The Almohad Caliphate was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century. The Almohad movement was founded by Ibn Tumart among the Berber Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. Around 1120, the Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains, they succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty governing Morocco by 1147, when Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi conquered Marrakesh and declared himself Caliph. They extended their power over all of the Maghreb by 1159. Al-Andalus soon followed, all of Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule by 1172; the Almohad dominance of Iberia continued until 1212, when Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Christian princes of Castile and Navarre. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon afterwards, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively; the Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies, the Marinids, in 1215.
The last representative of the line, Idris al-Wathiq, was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269. The Almohad movement originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribal confederation of the Atlas Mountains of southern Morocco. At the time and much of the rest of North Africa and Spain, was under the rule of the Almoravids, a Sanhaja Berber dynasty. Early in his life, Ibn Tumart went to Spain to pursue his studies, thereafter to Baghdad to deepen them. In Baghdad, Ibn Tumart attached himself to the theological school of al-Ash'ari, came under the influence of the teacher al-Ghazali, he soon developed his own system. Ibn Tumart's main principle was a strict unitarianism, which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God as being incompatible with His unity, therefore a polytheistic idea. Ibn Tumart represented a revolt against, his followers would become known as the al-Muwahhidun. After his return to the Maghreb c.1117, Ibn Tumart spent some time in various Ifriqiyan cities and agitating, heading riotous attacks on wine-shops and on other manifestations of laxity.
He laid the blame for the latitude on the ruling dynasty of the Almoravids, whom he accused of obscurantism and impiety. He opposed their sponsorship of the Maliki school of jurisprudence, which drew upon consensus and other sources beyond the Qur'an and Sunnah in their reasoning, an anathema to the stricter Zahirism favored by Ibn Tumart, his antics and fiery preaching led fed-up authorities to move him along from town to town. After being expelled from Bejaia, Ibn Tumart set up camp in Mellala, in the outskirts of the city, where he received his first disciples - notably, al-Bashir and Abd al-Mu'min. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his small band of followers proceeded to Morocco, stopping first in Fez, where he engaged the Maliki scholars of the city in debate, he went so far as to assault the sister of the Almoravid emir `Ali ibn Yusuf, in the streets of Fez, because she was going about unveiled, after the manner of Berber women. After being expelled from Fez, he went to Marrakesh, where he tracked down the Almoravid emir Ali ibn Yusuf at a local mosque, challenged the emir, the leading scholars of the area, to a doctrinal debate.
After the debate, the scholars concluded that Ibn Tumart's views were blasphemous and the man dangerous, urged him to be put to death or imprisoned. But the emir decided to expel him from the city. Ibn Tumart took refuge among his own people, the Hargha, in his home village of Igiliz, in the Sous valley, he retreated to a nearby cave, lived out an ascetic lifestyle, coming out only to preach his program of puritan reform, attracting greater and greater crowds. At length, towards the end of Ramadan in late 1121, after a moving sermon, reviewing his failure to persuade the Almoravids to reform by argument, Ibn Tumart'revealed' himself as the true Mahdi, a divinely guided judge and lawgiver, was recognized as such by his audience; this was a declaration of war on the Almoravid state. On the advice of one of his followers, Omar Hintati, a prominent chieftain of the Hintata, Ibn Tumart abandoned his cave in 1122 and went up into the High Atlas, to organize the Almohad movement among the highland Masmuda tribes.
Besides his own tribe, the Hargha, Ibn Tumart secured the adherence of the Ganfisa, the Gadmiwa, the Hintata, the Haskura, the Hazraja to the Almohad cause. Around 1124, Ibn Tumart erected the ribat of Tinmel, in the valley of the Nfis in the High Atlas, an impregnable fortified complex, which would serve both as the spiritual center and military headquarters of the Almohad movement. For the first eight years, the Almohad rebellion was limited to a guerilla war along the peaks and ravines of the High Atlas, their principal damage was in rendering insecure the roads and mountain passes south of Marrakesh – threatening the route to all-important Sijilmassa, the gateway of the trans-Saharan trade. Unabl
Province of A Coruña
The province of A Coruña is the most North-western Atlantic-facing province of Spain, one of the four provinces which constitute the autonomous community of Galicia. This province is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and North, Pontevedra Province to the South and the Lugo Province to the East; the history of this province starts at the end of the Middle Ages during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. During those years this province was far smaller than today; this is because in the 1833 territorial division of Spain the entire Province of Betanzos together with half of the Mondoñedo were amalgamated into one single province with its capital city in A Coruña. Since 1833, the province has always been the one with largest coast; until the second half of the 20th century, this province was both the religious and cultural centre of the entire region. The University of Santiago de Compostela was the only university in North-western Spain until the arrival of democracy after the death of General Francisco Franco.
The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the destination of the Way of St. James, a major historical pilgrimage route since the Middle Ages which still gathers thousands of pilgrims each year from all over the world. Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park is the only National Park in Galicia, it is shared between the Provinces of A Pontevedra. The "Fragas" of the River Eume Natural Park extends itself throughout the Eume and Ferrol regions of Ferrolterra; the Dunes of Corrubedo Natural Park is a beach park at the end of the Barbanza Peninsula. Aeroporto da Lavacolla in Santiago de Compostela Aeroporto de Alvedro in the City of A Coruña Heliporto da Graña in the Naval Base of A Graña Heliporto de Narón in Naron Spanish National Railway Network Linking every major city: Ferrol, Betanzos, A Coruña and Santiago de Compostela Spanish Narrow-Gauge Railways Linking the City of Ferrol with different towns of Ferrol and Ortegal; this line is known as Ferrol-Irun Spanish High Speed Railway Network Linking most major cities of the province with Lisbon and Madrid is under construction.
A Coruña – Major Commercial Port – Costa da Morte Malpica – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Camariñas – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Fisterra – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Ferrol – Major Commercial Ports – Rias altas Cariño – Fishing Port – Rias altas Espasante – Fishing Port – Rias altas Cedeira – Fishing Port – Rias altas Deportivo de La Coruña Spanish first division team from the City of A Coruña. Racing Club de Ferrol Spanish Segunda Division team from the City of Ferrol. SD Compostela Spanish Tercera Division team from the City of Santiago de Compostela. Atlético Arteixo Spanish Segunda Division team from the Municipality of Arteixo. Bergantiños FC Spanish Tercera Division team from the Municipality of Carballo. SD Negreira Spanish Tercera Division team from the Municipality of Negreira. Autos Lobelle de Santiago FS Spanish División de Honor of Futsal team from the City of Santiago de Compostela. List of municipalities in A Coruña
Caliphate of Córdoba
The Caliphate of Córdoba was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031; the region was dominated by the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba. The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph of Córdoba, replacing thus his original title of Emir of Córdoba, he was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, which had held the title of Emir of Córdoba since 756. The caliphate disintegrated during the Fitna of al-Andalus, a civil war between the descendants of the last caliph, Hisham II, the successors of his hayib, Al-Mansur. In 1031, after years of infighting, the caliphate fractured into a number of independent Muslim taifa. Abd ar-Rahman I became Emir of Córdoba in 756 after six years in exile after the Umayyads lost the position of Caliph in Damascus to the Abbasids in 750.
Intent on regaining power, he defeated the area's existing Islamic rulers and united various local fiefdoms into an emirate. Raids increased the emirate's size; the emirate's rulers used the title "emir" or "sultan" until the 10th century. In the early 10th century, Abd ar-Rahman III faced a threatened invasion from North Africa by the Fatimids, a Shiite rival Islamic empire based in Cairo. Since the invading Fatimids claimed the caliphate, Abd ar-Rahman III claimed the title of caliph himself. Prior to Abd ar-Rahman's proclamation as the caliph, the Umayyads recognized the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad as being the rightful rulers of the Muslim community. After repulsing the Fatimids, he kept the more prestigious title. Although his position as caliph was not accepted outside of al-Andalus and its North African affiliates, internally the Spanish Umayyads considered themselves as closer to Muhammad, thus more legitimate, than the Abbasids; the caliphate enjoyed increased prosperity during the 10th century.
Abd ar-Rahman III united al-Andalus and brought the Christian kingdoms of the north under control by force and through diplomacy. Abd ar-Rahman III stopped the Fatimid advance into Morocco and al-Andalus in order to prevent a future invasion; the plan for a Fatimid invasion was thwarted when Abd ar-Rahman III secured Melilla in 927, Ceuta in 931, Tangier in 951. This period of prosperity was marked by increasing diplomatic relations with Berber tribes in North Africa, Christian kings from the north, with France and Constantinople; the caliphate became profitable during the reign of Abd ar-Rahman III, by increasing the public revenue to 6,245,000 dinars from Abd ar-Rahman II. The profits made during this time were divided into three parts: the payment of the salaries and maintenance of the army, the preservation of public buildings, the needs of the caliph; the death of Abd ar-Rahman III led to the rise of his 46-year-old son, Al-Hakam II, in 961. Al-Hakam II continued his father's policy, dealing humanely with disruptive Christian kings and North African rebels.
Al-Hakam's reliance on his advisers was greater than his father's because the previous prosperity under Abd ar-Rahman III allowed al-Hakam II to let the caliphate run by itself. This style of rulership suited al-Hakam II since he was more interested in his scholarly and intellectual pursuits than ruling the caliphate; the caliphate was at its intellectual and scholarly peak under al-Hakam II. The death of al-Hakam II in 976 marked the beginning of the end of the caliphate. Before his death, al-Hakam named his only son Hisham II successor. Although the 10-year-old child was ill-equipped to be caliph, Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, who had sworn an oath of obedience to Hisham II, pronounced him caliph. Almanzor had great influence over Subh, the mother and regent of Hisham II. Almanzor, along with Subh, isolated Hisham in Córdoba while systematically eradicating opposition to his own rule, allowing Berbers from Africa to migrate to al-Andalus to increase his base of support. While Hisham II was caliph, he was a figurehead.
He, his son Abd al-Malik and his brother retained the power nominally held by Caliph Hisham. However, during a raid on the Christian north a revolt tore through Córdoba and Abd al-Rahman never returned; the title of caliph became symbolic, without influence. The death of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo in 1009 marked the beginning of the Fitna of al-Andalus, with rivals claiming to be the new caliph, violence sweeping the caliphate, intermittent invasions by the Hammudid dynasty. Beset by factionalism, the caliphate crumbled in 1031 into a number of independent taifas, including the Taifa of Córdoba, Taifa of Seville and Taifa of Zaragoza; the last Córdoban Caliph was Hisham III. Córdoba was the cultural centre of al-Andalus. Mosques, such as the Great Mosque, were the focus of many caliphs' attention; the caliph's palace, Medina Azahara is on the outskirts of the city, where an estimated 10,000 laborers and artisans worked for decades on the palace, constructing the decorated buildings and courtyards filled with fountains and airy domes.
Córdoba was the intellectual centre of al-Andalus, with translations of ancient Greek texts into Arabic and Hebrew. During the reign of al-Hakam II, the royal library possessed an estimated 500,000 volumes. For comparison, the Abbey of Saint Gall in Switzerland contained just over 100 volumes; the university in Córdoba became the most celebrated in the world. It was attended by Christian st
The Catalan counties were the administrative Christian divisions of the eastern Carolingian Marca Hispanica and southernmost part of the March of Gothia in the Pyrenees created after its Frankish quick counter conquest. The various counties defined what came to be known as the Principality of Catalonia. In 778, Charlemagne led the first military Frankish expedition into Hispania to create the Marca Hispanica, a buffer zone between the Umayyad Moors and Arabs of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Kingdom of Aquitaine; the territory that he subdued was the kernel of Catalonia, a no man's land since the defeat of the visigoths and the arrival of the Muslims in 714 who crossed the Pyrinees with an army to be defeated in 732 at the Battle of Tours. In 781, Charlemagne made his 3-year-old son Louis the Pious king of Aquitaine, sent there with regents and a court in order to secure the southern border of his kingdom against the Arabs and the moors and to expand southwards into Muslim territory; these counties were feudal entities ruled by a small military elite.
Counts were appointed directly by and owed allegiance to the Carolingian emperor. The appointment to heirs could not be taken for granted. However, with the rise of the importance of the Bellonids and strong figures among them such as, Sunifred and Wilfred the Hairy, the weakening of Carolingian royal power, the appointment of heirs become a formality; this trend resulted in the counts becoming de facto independent of the Carolingian crown under Borrell II in 987, starting since, to call themselves and to be known as dei gratia comes and dux catalanensis or Hispaniae subjogator and Propugnator et murus christiani populi. The many counties were to be soon absorbed into the County of Barcelona and one of his counts, prince Ramon Berenguer IV, count of Barcelona would marry princess Petronilla of Aragon of the Kingdom of Aragon in 1150, uniting as equals the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon, thus being their son the first king of the Crown of Aragon, first king of both the Catalans and the Aragonese.
The reconquista from the Moors by the Franks began in 785. In 785, Rostany was made Count of the first of the Catalan counties to be established. Besalú and Empúries were part of Girona. In 797, in the greatest military triumph of his long career, the young Louis took Barcelona, the greatest city of the Catalan littoral; when Urgell and Cerdanya were subdued around 798, they were made counties and Borrell was made count. He took a active part in the subsequent conquest of Osona in 799 and the successful siege of Barcelona in 801, he was made count of Osona in 799 as a reward for his services. In 801, the greatest of the counties, was established under Bera. In 812, Count Odilo of Girona died and the county passed to Bera. In 804 and 805, Borrell participated in the expeditions to Tortosa, but not in the subsequent campaigns of 807, 808, 809. On Borrell's death in 820, Osona was given to Rampon and Urgell and Cerdanya went to Aznar Galíndez. In 820, Bera went into political disfavour and lost the countships of Barcelona and Girona, which went to Rampon.
Around 813, Empúries became a separate county under Ermenguer, in 817, it was united to the County of Roussillon. From 835 to 844, Sunyer I was count of Empúries and Peralada while Alaric I was count of Roussillon and Vallespir. Besalú was made a separate county in 878 for Radulf on the condition that it pass to the heirs of Wilfred the Hairy on his death, it went to Miro I the Younger in 912. Barcelona soon overshadowed the other counties in importance during the reign of Wilfred the Hairy in the late 9th century. At that time, the power of the Carolingians was waning and the neglected Hispanic march was independent of royal authority. In the early 11th century, Berenguer Ramon I, Count of Barcelona, was able to submit to Sancho III of Navarre as his suzerain though he was still a vassal of Robert II of France. With the accession of Robert's father, Hugh Capet, the first non-Carolingian king, in 987, most of the Catalan counts refused to pay homage to the new dynasty. Over the next century, most of the Catalan counties would come into the hands of the counts of Barcelona.
In time, one of the Counts of Barcelona, Ramon Berenguer IV, would marry the heiress of Aragon, uniting the counties under the count's power to that kingdom, creating the Crown of Aragon. Several of the kings re-created some Catalan counties as appanages for younger sons. County of Barcelona County of Berga County of Besalú County of Cerdanya County of Conflent County of Empúries County of Girona County of Manresa County of Osona or Ausona County of Pallars County of Pallars Jussà County of Pallars Sobirà County of Ribagorça County of Rosselló County of Urgell Viscounty of Àger Viscounty of Besalú or Bas Viscounty of Cabrera Viscounty of Cardona Viscounty of Castellbó Viscounty of Cerdanya Viscounty of Illa Viscounty of Jóc Viscounty of Fenollet or Fenolleda Viscounty of Pallars, Siarb or Vilamur Viscounty of Peralada Viscounty of Rocaberti Viscounty of Tatzó (Argel
The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1230 by Muhammad I until 2 January 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered all lands to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrid dynasty is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule; the Nasrid dynasty was descended from the Arab Banu Khazraj tribe, claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, the chief of the tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The nasab of Yusuf. During the time the Christians were launching a campaign against the Emirate of Granada that would end the Nasrid dynasty, the Nasrids were engaged in a civil war over the throne of Granada; when Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada, was ousted by his son Muhammad XII, Abu l-Hasan Ali retreated to Málaga and civil war broke out between the competing factions.
Christians took full advantage of continued capturing Muslim strongholds. Muhammed XII was caught by Christian forces in 1483 at Córdoba, he was freed after he swore an oath of allegiance to Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Abu l-Hasan Ali abdicated in favor of his brother Muhammad XIII, Sultan of Granada, known as Al-Zaghal, a power struggle with Muhammad XII continued. Al-Zaghal was forced to surrender to the Christians. Muhammad XII was given a lordship in the Alpujarras mountains but instead took financial compensation from the Spanish crown to leave the Iberian Peninsula; the Nasrid dynasty was the longest ruling Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, reigning for more than 250 years from the establishment of the Emirate of Granada in 1230 to its annexation in 1492. The Nasrids constructed the Alhambra palace-fortress complex in Granada; the family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty. It starts with Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted.
During times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace. First dynasty: Muhammad I ibn Nasr Muhammed II al-Faqih Muhammed III Nasr Second dynasty: Ismail I Muhammed IV Yusuf I Muhammed V Ismail II Muhammed VI Yusuf II Muhammed VII Yusuf III Muhammed VIII Muhammed IX Yusuf IV Yusuf V Muhammed X Muhammed XI Sa'ad Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammed XII, known as Boabdil Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muhammed XIII, known as El Zagal Al-Andalus Alhambra Romance of Abenamar Taifa of Granada Fernández Puertas, Antonio; the Alhambra. Vol 1. From the Ninth Century to Yusuf I. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-466-6. Fernández Puertas, Antonio; the Alhambra. Vol. 2.. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-467-4. Harvey, Leonard Patrick. Islamic Spain 1250 to 1500. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31962-8. Watt, W. Montgomery. A History of Islamic Spain. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0847-8. Arié, Rachel. L’Espagne musulmane au Temps des Nasrides.
De Boccard. ISBN 2-7018-0052-8. Bueno, Francisco. Los Reyes de la Alhambra. Entre la historia y la leyenda. Miguel Sánchez. ISBN 84-7169-082-9. Cortés Peña, Antonio Luis. Historia de Granada. 4 vols. Editorial Don Quijote. Miranda, Ambroxio Huici. "The Iberian Peninsula and Sicily". In Holt, P. M. S.. The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 2A. Cambridge University Press. Fernández-Puertas, Antonio. "The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Ismā'īliyya al-Naṣriyya Who Built the Fourteenth-Century Alhambra: Ismā'īl I, Yūsuf I, Muḥammad V". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third Series. Vol. 7
Sálvora is a small island located on the Ría de Arousa, coast of Galicia, Spain. It belongs to the municipality of Santa Uxía de Ribeira and is integrated in the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park, it is separated from the mainland by a distance of about 3 kilometers to the north. It has a maximum height of 71 meters; the entire perimeter of the island is rocky but has three beaches of fine white sand. Since 2001 it has been integrated into the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park. Today, the island of Sálvora forms part of the civil parish of Aguiño; the island depended on the civil parish of Carreira, for centuries the richest and most populous parish in the comarca the oldest. In March 2007 the island was acquired by Caixa Galicia for 8.5 million euros. That same year the Ministry of Environment exercised its right of refusal, buying Sálvora and Noro for the same amount; the Board of Galicia, the owner of the island since July 1, 2008, in conjunction with the Ministry of Environment, have started work to rehabilitate the enclave.
In the year 899, King Alfonso II donated the island to the Cathedral Chapter of Santiago, who claimed it in order to obtain resources for their livelihoods. This grant, which included Ons, Arosa and Framio, was confirmed by Ordoño to the Bishop Sisnando. In 1120 the island had been invaded by Saracen ships who took refuge in the island waiting for reinforcements as they prepared to invade the land; the delay of that helped make the Christian ships sent by order of the archbishop of Santiago seized by the invading ships that stopped for a long periods of time. Thereafter, this unknown island began to be coveted by the nobility of the time
The siliqua is the modern name given to small, Roman silver coins produced in the 4th century A. D. and later. When the coins were in circulation, the Latin word siliqua was a unit of weight defined by one late Roman writer as one twenty-fourth of the weight of a Roman solidus. "Siliqua vicesima quarta pars solidi est, ab arbore, cuius semen est, vocabulum tenens."A siliqua is one-twentyfourth of a solidus and the name is taken from the seed of a tree. The term siliqua comes from the siliqua graeca, the seed of the carob tree, which in the Roman weight system is equivalent to 1/6 of a scruple; the term has been applied in modern times to various silver coins on the premise that the coins were valued at 1/24 of the gold solidus and therefore represented a siliqua of gold in value. Since gold was worth about 14 times as much as silver in ancient Rome, such a silver coin would have a theoretical weight of 2.7 grams. There is little historical evidence to support this premise; this has not prevented the term from being applied today to silver coins issued by Constantine, which weighed 3.4 grams, or the silver coin of Constantius II, which weighed about 2.2 grams and 18 mm, is sometimes called a "light" or "reduced" siliqua to differentiate it.
The term is one of convenience. Thin silver coins as late as the 7th century which weigh about 2 to 3 grams are known as siliquae by numismatic convention; the majority of examples suffer striking cracks or extensive clipping, thus to find both an untouched and undamaged example is uncommon. It is thought that by clipping, siliquae provided the first coinage of the Saxons, as this reduced them to around the same size as a sceat, there is considerable evidence from archaeological sites of this period, that siliquae and many other Roman coins were utilised by Saxons as pendants, lucky charms and curiosities. Roman currency Hoxne Hoard, a hoard of 14,212 silver siliquae dating from the early 5th century