Loki is a god in Norse mythology. Loki is in some sources the son of Fárbauti and Laufey, the brother of Helblindi and Býleistr. By the jötunn Angrboða, Loki is the father of Hel, the wolf Fenrir, the world serpent Jörmungandr. By his wife Sigyn, Loki is the father of Narfi and/or Nari. By the stallion Svaðilfari, Loki is the mother—giving birth in the form of a mare—to the eight-legged horse Sleipnir. In addition, Loki is referred to as the father of Váli in Prose Edda, though this source refers to Odin as the father of Váli twice, Váli is found mentioned as a Son of Loki only once. Loki's relation with the gods varies by source. Loki is a shape shifter and in separate incidents he appears in the form of a salmon, a mare, a fly, an elderly woman named Þökk. Loki's positive relations with the gods end with his role in engineering the death of the god Baldr and Loki is bound by Váli with the entrails of one of his sons. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, the goddess Skaði is responsible for placing a serpent above him while he is bound.
The serpent drips venom from above him. With the onset of Ragnarök, Loki is foretold to slip free from his bonds and to fight against the gods among the forces of the jötnar, at which time he will encounter the god Heimdallr and the two will slay each other. Loki is referred to in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. Loki may be depicted on the Snaptun Stone, the Kirkby Stephen Stone, the Gosforth Cross. Loki's origins and role in Norse mythology, which some scholars have described as that of a trickster god, have been much debated by scholars. Loki is referenced in a variety of media in modern popular culture; the etymology of the name Loki has been extensively debated. The name has at times been associated with the Old Norse word logi, but there seems not to be a sound linguistic basis for this. Rather, the Scandinavian variants of the name point to an origin in the Germanic root *luk-, which denoted things to do with loops; this corresponds with usages such as the Swedish lokkanät and Faroese Lokkanet and Faroese lokki~grindalokki~grindalokkur.
Some Eastern Swedish traditions referring to the same figure use forms in n- like Nokk, but this corresponds to the *luk- etymology insofar as those dialects used a different root, Germanic *hnuk-, in contexts where western varieties used *luk-: "nokke corresponds to nøkkel" "as loki~lokke to lykil". While it has been suggested that this association with closing could point to Loki's apocalyptic role at Ragnarök, "there is quite a bit of evidence that Loki in premodern society was thought to be the causer of knots/tangles/loops, or himself a knot/tangle/loop. Hence, it is natural that Loki is the inventor of the fishnet, which consists of loops and knots, that the word loki is a term for makers of cobwebs: spiders and the like." Though not prominent in the oldest sources, this identity as a "tangler" may be the etymological meaning of Loki's name. In various poems from the Poetic Edda, sections of the Prose Edda Loki is alternatively referred to as Loptr, considered derived from Old Norse lopt meaning "air", therefore points to an association with the air.
The name Hveðrungr is used in reference to Loki, occurring in names for Hel and in reference to Fenrir. In the Poetic Edda, Loki appears in the poems Völuspá, Lokasenna, Þrymskviða, Reginsmál, Baldrs draumar, Hyndluljóð. In stanza 35 of the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá, a völva tells Odin that, among many other things, she sees Sigyn sitting unhappily with her bound husband, under a "grove of hot springs". In stanza 51, during the events of Ragnarök, Loki appears free from his bonds and is referred to as the "brother of Býleistr": A ship journeys from the east, Muspell's people are coming, over the waves, Loki steers There are the monstrous brood with all the raveners, The brother of Byleist is in company with them. In stanza 54, after consuming Odin and being killed by Odin's son Víðarr, Fenrir is described as "Loki's kinsman"; the poem Lokasenna centers around Loki flyting with other gods. The poem begins with a prose introduction detailing that Ægir, a figure associated with the sea, is hosting a feast in his hall for a number of the gods and elves.
There, the gods praise Ægir's servers Eldir. Loki "could not bear to hear that," and kills the servant Fimafeng. In response, the gods grab their shields, shrieking at Loki, chase
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum is a historical treatise written between 1073 and 1076 by Adam of Bremen, who made additions to the text until his death. It is one of the most important sources of the medieval history of Northern Europe, the oldest textual source reporting the discovery of coastal North America, it covers the entire period known as the Viking Age, from the foundation of the bishopric under Willehad in 788 until the rule of prince-bishop Adalbert in Adam's own time. The text focuses on the history of its bishops; as the bishops had jurisdiction over the missions to Scandinavia, it gives a report of the Norse paganism of the period. The existence of the work was forgotten in the medieval period, until it was re-discovered in the late 16th century in the library of Sorø Abbey, Denmark; the treatise consist of the following parts: an introduction, addressed to bishop Liemar Book 1: History of the bishopric of Bremen and Hamburg-Bremen Book 2: History of the archbishopric Hamburg-Bremen Book 3: Biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg Book 4: Descriptio insularum aquilonis: Geographical description of Northern Europe M. Adami epilogus ad Liemarum episcopum: A dedication to bishop Liemar in hexametersThe text is one of the most important sources of Northern German and Scandinavian history and geography in the Viking Age and the beginning High Middle Ages.
It covers the relations between Saxons and Danes. The third book is focused on the biography of archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg. Adam based his works in part on Einhard and other earlier historians, consulting the library of the church of Bremen; the text as presented to bishop Liemar was completed in 1075/1076. After the death of Bishop Leuderich, the see was given to Ansgar, it lost its independence, from that time on was permanently united with the Archdiocese of Hamburg; the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen was designated the "Mission of the North" and had jurisdiction over all missions in Scandinavia, the entire scope of Viking expansion in the north, throughout the Viking Age, until the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen had a falling-out with the pope, separate archbishopric for the North was established in Lund in 1105. Adam is an important source of Viking Age Norse paganism, including the practice of human sacrifice: The description of the temple at Uppsala is one of the most famous excerpts of the Gesta: "In this temple decked out in gold, the people worship the statues of three gods in such wise that the mightiest of them, occupies a throne in the middle of the chamber.
Thor, they say, presides over the air, which governs the thunder and lightning, the winds and rains, fair weather crops. The other, Wotan – that is, Fury – carries on war and imparts to man strength against his enemies; the third is Frikko, who bestows pleasure on mortals. His likeness, they fashion with an immense phallus."The fourth book describes the geography of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. It mentions numerous episcopal seats and churches, including Meldorf, Verden, Ratzeburg, Oldenburg in Holstein and Jumne. Beyond this, it gives a description of the coast of Scandinavia and of the "northern isles" including Iceland and notably Vinland, being the oldest extant written record of the Norse discovery of North America. Adam of Bremen had been at the court of Danish king Sven Estridson and was informed about the Viking discoveries in the North Atlantic there. Adam is believed to have come from Meissen in Saxony, he was born before 1050 and died on 12 October of an unknown year. From his chronicles it is apparent.
The honorary name of Magister Adam shows that he had passed through all the stages of a higher education. It is probable. In 1066 or 1067 he was invited by archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg to join the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen. Adam was accepted among the capitulars of Bremen, by 1069 he appeared as director of the cathedral's school. Soon thereafter he began to write the history of Hamburg-Bremen and of the northern lands in his Gesta, his position and the missionary activity of the church of Hamburg-Bremen allowed him to gather information on the history and the geography of Northern Germany. A stay at the court of Svend Estridson gave him the opportunity to find information about the history and geography of Denmark and the other Scandinavian countries. According to Schmeidler, Adam created three versions of the text, in the convention of Schmeidler labelled representing his preliminary text, the work as given to bishop Liemar, which he kept for his own use and supplemented with various additions.
None of the three archetypes has been preserved. The most relevant surviving manuscripts are classified into three groups, labelled A, B and C; the best manuscript is of group A, dated to the first half of the 13th century. Parts of book 2, book 4 and some scholia are preserved in a ms. dated ca. 1100. Manuscripts in the B and C groups are derived from version X, they contain independent additions of scholia. The best ms. in group B was the so-called Codex z, written 1161/2, however lost in the Copenhagen Fire of
In Norse mythology, Iðunn is a goddess associated with apples and youth. Iðunn is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, she is described as the wife of the skaldic god Bragi, in the Prose Edda as a keeper of apples and granter of eternal youthfulness; the Prose Edda relates that Loki was once forced by the jötunn Þjazi to lure Iðunn out of Asgard and into a wood, promising her interesting apples. Þjazi, in the form of an eagle, takes her to his home. Iðunn's absence causes the gods to grow old and grey, they realize that Loki is responsible for her disappearance. Loki promises to return her and, in the form of a falcon, finds her alone at Þjazi's home, he takes her back to Asgard. After Þjazi finds that Iðunn is gone, he furiously chases after Loki; the gods build a pyre in Asgard and, after a sudden stop by Loki, Þjazi's feathers catch fire, he falls, the gods kill him.
A number of theories surround Iðunn, including potential links to fertility, her potential origin in Proto-Indo-European religion. Long the subject of artworks, Iðunn is sometimes referenced in modern popular culture; the name Iðunn has been variously explained as meaning "ever young", "rejuvenator", or "the rejuvenating one". As the modern English alphabet lacks the eth character, Iðunn is sometimes anglicized as Idun, Idunn or Ithun. An -a suffix is sometimes applied to denote femininity, resulting in forms such as Iduna and Idunna; the name Iðunn appears as a personal name in several historical sources and the Landnámabók records that it has been in use in Iceland as a personal name since the pagan period. Landnámabók records two incidents of women by the name of Iðunn; the name Iðunn has been theorized as the origin of the Old English name Idonea. 19th century author Charlotte Mary Yonge writes that the derivation of Idonea from Idunn is "almost certain," noting that although Idonea may be "the feminine of the Latin idoneus, its absence in the Romance countries may be taken as an indication that it was a mere classicalizing of the northern goddess of the apples of youth."19th-century scholar Jacob Grimm proposed a potential etymological connection to the idisi.
Grimm states that "with the original form idis the goddess Idunn may be connected." Grimm further states that Iðunn may have been known with another name, that "Iðunn would seem by Saem. 89a to be an Elvish word, but we do not hear of any other name for the goddess." Iðunn appears in the Poetic Edda poem Lokasenna and, included in some modern editions of the Poetic Edda, in the late poem Hrafnagaldr Óðins. Iðunn is introduced as Bragi's wife in the prose introduction to the poem Lokasenna, where the two attend a feast held by Ægir. In stanzas 16, 17, 18, dialog occurs between Loki and Iðunn after Loki has insulted Bragi. In stanza 16, Iðunn says: Idunn said: I ask you, Bragi, to do a service to your blood-kin and all the adoptive relations, that you shouldn't say words of blame to Loki, in Ægir's hall. Loki said: Be silent, Idunn, I declare that of all women you're the most man-crazed, since you placed your arms, washed bright, about your brother's slayer. Idunn said: I'm not saying words of blame to Loki, in Ægir's hall I quietened Bragi, made talkative with beer.
In this exchange, Loki has accused Iðunn of having slept with the killer of her brother. However, neither this brother nor killer are accounted for in any other surviving source. Afterward, the goddess Gefjon speaks up and the poem continues in turn. In the poem Hrafnagaldr Óðins, additional information is given about Iðunn, though this information is otherwise unattested. Here, Iðunn is identified as descending from elves, as one of "Ivaldi's elder children" and as a dís who dwells in dales. Stanza 6 reads: In the dales dwells, the prescient Dís, from Yggdrasil's ash sunk down, of alfen race, Idun by name, the youngest of Ivaldi's elder children. Iðunn is introduced in the Prose Edda in section 26 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning. Here, Iðunn is described as Bragi's keeper of an eski within which she keeps apples; the apples are bitten into by the gods when they begin to grow old and they become young again, described as occurring up until Ragnarök. Gangleri states that it seems to him that the gods depend upon Iðunn's good faith and care.
With a laugh, High responds that misfortune once came close, that he could tell Gangleri about it, but first he must hear the names of more of the Æsir, he continues providing information about gods. In the book Skáldskaparmál, Idunn is mentioned in its first chapter as one of eight ásynjur sitting in their thrones at a banquet in Asgard for Ægir. In chapter 56, Bragi tells Ægir about Iðunn's abduction by the jötunn Þjazi. Bragi says. Loki is pulled further and further into the sky, his feet banging against stones and trees. Loki feels. Loki shouts and begs the eagle for a truce, the eagle responds that Loki would not be free unless he made a solemn vow to have Iðunn come outside of Asgard with her apples. Loki accepts Þjazi's conditions and returns to his friends Hœnir. At the time Þjazi and Loki agreed on, Loki lures Iðunn o
In Norse mythology, Njörðr is a god among the Vanir. Njörðr, father of the deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed sister, was in an ill-fated marriage with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún and is associated with the sea, wind, fishing and crop fertility. Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, in numerous Scandinavian place names. Veneration of Njörðr survived into 18th or 19th century Norwegian folk practice, where the god is recorded as Njor and thanked for a bountiful catch of fish. Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of scholarly discourse and theory connecting him with the figure of the much earlier attested Germanic goddess Nerthus, the hero Hadingus, theorizing on his more prominent place in Norse paganism due to the appearance of his name in numerous place names.
Njörðr is sometimes modernly anglicized as Njoerd, or Njorth. The name Njörðr corresponds to that of the older Germanic fertility goddess Nerthus, both derive from the Proto-Germanic *Nerþuz; the original meaning of the name is contested, but it may be related to the Irish word nert which means "force" and "power". It has been suggested that the change of sex from the female Nerthus to the male Njörðr is due to the fact that feminine nouns with u-stems disappeared early in Germanic language while the masculine nouns with u-stems prevailed. However, other scholars hold the change to be based not on grammatical gender but on the evolution of religious beliefs; the name Njörðr may be related to the name of the Norse goddess Njörun. Njörðr's name appears in various place names in Scandinavia, such as Nærdhæwi, Njærdhavi, Nærdhælunda, Nierdhatunum in Sweden, Njarðvík in southwest Iceland, Njarðarlög and Njarðey in Norway. Njörðr's name appears in a word for sponge. Additionally, in Old Icelandic translations of Classical mythology the Roman god Saturn's name is glossed as "Njörðr."
Njörðr is described as a future survivor of Ragnarök in stanza 39 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. In the poem, the god Odin, disguised as "Gagnráðr" faces off with the wise jötunn Vafþrúðnir in a battle of wits. While Odin states that Vafþrúðnir knows all the fates of the gods, Odin asks Vafþrúðnir "from where Njörðr came to the sons of the Æsir," that Njörðr rules over quite a lot of temples and hörgrs, further adds that Njörðr was not raised among the Æsir. In response, Vafþrúðnir says: "In Vanaheim the wise Powers made him and gave him as hostage to the gods. In stanza 16 of the poem Grímnismál, Njörðr is described as having a hall in Nóatún made for himself; the stanza describes Njörðr as a "prince of men," that he is "lacking in malice," and that he "rules over the "high-timbered temple." In stanza 43, the creation of the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir is recounted, Freyr is cited as the son of Njörðr. In the prose introduction to the poem Skírnismál, Freyr is mentioned as the son of Njörðr, stanza 2 cites the goddess Skaði as the mother of Freyr.
Further in the poem, Njörðr is again mentioned as the father of Freyr in stanzas 38, 39, 41. In the late flyting poem Lokasenna, an exchange between Njörðr and Loki occurs in stanzas 33, 34, 35, 36. After Loki has an exchange with the goddess Freyja, in stanza 33 Njörðr states: "That's harmless, if, beside a husband, a woman has a lover or someone else. Loki responds in the stanza 34, stating that "from here you were sent east as hostage to the gods" and that "the daughters of Hymir used you as a pisspot, pissed in your mouth." In stanza 35, Njörðr responds that: "That was my reward, when I, from far away, was sent as a hostage to the gods, that I fathered that son, whom no one hates and is thought the prince of the Æsir. Loki tells Njörðr to "stop" and "keep some moderation," and that he "won't keep it a secret any longer" that Njörðr's son Freyr was produced with his unnamed sister, "though you'd expect him to be worse than he is." The god Tyr interjects and the flyting continues in turn. Njörðr is referenced in stanza 22 of the poem Þrymskviða, where he is referred to as the father of the goddess Freyja.
In the poem, the jötunn Þrymr mistakenly thinks that he will be receiving the goddess Freyja as his bride, while telling his fellow jötunn to spread straw on the benches in preparation for the arrival of Freyja, he refers to her as the daughter of Njörðr of Nóatún. Towards the end of the poem Sólarljóð, Njörðr is cited as having nine daughters. Two of the names of these daughters are given. Njörðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál. In the Prose Edda, Njörðr is introduced in chapter 23 of the book Gylfaginning. In this chapter, Njörðr is described by the enthroned figure of High as living in the heavens at Nóatún, but as ruling over the movement of the winds, having the ability to calm both sea and fire, that he is to be invoked in seafaring and fishing. High continues that Njörðr is wealthy and prosperous, that he can grant wealth in land and valuables to those who request his aid. Njörðr o
In Norse mythology, Nótt is night personified, grandmother of Thor. In both the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, Nótt is listed as the daughter of a figure by the name of Nörvi and is associated with the horse Hrímfaxi, while the Prose Edda features information about Nótt's ancestry, including her three marriages. Nótt's third marriage was to the god Dellingr and this resulted in their son Dagr, the personified day; as a proper noun, the word nótt appears throughout Old Norse literature. In stanza 24 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál, the god Odin asks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir from where the day comes, the night and its tides. In stanza 25, Vafþrúðnir responds: Delling hight he who the day's father is, but night was of Nörvi born. In stanza 14 of the Vafþrúðnismál, Odin states that the horse Hrímfaxi "draws every night to the beneficent gods" and that he lets foam from his bit fall every morning, from which dew comes to the valleys.
In stanza 30 of the poem Alvíssmál, the god Thor asks the dwarf Alvíss to tell him what night is called in each of the nine worlds, whom "Nórr" birthed. Alvíss responds that night is referred as "night" by mankind, "darkness" by the gods, "the masker" by the mighty Powers, "unlight" by the jötunn, "joy-of-sleep" by the elves, while dwarves call her "dream-Njörun". In Sigrdrífumál, after the valkyrie Sigrdrífa is woken from her sleep curse by the hero Sigurd, Sigurd asks her name, she gives him a "memory-drink" of a drinking horn full of mead, Sigrdrifa says a heathen prayer; the first verse of this prayer features a reference to the "sons of Dagr" and the "daughter of Nótt": Hail to the Day! Hail to the sons of Day! To Night and her daughter hail! With placid eyes behold us here, here sitting give us victory. Hail to the Æsir! Hail to the Asyniur! Hail to the bounteous earth! Words and wisdom give to us noble twain, healing hands while we live! In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, Nótt is again personified.
In chapter 10, the enthroned figure of High states that Nótt is the daughter of a jötunn from Jötunheimr by the name of "Norfi or Narfi". Nótt is described as "black and swarthy", has had three marriages, her first marriage was with Naglfari, the two produced a son by the name of Auðr. Nótt's second marriage was to Annar, resulting in the personified earth. Nótt marries the god Dellingr, the couple have Dagr, who takes after his "father's people" in brightness and fairness. Odin took Nótt and her son Dagr, placed them into the sky with a chariot and a horse each, they ride around the earth every 24 hours. Nótt rides before Dagr, foam from her horse Hrímfaxi's bit sprinkles the earth. However, scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt, Jörð, Dellingr. In other words, depending on the manuscript, either Jörð or Nátt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. Haukur details that "the oldest manuscript, U, offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts, R, W and T, cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr's wife and Dagr's mother", argues that "the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT.
The results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition". In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, means of referring to Jörð are provided, including "daughter of Nótt". Chapter 58 states that "Hrimfaxi or Fiorsvartnir draw the night", in chapter 64, "nótt" is stated as one of various words for time and a version of the Alvíssmál passage is cited
The Merseburg charms or Merseburg incantations are two medieval magic spells, charms or incantations, written in Old High German. They are the only known examples of Germanic pagan belief preserved in the language, they were discovered in 1841 by Georg Waitz, who found them in a theological manuscript from Fulda, written in the 9th or 10th century, although there remains some speculation about the date of the charms themselves. The manuscript is stored in the library of the cathedral chapter of Merseburg, hence the name; the Merseburg Incantations are the only known surviving instance of ostensibly pre-Christian, Old High German literature. The incantations were recorded in the 10th century by a cleric in the abbey of Fulda, on a blank page of a liturgical book, which passed to the library at Merseburg; the incantations have thus been transmitted in Caroline minuscule on the flyleaf of a Latin sacramentary. The spells became famous in modern times through the appreciation of the Grimm brothers, who wrote as follows: Lying between Leipzig and Jena, the extensive library of the Cathedral Chapter of Merseburg has been visited and made use of by scholars.
All have passed over a codex which, if they chanced to take it up, appeared to offer only well-known church items, but which now, valued according to its entire content, offers a treasure such that the most famous libraries have nothing to compare with it... The spells were published by the Brothers Grimm in On two newly-discovered poems from the German Heroic Period; the manuscript of the Merseburg Incantations was on display until November 2004 as part of the exhibition "Between Cathedral and World - 1000 years of the Chapter of Merseburg," at Merseburg cathedral. They were exhibited in 1939; each charm is divided into two parts: a preamble telling the story of a mythological event. In their verse form, the spells are of a transitional type; the first spell is a "Lösesegen", describing how a number of "Idisen" freed from their shackles warriors caught during battle. The last two lines contain the magic words "Leap forth from the fetters, escape from the foes" that are intended to release the warriors.
Phol is with Wodan. Wodan intones the incantation: "Bone to bone, blood to blood, limb to limb, as if they were mended". Figures that can be identified within Continental Germanic mythology are "Uuôdan" and "Frîia". Depictions found on Migration Period Germanic bracteates are viewed as Wodan healing a horse. Comparing Norse mythology, Wodan is well-attested as the cognate of Odin. Frija the cognate of Frigg identified with Freyja. Balder is Norse Baldr. Phol is the masculine form of Uolla. Uolla has been linked to a minor goddess and a handmaid of Frigg. Sunna in Norse mythology is Sól; the First Merseburg Charm's similarity to the anecdote in Bede's Hist. Eccles. IV, 22 has been noted by Jacob Grimm. In this Christianized example, it is the singing of the mass, rather than the chanting of the charm, that effects the release of a comrade; the unshackled man is asked "whether he had any spells about him, as are spoken of in fabulous stories", which curiously has been translated as "loosening rune" in the Anglo-Saxon translation of Bede, as has been pointed out by Sophus Bugge.
Bugge makes this reference in his edition of the Eddaic poem Grógaldr, in an attempt to justify his emending the phrase "Leifnir's fire" into "loosening charm" in the context of one of the magic charms that Gróa is teaching to her son. But this is an aggressive emendation of the original text, its validity as well as any suggestion to its ties to the Merseburg charm is subject to skepticism. Many analogous magic incantations to the Second Merseburg Charm, have been noted; some paralleling is discernible in other Old German spells, but analogues are abundant in folkloric spells from Scandinavian countries. Similar charms have been noted in Gaelic and Finnish suggesting that the formula is of ancient Indo-European origin; some commentators trace the connection back to writings in ancient India. Other spells recorded in Old High German or Old Saxon/Old Low German noted for similarity, such as the group of wurmsegen spells for casting out the "Nesso" worm causing the affliction. There are several manuscript recensions of this spell, Jacob Grimm scrutinizes in particular the so-called "Contra vermes" variant, in Low German from the Cod.
Vidob. Theol. 259 The text is a mixture of Latin and German: Contra vermes As Grimm explains, the spell tells the nesso worm and its nine young ones to begone, away from the marrow to bone, bone to flesh, flesh to hide, into the strâla or arrow, the implement into which the pest or pathogen is to be coaxed. It closes with the invocation: "Lord, let it be". Grimm insists that this charm, like the De hoc quod Spurihalz dicunt charm that precedes it in the manuscript, is "about lame horse
In Norse mythology, Dagr is day personified. This personification appears in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, Dagr is stated to be the son of the god Dellingr and is associated with the bright-maned horse Skinfaxi, who "draw day to mankind". Depending on manuscript variation, the Prose Edda adds that Dagr is either Dellingr's son by Nótt, the personified night, or Jörð, the personified Earth. Otherwise, Dagr appears as a common noun meaning "day" throughout Old Norse works. Connections have been proposed between Dagr and other named figures in Germanic mythology. Dagr is mentioned in stanzas 25 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. In stanza 24, the god Odin asks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir from where the day comes, the night and its tides. In stanza 25, Vafþrúðnir responds: Delling hight he who the day's father is, but night was of Nörvi born. In stanza 12, the horse Skinfaxi, his mane gleaming, is stated by Vafþrúðnir as "drawing day to mankind".
In Sigrdrífumál, after the valkyrie Sigrdrífa is woken from her sleep curse by the hero Sigurd, Sigurd asks her name, she gives him a "memory-drink" of a drinking horn full of mead, Sigrdrifa says a prayer. The first verse of this prayer features a reference to the "sons of Dagr" and the "female relative" of Nótt. In the poem Hrafnagaldr Óðins, the appearance of Dagr and his horse and chariot are described: The son of Delling urged on his horse adorned with precious jewels. Over Mannheim shines the horse's mane, the steed Dvalin's deluder dew in his chariot. In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, Dagr is again personified. In chapter 10, the enthroned figure of High states that Dagr is the son of the couple of Dellingr of the Æsir and his wife Nótt. Dagr is described as "as bright and beautiful as his father's people". Odin took Dagr and his mother Nótt, gave them each a chariot and a horse — Dagr receiving the horse Skinfaxi, whose mane illuminates all the sky and the earth — and placed them in the sky to ride around the earth every 24 hours.
Dagr is again personified in chapter 24 of the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, where he is stated as a brother of Jörð. As a common noun, Dagr appears in chapter 58, where "Skinfaxi or Glad" is stated as pulling forth the day, chapter 64, where Dagr is stated as one of various words for time. However, scholar Haukur Thorgeirsson points out that the four manuscripts of Gylfaginning vary in their descriptions of the family relations between Nótt, Jörð, Dellingr. In other words, depending on the manuscript, either Jörð or Nótt is the mother of Dagr and partner of Dellingr. Haukur details that "the oldest manuscript, U, offers a version where Jǫrð is the wife of Dellingr and the mother of Dagr while the other manuscripts, R, W and T, cast Nótt in the role of Dellingr's wife and Dagr's mother", argues that "the version in U came about accidentally when the writer of U or its antecedent shortened a text similar to that in RWT; the results of this accident made their way into the Icelandic poetic tradition".
Otto Höfler theorized that Dagr may be related to the hero Svipdagr, attested in various texts. Among other sources, this figure is found in two poems compiled together and known as Svipdagsmál in the Poetic Edda, the Prologue to the Prose Edda, by the name Swæfdæg in the mythical genealogies of the Anglian houses of Anglo-Saxon England. Otto Höfler proposed that Svipdagr may have been a "Dagr of the Suebi", because of the names of his family members, Sólbjartr and Gróa, his wooing of Menglöð, he further suggested that Svipdagr may have been a fertility god. Dagaz, the d rune Dag the Wise Hemera Dies