Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
Howard J. Zehr is an American criminologist. Zehr is considered to be a pioneer of the modern concept of restorative justice, he is the Distinguished Professor of Restorative Justice at Eastern Mennonite University's Center for Justice and Peacebuilding, co-director of the Zehr Institute for Restorative Justice alongside Dr. Carl Stauffer; the son of a Mennonite church leader in the midwest, Howard Zehr was born in Freeport and raised through his elementary years in two other Illinois municipalities and Fisher. His family moved to Indiana for his middle and high school years, he studied at two Mennonite institutions, for a year each – Goshen College in Indiana and Bethel College in Kansas – before finishing his undergraduate degree in European history at Morehouse College, an all-male liberal arts college, black, in Atlanta, Georgia. Zehr was the first white to earn a B. A. from Morehouse when he graduated in 1966. Thanks to the school's then-Morehouse College president Dr. Benjamin Mays, Zehr was able to complete his schooling through a minority scholarship that Mays assisted him in securing.
He earned an M. A. in European history at the University of Chicago in 1967 and a Ph. D. in modern European history from Rutgers University in 1974. From 1971 to 1978, he taught at Talladega College in Alabama, he left academia to do grassroots work, directing a half-way house in 1978 in Elkhart and becoming the founder and director of an Elkhart County program now called the Center for Community Justice. Through this program, Zehr directed the first victim-offender reconciliation program in the United States. For 17 years, 1979–1996, Zehr directed the Office on Crime and Justice under Mennonite Central Committee in Akron, PA. While with MCC, Zehr began doing photojournalism, producing professional-quality photographs that were published in MCC journals and books, such as A Dry Roof and a Cow – Dreams and Portraits of Our Neighbors; as of 2013, he had five photography-centered books to his name, all published by Good Books of Intercourse, Pa.: Doing Life: Reflections of Men and Women Serving Life Without Parole.
"Your ability to listen and your respect for human beings, whether they are victims or offenders, is vividly expressed in your two books of photographs and interviews, Transcending – Reflections of Crime Victims, Doing Life – Reflections of Men and Women Serving Life Sentences," said Thomas J. Porter, JD, executive director of JUSTPEACE Center for Mediation and Conflict Transformation at Hamline University in a ceremony announcing a "lifetime achievement award" for Zehr. An Ebony magazine reporter wrote: "Howard Zehr, the restorative justice pioneer recognized for building bridges for the voiceless, calls them hidden victims, his latest book, What Will Happen To Me?, places the lens on 30 children whose parents are behind bars. It allows each to be heard as he or she shares thoughts and reflections... The truth of the matter is that 3 million children go to bed with a parent in prison or jail."Since 1996, Zehr has been a faculty member of Eastern Mennonite University, based at EMU's Center for Justice and Peacebuilding.
He served as the center's co-director for five years, 2002–2007. He stepped away from full-time teaching and became co-director of the Zehr Institute for Restorative Justice in 2012. Zehr is a past member of the Victims Advisory Groups of the United States Sentencing Commission and has taught courses and workshops in restorative justice to more than 1,000 people, many of whom lead their own restorative justice-focused organizations. Representatives of the Council for Restorative Justice at Georgia State University, Youth Justice Initiative in Iowa, Mediation Northern Ireland are among the leaders Zehr has taught, he has given restorative justice presentations in 25 countries. His impact has been significant in the United States, Japan, Northern Ireland, Britain and New Zealand, a country that has restructured its juvenile justice system into a family-focused, restorative approach; the impact of New Zealand's restorative approach is outlined in The Little Book of Family Group Conferences, New Zealand Style, co-authored by Zehr.
No person has done more to inspire the restorative imaginations of citizens of this planet than Howard Zehr. He has been the great teacher who has invited us to sit beside him to see what he can see through his restorative lens. Zehr's contributions to the field date to the late 1970s, when he was a practitioner in the foundational stage of the restorative justice movement, he has led hundreds of events internationally that focus on restorative justice, victim-offender conferencing, judicial reform and other criminal justice issues. In Restoring Justice–An Introduction to Restorative Justice, Daniel W. Van Ness and Karen Heetderks Strong say that the term "restorative justice" was coined by Albert Eglash in 1958 when he distinguished between three approaches to justice: "retributive justice," based on punishment. Zehr's book Changing Lenses–A New Focus for Crime and Justice, first published in 1990, is credited with being "groundbreaking," one of the first to articulate a theory of restorative justice.
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Goshen College is a private liberal arts college in Goshen, Indiana. The institution was founded in 1894 as the Elkhart Institute of Science and the Arts, is affiliated with Mennonite Church USA; the college is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. U. S. News and World Reports ranks Goshen as a top-tier regional college in the Midwestern United States. Goshen has an enrollment of 839 students. While Goshen maintains a distinctive liberal Mennonite worldview, it admits students of all religions. Mennonites make up 43 percent of the student body. Goshen College is home to The Mennonite Quarterly Review and the Mennonite Historical Library, a research library compiling one of the world's most comprehensive collection of Anabaptist and Mennonite primary source material; the history of Goshen College is intertwined with that of the history of Mennonites in America, so Goshen's history is best told in the context of this broader history. "Old" Mennonites had traditionally been suspicious of higher education, but by the late 19th century, opinion started to change.
Decades earlier, mainline Protestant church denominations had begun to found colleges across America, with the hope of developing well-trained clergy for their congregations. As more "Old" Mennonites sent their children to other Christian colleges, they realized that, without a college of their own, many of their youth would leave the church. Thus, prompted in part as a reaction to mainline Christianity, the "Old" Mennonites started the Elkhart Institute in Elkhart, Indiana in August 1894, to prepare Mennonite youth for college. Today, Goshen is open to everyone, but this earlier vision and its historical relationship with the Mennonite Church remains visible: it is home to The Mennonite Quarterly Review, Mennonite Historical Library, Mennonite Church USA Archives, including Mennonite Central Committee archives, offices of "The Mennonite", it has numerous alumni connections with the broader Mennonite Church. Goshen was the first Mennonite school of higher education in North America to confer a four-year degree.
H. A. Mumaw, a practicing physician, first led the small operation; the first diploma was awarded in 1898. Lured by businessmen to relocate several miles away to Goshen, the Institute moved in September 1903 and added a junior college course list, renaming itself Goshen College. By 1906, the Mennonite Board of Education had taken control of the college, dissolving the Elkhart Institute Association. A complete college course was established in 1908, the first Bachelor of Arts degrees were conferred in 1910. After 1910, most of Goshen's students were enrolled in college courses. From 1914 to 1919 out of response to its constituents, Goshen College attempted a "School of Agriculture," which sought to prepare Mennonite young people to return to their rural communities; the college-prep academy program of Goshen College was discontinued in 1935. The school was closed during the 1923–1924 school year by the Mennonite Board of Education but reopened the following year. One of many factors in closing the college was denominational tension due to modernist and fundamentalist Christian theologies of the 1920s and their impact on Mennonite theology at the school.
In response to this crisis, many of Goshen's faculty and dozens of students, angry with the Mennonite Board of Education's decision, relocated to Bluffton College. As part of the larger ongoing reaction against liberalism through the early 20th century, Hesston College and Eastern Mennonite School were formed among "Old" Mennonites, although staunch traditionalists realized that no higher education was safe; when the institution was reopened, it was marked by the new leadership of president S. C. Yoder and dean Noah Oyer, his character was one marked by simplicity and refinement, as well as unusual wisdom and insight. Under his leadership the educational program of the College developed and much of the strength of the present college program is due to his untiring and wise endeavors. After dean Oyer’s untimely passing in 1931, Harold Bender became dean, he was a man. Bender piloted the stormy waters of theology by stating that Mennonitism was not liberalism. Bender went on to say that fundamentalism contributed to problems with theology and created The Anabaptist Vision, a "third way" that sought to spell out the direction for the future Mennonite Church.
More than arguing doctrine, Bender and a younger group of intellectuals at Goshen College sought to shape the Mennonite faith, more ideological than institutional. The goal was to articulate a faith that could stand the test of academic scrutiny in broader society while upholding traditional beliefs of the church. Out of this ideology, Bender started The Mennonite Quarterly Review. Throughout this time, Goshen remained the epicenter of "Old" Mennonite theology and higher education, became known as the "Goshen Historical Renaissance". During the 1940s, Goshen was one of the Mennonite Central Committee's key places to form a "relief training school" that helped to train volunteers for unpaid jobs in the Civilian Public Service, an alternative to the Army. Many Mennonites chose the civilian service alternative because of their beliefs regarding Biblical pacifism and nonresistance. Although the young women pacifists were not liable to the draft
Union College is a private, non-denominational liberal arts college located in Schenectady, New York. Founded in 1795, it was the first institution of higher learning chartered by the New York State Board of Regents. In the 19th century, it became the "Mother of Fraternities", as three of the earliest such organizations were established there. After 175 years as a traditional all-male institution, Union College began enrolling women in 1970. Regarded as among the Little Ivies, the college offers a liberal arts curriculum across some 21 academic departments, as well as opportunities for interdepartmental majors and self-designed organizing theme majors. In common with most liberal arts colleges, Union offers a wide array of courses in arts, sciences and foreign languages, but, in common with only a few other liberal arts colleges, Union offers ABET-accredited undergraduate degrees in computer engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering. 25% of students major in the social sciences.
By the time they graduate, about 60% of Union students will have engaged in some form of international study or study abroad. Chartered in 1795, Union is the first non-denominational institution of higher education in the United States, second college established in the State of New York. During the sweeping span of 1636-1769 only nine institutions of higher education managed to set permanent roots in Colonial America. All had been founded in association with Anglo religious denominations devoted to the perpetuation of traditional forms of religious culture. Just Columbia University, birthed as King's College in 1754, had preceded Union in New York. Twenty-five years impetus for another school grew. Certain that General John Burgoyne's defeat at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777 would mean a new nation, nearly 1,000 citizens of northern New York began the first popular demand for higher education in America; as a democratic tide rose and began to overtake the people old ways, in particular the old purposes and structure of higher education, were being pushed aside.
Schenectady, a city founded and dominated by the Dutch of some 4,000 residents, was after Albany and New York City the third largest in the state. The Dutch Reformed Church, progressive-thinking in comparison to the new nation's dominant Anglo denominations, began to show an interest in establishing an academy or college under its control there. In 1778, the Schenectady Dutch Reformed Church invited the Rev. Dirck Romeyn of New Jersey to visit. Returning home, he authored a plan in 1782 for such an institution, was summoned two years to come help found it; the Schenectady Academy was established in 1785 as the city's first organized school. It flourished, reaching an enrollment of about 100 within a year. By at least 1792 it offered a full four-year college course, as well as one of elementary and practical subjects taught to girls. Attempts to charter the Academy as a college with the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York in 1786, 1792, 1793 were rejected on the grounds the school was not yet either academically nor financially qualified.
The following year the school reapplied, as "Union College", a name chosen to reflect the spirit of the thirteen religious sects which had gathered to foster it, which together resolved the school should be free of any specific religious affiliation. The result was the first non-denominational institution of higher education in the United States, awarded its charter on February 25, 1795 – still celebrated by the College as "Founders' Day"; the College's charter provided for the design of an official seal to be used on diplomas and other official business documents and correspondence. The Trustees were authorized to select the "devices and inscription" to be engraved on the seal. A committee of four Trustees was appointed to look into the matter, a seal was approved in November 1796; the original seal and its press have been lost, but it is known that it was nearly identical to the seal in use today. The Union College seal combines modern elements in balanced proportions; the head of the Roman goddess Minerva appears in the center of an oval with an outside star pattern surrounding the whole.
Around the central figure are the French words "Sous les lois de Minerve nous devenons tous frères et sœurs". The motto ended with the French word "frères", but in 2015 the College modified the motto to add the French words "et sœurs". On a banner just above the central figure are the words "St: of N: York" and on a similar banner below the central figure appear the words: "Union College 1795"; the precise origins of the motto and the choice of Minerva as the fundamental element of the College seal are obscure, but two things are certain: like most colleges of the time, Union was rooted in the classical tradition, unlike most colleges, Union chose a modern language rather than Latin for its motto. The resulting tone of the entire seal is thus aware, but distinctly modern in outlook, it is not at all surprising that the original trustees should have chosen Minerva as their herald and representative. Minerva began her mythological career as patroness of the arts and crafts. By the time she was well established as a Roman goddess, the scope of her interests and patronage had broadened
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number
Christine Kaufmann (Montana politician)
Christine Kaufmann is a Montana politician. A member of the Montana Senate from January 2007 to 2016, she served three terms in the Montana House of Representatives, she represents the 41st senate district, based in Helena. Raised on a small family farm with 11 siblings, Kaufmann earned a Bachelor's degree from Goshen College and a Master's degree from the University of Montana. A Democrat, she was first elected to the State House of Representatives in 2000 from the state's 53rd district in Helena, winning a four-way primary election with 49% of the vote, she went on to win the general election by more than two-to-one. She was re-elected in 2002 before the district was renumbered the 81st in time for the 2004 elections, she was re-elected with little opposition in 2004 and 2006. In November 2006, Senator Ken Toole, halfway through his second term representing the 41st senate district, was elected to the Montana Public Service Commission causing him to resign his senate seat; the following month, about to enter her fourth and final term in the House, was chosen by the county commissioners of Lewis and Clark County to replace him in the senate.
The seat was up for election in 2008 and, on June 3, 2008, she faced a spirited primary challenge from termed out state representative Hal Jacobson. Kaufmann defeated him by 2,889 votes to 2,436 – 54-46%. A lesbian, she is the first openly gay Montana state senator, although she was not the first LGBT member of the legislature – Rep. Diane Sands first entered the House in 1996, she is today one of three LGBT members of the Montana legislature, alongside Sands and Rep. Bryce Bennett, her election campaigns have won the support of Lesbian Victory Fund. Campaign website Legislative homepage