Karl Georg Büchner was a German dramatist and writer of poetry and prose, considered part of the Young Germany movement. He was a revolutionary and the brother of physician and philosopher Ludwig Büchner, his literary achievements, though few in number, are held in great esteem in Germany and it is believed that, had it not been for his early death, he might have joined such central German literary figures as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller at the summit of their profession. Born in Goddelau in the Grand Duchy of Hesse as the son of a physician, Büchner attended the Darmstadt gymnasium, a humanistic secondary school. In 1828, he became interested in politics and joined a circle of William Shakespeare aficionados, which on became the Gießen and Darmstadt section of the Society for Human Rights. In 1831, at age 18, he began to study medicine in Strasbourg. In Strasbourg, he immersed himself in political thought, he was influenced by the utopian communist theories of François-Noël Babeuf and Claude Henri de Saint-Simon.
In 1833 he continued his studies at the University of Giessen. While Büchner continued his studies in Gießen, he established a secret society dedicated to the revolutionary cause. In July 1834, with the help of evangelical theologian Friedrich Ludwig Weidig, he published the leaflet Der Hessische Landbote, a revolutionary pamphlet critical of social injustice in the Grand Duchy of Hesse; the authorities issued a warrant for their arrest. Weidig was arrested and died in prison in Darmstadt. Two years his medical dissertation, "Mémoire sur le Système Nerveux du Barbeaux" was published in Paris and Strasbourg. In October 1836, after receiving his M. D. and being appointed by the University of Zürich as a lecturer in anatomy, Büchner relocated to Zürich where he spent his final months writing and teaching until his death from typhus at the age of twenty-three. His first play, Dantons Tod, about the French revolution, was published followed by Lenz. Lenz is a novella based on the life of the Sturm und Drang poet Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz.
In 1836 his second play and Lena, satirized the nobility. His unfinished and most famous play, was notable because its main characters were all from the working class, it was published posthumously. By the 1870s, Büchner was nearly forgotten in Germany. Arnold Zweig described Lenz, Büchner's only work of prose fiction, as "the beginning of modern European prose"; the play Woyzeck became the basis for many adaptations including Alban Berg's landmark atonal opera Wozzeck which premiered in 1925, Werner Herzog's 1979 film Woyzeck. A literary prize in Germany, the Georg Büchner Prize, is awarded annually, it was created in 1923. The Hessian Courier, 1834 – in cooperation with Friedrich Ludwig Weidig Danton's Death, 1835 Lenz, 1835 Leonce and Lena, 1836 Woyzeck, 1837 Pietro Aretino, his drama about Pietro Aretino, has been lost. Translations: Lucrezia Borgia, 1835 Maria Tudor, 1835 Georg Büchner, Werke und Briefe. Münchner Ausgabe. ISBN 3-423-12374-5. Red Yucca – German Poetry in Translation Georg Büchner, Complete Plays and Prose, trans.
Carl Richard Mueller Georg Büchner, The Complete Plays: Danton's Death. John Reddick ISBN 0-14-044586-2. Georg Büchner, Danton's Death and Lena and Woyzeck, trans. Victor Price. ISBN 0-19-283650-1. Garland and Mary; the Oxford Companion to German Literature. 2nd ed. by Mary Garland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. "Büchner, Georg", p. 121. Heiner Boehncke, Peter Brunner, Hans Sarkowicz. Die Büchners oder der Wunsch, die Welt zu verändern. Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 2008. Works by Georg Büchner at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Georg Büchner at Internet Archive Works by Georg Büchner at LibriVox Series on life of Georg Büchner, by Sybille Fuchs, reviewing Georg Büchner: Revolutionary with pen and scalpel, an exhibition from 13 October 2013 to 16 February 2014 at the Darmstadium Conference Centre, Darmstadt: Part 1 – Part 2 – Part 3 – Part 4 – Part 5 Büchner's birthplace
Jean Arp or Hans Arp was a German-French sculptor, painter and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. Arp was born in Strasbourg, the son of a French mother and a German father, during the period following the Franco-Prussian War when the area was known as Alsace-Lorraine after France had ceded it to in 1871. Following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become Jean. Arp would continue referring to himself as "Hans". In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, he went to Paris where he published his poetry for the first time. From 1905 to 1907, Arp studied at the Kunstschule in Weimar, in 1908 went back to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. Arp was a founder-member of the Moderne Bund in Lucerne, participating in their exhibitions from 1911 to 1913. In 1912, he went to Munich, called on Wassily Kandinsky, the influential Russian painter and art theorist, was encouraged by him in his researches and exhibited with the Der Blaue Reiter group.
That year, he took part in a major exhibition in Zürich, along with Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Kandinsky. In Berlin in 1913, he was taken up by Herwarth Walden, the dealer and magazine editor, at that time one of the most powerful figures in the European avant-garde. In 1915, he moved to Switzerland to take advantage of Swiss neutrality. Arp told the story of how, when he was notified to report to the German consulate in Zurich, he pretended to be mentally ill in order to avoid being drafted into the German Army: after crossing himself whenever he saw a portrait of Paul von Hindenburg, Arp was given paperwork on which he was told to write his date of birth on the first blank line. Accordingly, he wrote "16/9/87". Hans Richter, describing this story, noted that "they believed him." In 1916, Hugo Ball opened the Cabaret Voltaire, to become the center of Dada activities in Zurich for a group that included Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, others. In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grünwald, he set up the Cologne Dada group.
However, in 1925, his work appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris. In 1926, Arp moved to the Paris suburb of Meudon. In 1931, he broke with the Surrealist movement to found Abstraction-Création, working with the Paris-based group Abstraction-Création and the periodical, Transition. Beginning in the 1930s, the artist expanded his efforts from collage and bas-relief to include bronze and stone sculptures, he produced several small works made of multiple elements that the viewer could pick up, rearrange into new configurations. Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he published essays and poetry. In 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended. Arp visited New York City in 1949 for a solo exhibition at the Buchholz Gallery. In 1950, he was invited to execute a relief for the Harvard University Graduate Center in Cambridge and would be commissioned to do a mural at the UNESCO building in Paris.
In 1958, a retrospective of Arp's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, followed by an exhibition at the Musée National d'Art Moderne, France, in 1962. Organized by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Wurttembergischer Kunstverein of Stuttgart, a 150-piece exhibition titled "The Universe of Jean Arp" concluded an international six-city tour at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1986; the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain of Strasbourg houses many of his sculptures. Arp's career was distinguished with many awards including the Grand Prize for sculpture at the 1954 Venice Biennale, a sculpture prizes at the 1964 Pittsburgh International, the 1963 Grand Prix National des Arts, the 1964 Carnegie Prize, the 1965 Goethe Prize from the University of Hamburg, the Order of Merit with a Star of the German Republic. Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926. In the 1930s, they built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it.
She died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946. Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach, his long-time companion, in 1959, he died in Basel, Switzerland. - "I hereby declare that on February 1916, Tristan Tzara discovered the word Dada. I was present with my twelve children...and I wore a brioche in my left nostril. I am convinced that this word has no importance and that only imbeciles and Spanish professors can be interested in dates. What interests us is the Dada spirit and we were all Dada before the existence of Dada.." - "Art is fruit growing out of man like the fruit out of a plant like the child out of the mother... Reason tells man to stand above nature and to be the measure of all things....through reason man became a tragic and ugly figure.." - "These paintings, these sculptures – these objects – should remain anonymous, in the great workshop of nature, like the clouds, the mountains, the seas, the animals, man himself.
Yes! Man should go back to nature! Artists should work together like the artists of the Middle Ages." -"Sculpture should walk on the tips of its toes, unpre
Paul Celan was a Romanian-born German language poet and translator. He was born as Paul Antschel to a Jewish family in Cernăuți, in the Kingdom of Romania, adopted the pseudonym "Paul Celan", he became one of the major German-language poets of the post-World War II era. Celan was born into a German-speaking Jewish family in Cernăuți, Bukovina, a region part of Romania and earlier part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his first home was in the Wassilkogasse in Cernăuți. His father, Leo Antschel, was a Zionist who advocated his son's education in Hebrew at the Jewish school Safah Ivriah. Celan's mother, was an avid reader of German literature who insisted German be the language of the house. In his teens Celan became active in Jewish Socialist organizations and fostered support for the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War, his earliest known poem is titled Mother's Day 1938. Paul attended the Liceul Ortodox de Băieți No. 1 from 1930-1935, Liceul de Băieți No. 2 în Cernăuți from 1935-1936, followed by the Liceul Marele Voievod Mihai, where he studied from 1936 until graduating in 1938.
At this time Celan secretly began to write poetry. In 1938 Celan traveled to France, to study medicine; the Anschluss precluded his study in Vienna, Romanian schools were harder to get into due to the newly imposed Jewish quota. His journey to France took him through Berlin as the events of Kristallnacht unfolded, introduced him to his uncle, Bruno Schrager, among the French detainees who died at Birkenau. Celan returned to Cernăuţi in 1939 to study Romance languages. Following the Soviet occupation of Bukovina in June 1940 deportations to Siberia started. A year following the reconquest of Romania, Nazi Germany and the fascist Romanian regime brought ghettos and forced labour. On arrival in Cernăuți July 1941 the German SS Einsatzkommando and their Romanian allies set the city's Great Synagogue on fire. In October, the Romanians deported a large number of Jews after forcing them into a ghetto, where Celan translated William Shakespeare's Sonnets and continued to write his own poetry. Before the ghetto was dissolved in the fall of that year, Celan was pressed into labor, first clearing the debris of a demolished post office, gathering and destroying Russian books.
The local mayor strove to mitigate the harsh circumstances, until the governor of Bukovina had the Jews rounded up and deported, starting on a Saturday night in June 1942. Celan hoped to convince his parents to leave the country so as to escape certain persecution. While Celan was away from home, on June 21, 1942, his parents were taken from their home and sent by train to an internment camp in Transnistria Governorate, where two-thirds of the deportees perished. Celan's father perished of typhus and his mother was shot after being exhausted by forced labour; that year, after having himself been taken to a labour camp in Romania, Celan would receive reports of his parents' deaths. Celan remained imprisoned in a work-camp until February 1944, when the Red Army's advance forced the Romanians to abandon the camps, whereupon he returned to Cernăuţi shortly before the Soviets returned. There, he worked as a nurse in the mental hospital. Friends from this period recall Celan expressing immense guilt over his separation from his parents, whom he had tried to convince to go into hiding prior to the deportations, shortly before their deaths.
Considering emigration to Palestine, Celan left Cernăuţi in 1945 for Bucharest, where he remained until 1947. He was active in the Jewish literary community as both a translator of Russian literature into Romanian, as a poet, publishing his work under a variety of pseudonyms; the literary scene of the time was richly populated with surrealists – Gellu Naum, Ilarie Voronca, Gherasim Luca, Paul Păun, Dolfi Trost – and it was in this period that Celan developed pseudonyms both for himself and his friends, including the one he took as his pen name. Here he met with the poets Rose Ausländer and Emannuel Weissglas, elements of whose works he would reuse in his poem Todesfuge. A version of Celan's poem Todesfuge appeared as "Tangoul Morţii" in a Romanian translation of May 1947. Additional remarks were published explaining that the dancing and musical performances evoked in the poem were images of realities of the extermination camp life. On the emergence of the communist regime in Romania, Celan fled Romania for Austria.
It was there that he befriended Ingeborg Bachmann, who had just completed a dissertation on Martin Heidegger. Facing a city divided between occupying powers and with little resemblance to the mythic capital it once was, which had harboured the then-shattered Austro-Hungarian Jewish community, he moved to Paris in 1948. In that year his first poetry collection, Der Sand aus den Urnen, was published in Vienna by A. Sexl, his first few years in Paris were marked by intense feelings of loneliness and isolation, as expressed in letters to his colleagues, including his longtime friend from Cernăuţi, Petre Solomon. It was during this time that he exchanged many letters with Diet Kloos, a young Dutch singer and anti-Nazi resister who saw her husband of a few months tortured to death, she visited him twice in Paris between 1949 and 1951. In 1952, Celan's writing began to gain recognition when he read his poetry on his first reading trip to German
Hermann Allmers was a German poet. He was an only child, was tutored, he began his career in public education, but took over the family farm after the death of his father in 1849. Through travel, he met a number of influential people who inspired him to take writing leading to his publication of his Marschenbuch in 1858, he wrote the poem Feldeinsamkeit, made into a song by Johannes Brahms. Allmers was born in Rechtenfleth, where he died; the New International Encyclopaedia. Dodd and company. 1906. in The New International Encyclopedia, 1906 Article from German Wikipedia, more extensive
Friedrich Achleitner was an Austrian poet and architecture critic. As a member of the Wiener Gruppe, he wrote experimental literature, his magnum opus is a multi-volume documentation of 20th-century Austrian architecture. Written over several decades, Achleitner made a personal visit to each building described, he was a professor of the history and theory of architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna. Achleitner was born in the son of a farmer, he attended the Höhere Bundesgewerbeschule in Salzburg, studied architecture at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna from 1950 to 1953 with Clemens Holzmeister. He supervised architectural projects until 1958, such as the restoration of the Rosenkranzkirche in Vienna. In 1955, Achleitner joined the Wiener Gruppe. Artmann, Konrad Bayer, Gerhard Rühm and Oswald Wiener and henceforth participated in its literary cabarets, wrote poems in dialect and concrete poems, his experimental quadratroman was published in 1973. He began to work as an architecture critic for Austrian daily papers, from 1961 anonymously for the Abendzeitung especially from 1962 to 1972 for Die Presse.
He established a new quality of thinking about architecture. From 1961, he lectured at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna about the history of building construction. In 1983, he was appointed professor of the history and theory of architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna, a post he held until 1998, he began his magnum opus, Österreichische Architektur im 20. Jahrhundert, a guide to Austrian architecture in the 20th century in several volumes, in 1965; the first volume appeared in the fifth shortly after his 80th birthday. A sequel about Lower Austria remained unwritten, he visited each building and documented it. The archive is held by the Architekturzentrum Wien; the book is known as Der Achleitner among professionals. Among his many awards, Achleitner received the Schelling Architecture Theory Prize for 2008. Achleitner died in Vienna on 27 March 2019 at the age of 88, his works include: prosa, montagen, studien quadratroman Österreichische Architektur im 20. Jahrhundert Nieder mit Fischer von Erlach KAAAS.
Dialektgedichte Die Plotteggs kommen. Ein Bericht einschlafgeschichten wiener linien und oder oder und Literature by and about Friedrich Achleitner in the German National Library catalogue Friedrich Achleitner Literaturhaus Wien Friedrich Achleitner in the collection of articles of the Innsbrucker Zeitungsarchiv A palaver (radio interview in the series Architekturradioreihe, broadcast on 4 February 2008 Archive with Friedrich Achleitner in the Österreichische Mediathek
Johannes R. Becher
Johannes Robert Becher was a German politician and poet. He was affiliated with the Communist Party of Germany before World War II. At one time, he was part of the literary avant-garde, writing in an expressionist style. With the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany, modernist artistic movements were suppressed. Becher settled in Paris for a couple of years, he migrated to the Soviet Union in 1935 with the central committee of the KPD. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Becher and other German communists were evacuated to internal exile in Tashkent, he was recalled to Moscow. After the end of World War II, Becher left the Soviet Union and returned to Germany, settling in the Soviet-occupied zone that became East Berlin; as a member of the KPD, he was appointed to various cultural and political positions and became part of the leadership of the Socialist Unity Party. In 1949, he helped found the DDR Academy of Arts and served as its president from 1953 to 1956. In 1953 he was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize.
He was the culture minister of the German Democratic Republic from 1954 to 1958. Johannes R. Becher was born in Munich in 1891, the son of Judge Heinrich Becher and his wife Johanna, née Bürck, he attended local schools. In April 1910, Becher and Fanny Fuss, a young woman he had encountered in January of that year, planned a joint suicide, his early poetry was filled with struggling to come to terms with this event. From 1911 he studied philosophy in college in Munich and Jena, he left his studies and became an expressionist writer, his first works appearing in 1913. An injury from his suicide attempt made him unfit for military service/ and he became addicted to morphine, which he struggled with for the rest of the decade, he was engaged in many communist organisations, joining the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany in 1917 went over to the Spartacist League in 1918 from which emerged the Communist Party of Germany. In 1920 he left the KPD, disappointed with the failure of the German Revolution, embraced religion.
In 1923, he returned to the KPD and actively worked within the party. His art entered an expressionist period, from which he would dissociate himself, he was part of an artistic group based in Magdeburg. During this time, he published in the magazines Die Aktion and Die neue Kunst. In 1925 government reaction against his anti-war novel, 3As oder Der einzig gerechte Krieg, resulted in his being indicted for "literarischer Hochverrat" or "literary high treason", it was not until 1928. That year, Becher became a founding member of the KPD-aligned Association of Proletarian-Revolutionary Authors, serving as its first chairman and co-editor of its magazine, Die Linkskurve. From 1932 Becher became a publisher of Die Rote Fahne. In the same year he was elected representing the KPD to the Reichstag. After the Reichstag fire, Becher was placed on the Nazi blacklist, but he escaped from a large raid in the Berlin artist colony near Breitenbachplatz in Wilmersdorf. By March 15, 1933 he, with the support of the secretary of the Association of Proletarian-Revolutionary Authors, traveled to the home of Willy Harzheim.
After staying in Brno, he moved to Prague after some weeks. He traveled on to Paris, where he lived for a time as part of the large émigré community. There his portrait was done by Lajos Tihanyi, whom he befriended. In 1935 Becher emigrated to the USSR as did other members of the central committee of the KPD. In Moscow he became editor-in-chief of the German émigré magazine, Internationale Literatur-Deutsche Blätter, he was selected as a member of the Central Committee of the KPD. Soon Becher was caught up in the midst of the Great Purge. In 1935 he was accused of links with Leon Trotsky. Becher tried to save himself by “informing” on other writers' alleged political misdemeanors. From 1936, he was forbidden to leave the USSR. During this period, he tried several times to commit suicide; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939 horrified German communists. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the government evacuated the German communists to internal exile. Becher was evacuated to Tashkent.
It became the center of evacuation for hundreds of thousands of Russians and Ukrainians from the war zones, the government relocated industry here to preserve some capacity from the Germans. During his time in Tashkent, he befriended Georg Lukács, the Hungarian philosopher and literary critic, evacuated there, they intensively studied 18th- and 19th-century literature together, after which Becher turned from modernism to Socialist Realism. Becher was recalled to Moscow by 1942. In 1943, he became one of the founders of the National Committee for a Free Germany. After the Second World War, Becher returned to Germany with a KPD team, where he settled in the Soviet zone of occupation. There he was appointed to various cultural-political positions, he took part in the establishment of the Cultural Association, to "revive German culture," and founded the Aufbau-Verlag publishing house and the literature magazine, Sinn und Form. He contributed to the satirical magazine, Ulenspiegel. In 1946, Becher was selected for the Party Executive Committee and the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party.
After the establishment of the German Democratic Republic on 7 October
Thomas Brasch was a German author and film director. Thomas was the son of German Jewish communist emigre parents. In May 2012, Brasch's play Lovely Rita was performed in English for the first time in the Warwick Arts Centre. In November 1976, Brasch's theatre piece Paper Tiger was performed in English for the first time at the 4th International Bertolt Brecht Conference in Austin, with music composed by Raymond Benson. Benson subsequently directed an off-off-Broadway production of the musical in New York, New York, in September 1980. 1981 Bavarian Film Awards, Best Director "Sie geht, sie geht nicht", play, 1970 "Das beispielhafte Leben und der Tod des Peter Göring", with Lothar Trolle, 1971 "Galileo Galilei – Papst Urban VIII.", with Lothar Trolle, 1972 "Der Schweinehirt. Die wilden Schwäne", two radio plays by Hans Christian Andersen, Berlin 1975 "Vom dicken Herrn Bell, der das Telefon erfunden hat", radio play, Berlin 1974 "Herr Geiler", play, 1974 "Lovely Rita", play, 1975 "Poesiealbum 89", Berlin 1975 "Die argentinische Nacht", comedy based on Oswaldo Dragún, Berlin 1975 "Vor den Vätern sterben die Söhne", Berlin 1977 "Kargo.
32. Versuch auf einem untergehenden Schiff aus der Frankfurt 1977 "Rotter. Und weiter. Ein Tagebuch, ein Stück, eine Aufführung.", Frankfurt 1978 "Der schöne 27. September", Frankfurt 1980 "Engel aus Eisen", book based on film, Frankfurt 1981 "Der König vor dem Fotoapparat", children's book, Olten 1981 "Domino", book based on film, Frankfurt 1982 "Anton Tschechows Stücke", translated by Thomas Brasch, Frankfurt 1985 "Lovely Rita, Lieber Georg, Mercedes", Berlin 1988 "Lovely Rita, Lieber Georg", Frankfurt 1989 "Frauen Krieg Lustspiel", Frankfurt 1989 "Drei Wünsche, sagte der Golem", poetry and play, Leipzig 1990 "Mädchenmörder Brunke", Frankfurt 1999 "Liebe Macht Tod", parts and materials, Frankfurt 2002 "Shakespeare-Übersetzungen", Frankfurt 2002 "Wer durch mein Leben will, muß durch mein Zimmer", Frankfurt 2002 "Was ich mir wünsche", Frankfurt 2007 "Du einsamer, du schöner Wicht", audio book, read by Katharina Thalbach and Anna Thalbach, Hoffmann&Campe 2007 1981 – Engel aus Eisen – Director and screenwriter.
That was the first movie by Brasch. In 1981 he was awarded the Bayerischer Filmpreis, his acceptance speech was controversial, since Brasch explicitly thanked the Filmhochschule der DDR for his education. 1982 – Domino – Director and screenwriter 1985 – Mercedes – Director and screenwriter. Filming for Dutch broadcaster VPRO 1988 – Der Passagier – Welcome to Germany – Director, screenwriter with Jurek Becker 1977 - Annäherung an Thomas Brasch, Director: Georg Stefan Troller 2005 - Skizze Thomas Brasch, Director: Christoph Rüter Thomas Brasch in the German National Library catalogue Thomas Brasch on IMDb 1981 Bavarian Film Awards Video on YouTube Thomas war ein wildes Tier; the director Katharina Thalbach remembers Thomas Brasch in ZEIT September 2008. Der Unbeugsame The poet Thomas Brasch and the year 1968