMES programme of the European Union and an early advocate of its free and open data policy. He is the author of Les Sentinelles de la Terre, an essay on space policy and the applications of space infrastructures.
He has published numerous scientific papers as well as editorial and conferences for wider audiences on space and environmental Issues
Pierre Curie was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel". Born in Paris on 15 May 1859, Pierre Curie was the son of Eugene Curie, a doctor of French Huguenot Protestant origin from Alsatia, Sophie-Claire Depouilly Curie, he was educated by his father and in his early teens showed a strong aptitude for mathematics and geometry. When he was 16, he earned his math degree. By the age of 18, he had completed the equivalent of a higher degree, but did not proceed to a doctorate due to lack of money. Instead he worked as a laboratory instructor; when Pierre Curie was preparing for his bachelor of science degree, he worked in the laboratory of Jean-Gustave Bourbouze in the Faculty of Science. In 1880 Pierre and his older brother Jacques demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i.e. piezoelectricity.
To aid this work they invented the piezoelectric quartz electrometer. The following year they demonstrated the reverse effect: that crystals could be made to deform when subject to an electric field. All digital electronic circuits now rely on this in the form of crystal oscillators. In subsequent work on magnetism Pierre Curie defined the Curie scale; this work involved delicate equipment - balances, etc. Pierre Curie was introduced to Maria Skłodowska by physicist Józef Wierusz-Kowalski. Curie took her into his laboratory as his student, his admiration for her grew. He began to regard Skłodowska as his muse, she refused his initial proposal, but agreed to marry him on 26 July 1895. It would be a beautiful thing, a thing I dare not hope, if we could spend our life near each other, hypnotized by our dreams: your patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream, our scientific dream; the Curies had a happy, affectionate marriage, they were known for their devotion to each other. Prior to his famous doctoral studies on magnetism, he designed and perfected an sensitive torsion balance for measuring magnetic coefficients.
Variations on this equipment were used by future workers in that area. Pierre Curie studied ferromagnetism and diamagnetism for his doctoral thesis, discovered the effect of temperature on paramagnetism, now known as Curie's law; the material constant in Curie's law is known as the Curie constant. He discovered that ferromagnetic substances exhibited a critical temperature transition, above which the substances lost their ferromagnetic behavior; this is now known as the Curie temperature. The Curie temperature is used to study plate tectonics, treat hypothermia, measure caffeine, to understand extraterrestrial magnetic fields. Pierre Curie formulated what is now known as the Curie Dissymmetry Principle: a physical effect cannot have a dissymmetry absent from its efficient cause. For example, a random mixture of sand in zero gravity has no dissymmetry. Introduce a gravitational field, there is a dissymmetry because of the direction of the field; the sand grains can'self-sort' with the density increasing with depth.
But this new arrangement, with the directional arrangement of sand grains reflects the dissymmetry of the gravitational field that causes the separation. Curie worked with his wife in isolating radium, they were the first to use the term "radioactivity", were pioneers in its study. Their work, including Marie Curie's celebrated doctoral work, made use of a sensitive piezoelectric electrometer constructed by Pierre and his brother Jacques Curie. Pierre Curie's 1898 publication with his wife Mme. Curie and with M. G. Bémont for their discovery of radium and polonium was honored by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society presented to the ESPCI ParisTech in 2015. Curie and one of his students, Albert Laborde, made the first discovery of nuclear energy, by identifying the continuous emission of heat from radium particles. Curie investigated the radiation emissions of radioactive substances, through the use of magnetic fields was able to show that some of the emissions were positively charged, some were negative and some were neutral.
These correspond to alpha and gamma radiation. The curie is a unit of radioactivity named in honor of Curie by the Radiology Congress in 1910, after his death. Subsequently, there has been some controversy over whether the naming was in honor of Pierre, Marie, or both. In the late nineteenth century, Pierre Curie was investigating the mysteries of ordinary magnetism when he became aware of the spiritualist experiments of other European scientists, such as Charles Richet and Camille Flammarion. Pierre Curie thought systematic investigation into the paranormal could help with some unanswered questions about magnetism, he wrote to his fiancée Marie: "I must admit that those spiritual phenomena intensely interest me. I think in them are questions that deal with physics." Pierre Curie's notebooks from this period show. He did not attend séances such as those of Eusapia Palladino in Paris in 1905–6 as a mere
Georges Canguilhem was a French philosopher and physician who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Canguilhem entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1924 as part of a class that included Jean-Paul Sartre, Raymond Aron and Paul Nizan, he aggregated in 1927 and taught in lycées throughout France, taking up the study of medicine while teaching in Toulouse. He took up a post at the Clermont-Ferrand based University of Strasbourg in 1941, received his medical doctorate in 1943, in the middle of World War II. Using the pseudonym "Lafont" Canguilhem became active in the French Resistance, serving as a doctor in Auvergne. By 1948 he was the French equivalent of department chair in philosophy at Strasbourg as well. Seven years he was named a professor at the Sorbonne and succeeded Gaston Bachelard as the director of the Institut d'histoire des sciences, a post he occupied until 1971, at which time he undertook an active emeritus career. In 1983 he was awarded the Sarton Medal by the History of Science Society.
In 1987 he received the médaille d'or, awarded by the Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Canguilhem's principal work in philosophy of science is presented in two books, Le Normal et le pathologique, first published in 1943 and expanded in 1968, La Connaissance de la vie. Le Normal et la pathologique is an extended exploration into the nature and meaning of normality in medicine and biology, the production and institutionalization of medical knowledge, it is still a seminal work in medical anthropology and the history of ideas, is influential in part thanks to Canguilhem's influence on Michel Foucault. La Connaissance de la vie is an extended study of the specificity of biology as a science, the historical and conceptual significance of vitalism, the possibility of conceiving organisms not on the basis of mechanical and technical models that would reduce the organism to a machine, but rather on the basis of the organism's relation to the milieu in which it lives, its successful survival in this milieu, its status as something greater than "the sum of its parts."
Canguilhem argued for these positions, criticising 18th and 19th century vitalism but cautioning against the reduction of biology to a "physical science." He believed such a reduction deprived biology of a proper field of study, ideologically transforming living beings into mechanical structures serving a chemical/physical equilibrium that cannot account for the particularity of organisms or for the complexity of life. He furthered and altered these critiques in a book and Rationality in the History of the Life Sciences. Canguilhem was hostile to the ideas of Henri Bergson and vitalism but was influenced by them and developed his own "idiosyncratic brand of vitalism."More than just a great theoretician, Canguilhem was one of the few philosophers of the 20th century to develop an approach, shaped by a medical education. He helped define a method of studying the history of science, practical and rigorous, his work focused on the one hand on the concepts of "normal" and "pathological" and, on the other, a critical history of the formation of concepts such as "reflex" in the history of science.
Canguilhem was a mentor to several French scholars, most notably Foucault, for whom he served as a sponsor in the presentation of Histoire de la folie à l'âge classique for the Doctorat d'État and whose work he followed throughout the latter's life. As Inspector General and President of the Jury d'Agrégation in philosophy, Canguilhem had a tremendous and direct influence over philosophical instruction in France in the latter half of the twentieth century and was known to more than a generation of French academic philosophers as a demanding and exacting evaluator who, as Louis Althusser remarked, believed he could correct the philosophical understanding of teachers by bawling them out; this belief did not prevent him from being regarded with considerable affection by the generation of intellectuals that came to the fore in the 1960s, including Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Louis Althusser, Jacques Lacan. Althusser once wrote to his English translator that "my debt to Canguilhem is incalculable".
Foucault, in his introduction to Canguilhem's The Normal and the Pathological, wrote: Take away Canguilhem and you will no longer understand much about Althusser, Althusserism and a whole series of discussions which have taken place among French Marxists. Further, in the entire discussion of ideas which preceded or followed the movement of'68, it is easy to find the place of those who, from near or from afar, had been trained by Canguilhem. Derrida recalled that Canguilhem advised him early in his career that he would have to distinguish himself as a serious scholar before he could exhibit professionally the particular philosophical sense of humour for which he is at turns famous and notorious, advice which Derrida seemed to have taken in earnest. After years of neglect, a great deal of Canguilhem's writings have been translated into English. Among them are a collection of essays entitled A Vital Rationalist and his most celebrated work, The Normal and the Pathological. Dispositif Essai sur quelques problèmes concernant le normal et le pathologique, re-published with the title Le normal et le pathologique, augmenté de No
Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy was a French mathematician and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics. He was one of the first to state and rigorously prove theorems of calculus, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors, he singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy had a great influence over his successors. Cauchy was a prolific writer. Cauchy was the son of Louis François Marie-Madeleine Desestre. Cauchy had two brothers: Alexandre Laurent Cauchy, who became a president of a division of the court of appeal in 1847 and a judge of the court of cassation in 1849, Eugene François Cauchy, a publicist who wrote several mathematical works. Cauchy married Aloise de Bure in 1818, she was a close relative of the publisher. They had Marie Françoise Alicia and Marie Mathilde. Cauchy's father was a high official in the Parisian Police of the Ancien Régime, but lost this position due to the French Revolution, which broke out one month before Augustin-Louis was born.
The Cauchy family survived the revolution and the following Reign of Terror by escaping to Arcueil, where Cauchy received his first education, from his father. After the execution of Robespierre, it was safe for the family to return to Paris. There Louis-François Cauchy found himself a new bureaucratic job in 1800, moved up the ranks; when Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, Louis-François Cauchy was further promoted, became Secretary-General of the Senate, working directly under Laplace. The famous mathematician Lagrange was a friend of the Cauchy family. On Lagrange's advice, Augustin-Louis was enrolled in the École Centrale du Panthéon, the best secondary school of Paris at that time, in the fall of 1802. Most of the curriculum consisted of classical languages. In spite of these successes, Augustin-Louis chose an engineering career, prepared himself for the entrance examination to the École Polytechnique. In 1805, he placed second out of 293 applicants on this exam, he was admitted. One of the main purposes of this school was to give future civil and military engineers a high-level scientific and mathematical education.
The school functioned under military discipline, which caused the young and pious Cauchy some problems in adapting. He finished the Polytechnique in 1807, at the age of 18, went on to the École des Ponts et Chaussées, he graduated with the highest honors. After finishing school in 1810, Cauchy accepted a job as a junior engineer in Cherbourg, where Napoleon intended to build a naval base. Here Augustin-Louis stayed for three years, was assigned the Ourcq Canal project and the Saint-Cloud Bridge project, worked at the Harbor of Cherbourg. Although he had an busy managerial job, he still found time to prepare three mathematical manuscripts, which he submitted to the Première Classe of the Institut de France. Cauchy's first two manuscripts were accepted. In September 1812, now 23 years old, Cauchy returned to Paris after becoming ill from overwork. Another reason for his return to the capital was that he was losing his interest in his engineering job, being more and more attracted to the abstract beauty of mathematics.
Therefore, when his health improved in 1813, Cauchy chose to not return to Cherbourg. Although he formally kept his engineering position, he was transferred from the payroll of the Ministry of the Marine to the Ministry of the Interior; the next three years Augustin-Louis was on unpaid sick leave, spent his time quite fruitfully, working on mathematics. He attempted admission to the First Class of the Institut de France but failed on three different occasions between 1813 and 1815. In 1815 Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, the newly installed Bourbon king Louis XVIII took the restoration in hand; the Académie des Sciences was re-established in March 1816. The reaction of Cauchy's peers was harsh. In November 1815, Louis Poinsot, an associate professor at the École Polytechnique, asked to be exempted from his teaching duties for health reasons. Cauchy was by a rising mathematical star, who merited a professorship. One of his great successes at that time was the proof of Fermat's polygonal number theorem.
However, the fact that Cauchy was known to be loyal to the Bourbon
Adam de Craponne
Adam de Craponne was a French engineer. Born in 1526 in Salon-de-Provence, between 1557 and 1558, Craponne built the channel bearing his name; the Canal de Craponne enabled irrigation of the Désert de la Crau with water coming from the Durance. Craponne funded the project, with the help of private partners, such as Nostradamus who, along with his wife Anne Ponsard, acquired a one-thirteenth share in the canal project, he died of poisoning in Nantes in 1576. Brind'Amour, Pierre. Nostradamus astrophile: les astres et l'astrologie dans la vie et l'œuvre de Nostradamus. Presses de l'Université d'Ottawa. ISBN 978-2-252-02896-4. Adam de Craponne, Smithsonian Institutions Libraries Discover the life of Adam de Craponne Notreprovence.fr