List of Governors of Arkansas

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Governor of Arkansas
Seal of Arkansas.svg
Asa Hutchinson.jpg
Incumbent
Asa Hutchinson

since January 13, 2015
Style The Honorable
Residence Arkansas Governor's Mansion
Term length Four years, each year renewable
Inaugural holder James Sevier Conway
Formation 1836; Constitution of Arkansas
Succession Every four years, unless re-elected.
Salary $128,000 (2016)[1]

The Governor of Arkansas is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The governor is the head of the executive branch of Arkansas's state government and is charged with enforcing state laws. The governor has the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Arkansas General Assembly, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[2]

The state has had 46 elected governors, as well as 11 acting governors who assumed powers and duties following the resignation or death of the governor, before becoming a state, Arkansas Territory had four governors appointed to it by the President of the United States. Orval Faubus served the longest term as state governor, being elected six times to serve twelve years. Bill Clinton, elected five times over two distinct terms, fell only one month short of twelve years. The shortest term for an elected governor was the 38 days served by John Sebastian Little before his nervous breakdown; one of the acting successors to his term, Jesse M. Martin, took office only three days before the end of the term, the shortest term overall. The current governor is Republican Asa Hutchinson, who took office on January 13, 2015, after his election on November 4, 2014.

Governors[edit]

History of Arkansas
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas portal

Governors of the Territory of Arkansas[edit]

Arkansaw Territory (renamed Arkansas Territory around 1822)[a] was split from Missouri Territory on July 4, 1819.[4]

As secretary of the territory from 1819 to 1829, Robert Crittenden served as acting governor whenever the appointed governor was not in the state, this meant he was the first person to perform the office of Governor of Arkansas Territory, since James Miller did not arrive in the territory until nine months after his appointment.[5]

Governors of the Territory of Arkansas
No. Portrait Governor Term in office Appointed by Notes
1 AR Miller James.jpg Miller, JamesJames Miller March 3, 1819

December 27, 1824
Monroe, JamesJames Monroe [b][c]
2 George Izard.jpg Izard, GeorgeGeorge Izard March 4, 1825

November 22, 1828
[d][e]
Adams, John QuincyJohn Quincy Adams
3 AR Pope John.jpg Pope, JohnJohn Pope March 9, 1829[8]

March 9, 1835
Jackson, AndrewAndrew Jackson [f][g]
4 WSFulton.jpg Fulton, William S.William S. Fulton March 9, 1835

June 15, 1836
[h]

Governors of the State of Arkansas[edit]

Arkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836,[11] it seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861,[12] and joined the Confederate States of America on May 18, 1861.[13] When Little Rock was captured in 1863, the Confederate government went into exile and a loyalist government was installed, causing an overlap in the terms of Confederate Harris Flanagin and Unionist Isaac Murphy.[14] Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Fourth Military District. Arkansas was readmitted to the Union on June 22, 1868.[15]

The first state constitution of 1836 established four-year terms for governors,[16] which was lowered to two years in the 1874, and current, constitution.[17] Amendment 63 to the Arkansas Constitution, passed in 1984, increased the terms of both governor and lieutenant governor to four years.[18] Governors were originally limited only to serving no more than eight out of every twelve years,[16] but the 1874 constitution removed any term limit. A referendum in 1992 limited governors to two terms.[19]

Until 1864, the constitutions provided that, should the office of governor be rendered vacant, the president of the senate would serve as acting governor until such time as a new governor were elected or the disability removed, or the acting governor's senate term expired.[20][21] This led to some situations where the governorship changed hands in quick succession, due to senate terms ending or new senate presidents being elected, for example, after John Sebastian Little resigned in 1907, three senate presidents acted as governor before the next elected governor took office. Should the president of the senate be similarly incapacitated, the next in line for the governorship was the speaker of the state house of representatives.

The 1864 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor[22] who would also act as president of the senate,[23] and who would serve as acting governor in case of vacancy,[24] the 1868 constitution maintained the position,[25] but the 1874 constitution removed it and returned to the original line of succession.[26] Amendment 6 to the constitution, passed in 1914 but not recognized until 1925,[27] recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who becomes governor in case of vacancy of the governor's office,[28] the governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket.

Arkansas was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic party, it elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 92 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

Governors of the State of Arkansas
No.[i] Portrait Governor Term in office[j] Party Election Lt. Governor[k][l]
1 AR Conway James Sevier.jpg   Conway, James SevierJames Sevier Conway September 13, 1836

November 4, 1840
Democratic 1836 Office did not exist
2 Archibald Yell - 2er Gouverneur Arkansas.jpg Yell, ArchibaldArchibald Yell November 4, 1840

April 29, 1844
Democratic 1840
[m]
Samuel Adams (governor).jpg Adams, SamuelSamuel Adams April 29, 1844

November 5, 1844
Democratic
3 Thomas Stevenson Drew - Gouverneur von Arkansas.jpg Drew, Thomas StevensonThomas Stevenson Drew November 5, 1844

January 10, 1849
Democratic 1844
1848
[n]
Byrd, Richard C.Richard C. Byrd January 10, 1849

April 19, 1849
Democratic
4 AR Roane John.jpg Roane, John SeldenJohn Selden Roane April 19, 1849

November 15, 1852
Democratic
5 Elias Nelson Conway.jpg Conway, Elias NelsonElias Nelson Conway November 15, 1852

November 16, 1860
Democratic 1852
1856
6 Henry Massey Rector.jpg Rector, Henry MasseyHenry Massey Rector November 16, 1860

November 4, 1862
Democratic 1860
[o][p]
Fletcher, ThomasThomas Fletcher November 4, 1862

November 15, 1862
Democratic
7 Governor Harris Flanigin.jpg Flanagin, HarrisHarris Flanagin November 15, 1862

May 26, 1865[q]
Democratic 1862
[r][s]
8 Isaac Murphy.jpg Murphy, IsaacIsaac Murphy April 18, 1864

July 2, 1868
Republican 1864
[r]
  Bliss, Calvin C.Calvin C. Bliss[41]
9 Powell Clayton.jpg Clayton, PowellPowell Clayton July 2, 1868

March 17, 1871
Republican 1868
[t]
Johnson, James M.James M. Johnson[43]
(resigned March 14, 1871)
Vacant
O. A. Hadley (Arkansas Governor) 2.jpg Hadley, Ozra AmanderOzra Amander Hadley[u] March 17, 1871

January 6, 1873
Republican
10 Elisha Baxter.png Baxter, ElishaElisha Baxter January 6, 1873

November 12, 1874
Republican 1872
[v][w]
Smith, Volney V.Volney V. Smith[45]
11 Augustus Hill Garland - Brady-Handy.jpg Garland, Augustus HillAugustus Hill Garland November 12, 1874

January 11, 1877
Democratic 1874 Office did not exist
12 WRMiller.jpg Miller, William ReadWilliam Read Miller January 11, 1877

January 13, 1881
Democratic 1876
1878
13 Thomas James Churchill (2).jpg Churchill, Thomas JamesThomas James Churchill January 13, 1881

January 13, 1883
Democratic 1880
14 AR James Berry.jpg Berry, James HendersonJames Henderson Berry January 13, 1883

January 15, 1885[x]
Democratic 1882
15 Simon Pollard Hughes, Jr - Gouverneur von Arkansas.jpg Hughes Jr., Simon PollardSimon Pollard Hughes Jr. January 17, 1885[x]

January 17, 1889
Democratic 1884
1886
16 James Philip Eagle.jpg Eagle, James PhilipJames Philip Eagle January 17, 1889

January 14, 1893
Democratic 1888
1890
17 William Meade Fishback.jpg Fishback, William MeadeWilliam Meade Fishback January 14, 1893

January 18, 1895
Democratic 1892
18 AR Clarke John.jpg Clarke, James PaulJames Paul Clarke January 18, 1895

January 18, 1897
Democratic 1894
19 Daniel Webster Jones (governor).jpg Jones, Daniel WebsterDaniel Webster Jones January 18, 1897

January 18, 1901
Democratic 1896
1898
20 Jeff Davis.jpg Davis, JeffJeff Davis January 18, 1901

January 18, 1907
Democratic 1900
1902
1904
21 AR Little John.jpg Little, John SebastianJohn Sebastian Little January 18, 1907

February 11, 1907[y]
Democratic 1906
[z]
AR Moore John.jpg Moore, John IsaacJohn Isaac Moore February 11, 1907[y]

May 14, 1907
Democratic
PindallXO f.jpg Pindall, Xenophon OvertonXenophon Overton Pindall May 14, 1907

January 11, 1909
Democratic
Martin, Jesse M.Jesse M. Martin January 11, 1909

January 14, 1909
Democratic
22 Portrait of George Washington Donaghey.jpg Donaghey, George WashingtonGeorge Washington Donaghey January 14, 1909

January 16, 1913
Democratic 1908
1910
23 Joseph T. Robinson cropped.jpg Robinson, Joseph TaylorJoseph Taylor Robinson January 16, 1913

March 8, 1913
Democratic 1912
[aa]
Oldham, William KavanaughWilliam Kavanaugh Oldham March 8, 1913

March 13, 1913
Democratic
Futrell, Junius MarionJunius Marion Futrell March 13, 1913

August 6, 1913[ab]
Democratic
24 Hays, George WashingtonGeorge Washington Hays August 6, 1913[ab]

January 10, 1917[ac]
Democratic
1914 Vacant
25 Charles Hillman Brough in 1916.jpg Brough, Charles HillmanCharles Hillman Brough January 10, 1917[ac]

January 11, 1921[ad]
Democratic 1916
1918
26 AR McRae Thomas.jpg McRae, Thomas ChipmanThomas Chipman McRae January 11, 1921[ad]

January 13, 1925[62]
Democratic 1920
1922
27 Terral, Tom JeffersonTom Jefferson Terral January 13, 1925[62]

January 11, 1927
Democratic 1924
28 JohnEllisMartineau.jpg Martineau, John EllisJohn Ellis Martineau January 11, 1927

March 2, 1928
Democratic 1926
[ae]
Parnell, HarveyHarvey Parnell
29 Parnell, HarveyHarvey Parnell March 2, 1928

January 10, 1933
Democratic Vacant
1928 Cazort, William LeeWilliam Lee Cazort
1930 Wilson, Lawrence EleryLawrence Elery Wilson
30 Futrell, Junius MarionJunius Marion Futrell January 10, 1933

January 12, 1937
Democratic 1932 Cazort, William LeeWilliam Lee Cazort
1934
31 Bailey, Carl EdwardCarl Edward Bailey January 12, 1937

January 14, 1941
Democratic 1936 Bailey, Robert L.Robert L. Bailey
1938
32 Adkins, Homer MartinHomer Martin Adkins January 14, 1941

January 9, 1945
Democratic 1940
1942 Shaver, James L.James L. Shaver
33 Laney, Benjamin TravisBenjamin Travis Laney January 9, 1945

January 11, 1949
Democratic 1944
1946 Gordon, Nathan GreenNathan Green Gordon
34 Sid mcmath1.JPG McMath, SidSid McMath January 11, 1949

January 13, 1953
Democratic 1948
1950
35 Cherry, FrancisFrancis Cherry January 13, 1953

January 11, 1955
Democratic 1952
36 Faubus, OrvalOrval Faubus January 11, 1955

January 10, 1967
Democratic 1954
1956
1958
1960
1962
1964
37 Winthrop Rockefeller.jpg Rockefeller, WinthropWinthrop Rockefeller January 10, 1967

January 12, 1971
Republican 1966 Britt, MauriceMaurice Britt
1968
38 Dale Bumpers.jpg Bumpers, DaleDale Bumpers January 12, 1971

January 3, 1975[64]
Democratic 1970 Riley, Bob C.Bob C. Riley
1972
[af]
Riley, Bob C.Bob C. Riley January 3, 1975[64]

January 14, 1975
Democratic Acting as governor
39 AR Pryor David (cropped).jpg Pryor, DavidDavid Pryor January 14, 1975

January 3, 1979
Democratic 1974 Purcell, JoeJoe Purcell
1976
[ag]
Purcell, JoeJoe Purcell January 3, 1979

January 9, 1979
Democratic Acting as governor
40 Bill Clinton (37899881792) (cropped2).jpg Clinton, BillBill Clinton January 9, 1979

January 19, 1981
Democratic 1978 Purcell, JoeJoe Purcell
41 Frank D. White 1995.jpg White, Frank D.Frank D. White January 19, 1981

January 11, 1983
Republican 1980 Bryant, WinstonWinston Bryant[ah]
42 Bill Clinton.jpg Clinton, BillBill Clinton January 11, 1983

December 12, 1992
Democratic 1982
1984
1986
[ai]
1990
[aj]
Tucker, Jim GuyJim Guy Tucker
43 Jim Guy Tucker.jpg Tucker, Jim GuyJim Guy Tucker December 12, 1992

July 15, 1996
Democratic Vacant
1994
[ak]
Huckabee, MikeMike Huckabee[al]
44 Huckabee-SF-CC-024.jpg Huckabee, MikeMike Huckabee July 15, 1996

January 9, 2007
Republican Vacant
Rockefeller, Winthrop PaulWinthrop Paul Rockefeller
(elected November 1996)
(died July 16, 2006)
1998
2002
Vacant
45 MikeBeebe2009.JPG Beebe, MikeMike Beebe January 9, 2007

January 13, 2015
Democratic 2006 Halter, BillBill Halter
2010 Darr, MarkMark Darr[al]
(resigned February 1, 2014)
Vacant
46 Asa Hutchinson.jpg Hutchinson, AsaAsa Hutchinson January 13, 2015

present
Republican 2014
[am]
Griffin, TimTim Griffin

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The territory was formally organized with the name "Arkansaw", but spellings including "Arkansas" and "Arkansa" remained common until around 1822, when the popularity of the Arkansas Gazette helped standardize the spelling as "Arkansas".[3]
  2. ^ James Miller was appointed territorial governor on March 3, 1819, the same date the bill organizing Arkansaw Territory was signed. However, to avoid the hot southern summer, he delayed his departure from New Hampshire until September, and took a non-direct route, finally arriving in the territory on December 26, 1819.[6] Robert Crittenden, secretary of the territory, served as acting governor while Miller was delayed.[5]
  3. ^ Resigned citing poor health. At the time of his resignation, he had been absent from the territory for 18 months.[3]
  4. ^ George Izard did not arrive in Arkansas Territory until May 31, 1825; Robert Crittenden, Secretary of the territory, acted as governor in his stead, though Crittenden himself was out of state when Izard arrived.[7]
  5. ^ Died in office.
  6. ^ The office was vacant from November 22, 1828, until March 9, 1829. By the time notice of George Izard's death reached Washington, D.C., Andrew Jackson had been elected president, and the United States Senate refused to approve John Quincy Adams's choice for governor, preferring to wait until Jackson took office.[3]
  7. ^ Pope arrived in the territory in May 1829.[9]
  8. ^ William S. Fulton served as governor until statehood, when he was elected to the United States Senate.[10]
  9. ^ According to the numbering generally used, acting governors are not numbered.[29]
  10. ^ Most dates come from the Encyclopedia of Arkansas list of governors;[30] when differing, either the date was different in the actual articles on the governors and that agreed with other sources, or specific sourcing is supplied to explain the discrepancy.
  11. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1864 and abolished in 1874. It was recreated in 1914, and was not filled until 1927, the amendment to the constitution creating the office was narrowly voted in by the electorate in 1914. The Speaker of the House declared that the measure had lost, because even though it had received the majority of the votes cast for that particular ballot measure, winning 45,567 to 45,206, it had not received the majority of votes cast across the whole election, determined by looking at the question on the ballot with the highest total number of votes for or against, on that ballot, this figure was 135,517 votes, so it was ruled that at least 67,758 votes in favor would have been required for the measure to pass, essentially counting blank votes as votes against. In 1925, it was discovered that a 1910 law amended this requirement such that only a majority of the votes on the specific question was required. Therefore, the 1914 initiative was declared to be valid.[27]
  12. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  13. ^ Yell resigned to run for the United States House of Representatives, winning the election;[31] as president of the senate, Adams acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  14. ^ Drew resigned due to the low salary he received as governor;[32] as president of the senate, Byrd acted as governor[33] until Roane was elected in a special election to fill the remainder of the term.[34]
  15. ^ A new election schedule came into effect with this term, scheduling the next election for 1862, shrinking this term to two years.[35]
  16. ^ Rector resigned two weeks before the end of his term. Most sources state it was due to badly losing his bid for re-election[36][37] but at least one source states it was due to unhappiness that the new constitution would shorten his term.[38] Governor-elect Flanagin was not sworn in until November 15;[39] in the interim, as president of the senate, Fletcher acted as governor.[38] Fletcher is omitted from most lists of Arkansas governors.
  17. ^ Some sources state Flanagin left office on April 18, 1864, but that was when Isaac Murphy was sworn in as provisional governor; Flanagin remained governor of the Confederate government-in-exile until May 26, 1865.[30]
  18. ^ a b Flanagin fled Little Rock as it fell to Union forces on September 10, 1863, leading a largely inept government in exile in Washington, Arkansas until 1865. Murphy was elected provisional governor by a loyalist government set up after Union control of the state was established, taking office on April 18, 1864, causing a slight overlap in terms, though due to the collapse of the Confederate effort in Arkansas, Flanagin had no authority over the state.[14]
  19. ^ The 1864 constitution was enacted during this term; however, it was drafted by the Union occupation, and had no effect on Flanagin's government. While term lengths remained at four years, a new election schedule was created, calling for elections in 1864.[40]
  20. ^ Clayton resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as the office of lieutenant governor was vacant at the time, Hadley, as president pro tempore of the senate, acted as governor for the remainder of the term.[42]
  21. ^ Ozra Amander Hadley's first name is sometimes spelled "Ozro" in sources; it is unknown which is correct.[42]
  22. ^ Terms were shortened from four to two years beginning with this term.
  23. ^ Baxter was removed from office for a short time due to the Brooks–Baxter War.[44]
  24. ^ a b Sources disagree on when Hughes succeeded Berry, with the National Governors Association saying January 17,[46] contemporary sourcing saying January 15,[47] and the Encyclopedia of Arkansas using both dates.[30][48] This list uses the contemporary source as the least likely to be mistaken.
  25. ^ a b Sources disagree on when Little resigned. The Encyclopedia of Arkansas says February 7, but the National Governors Association and a book by University of Arkansas Press[49] say February 11. Due to wider use, February 11 is the date used here.
  26. ^ Little resigned after suffering a nervous breakdown soon after taking office.[50] As president of the senate, Moore acted as governor until the legislature adjourned,[51] at which time a new president pro tempore of the senate was chosen, Pindall, who acted as governor until his senate term expired,[52] for the remaining three days of the gubernatorial term, Martin, the new president pro tempore of the senate, acted as governor.[53]
  27. ^ Robinson resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. As president of the senate, Oldham acted as governor for six days before a new president of the senate was elected,[54] the new president, Futrell, acted as governor[55] until Hays was elected in a special election to fill the remainder of the term.[56] Conflict over whether or not Futrell could succeed Oldham as acting governor led to the Arkansas Supreme Court ruling that he could.[57]
  28. ^ a b Some sources state Hays succeeded Futrell on July 23, but that was when the special election that chose Hays occurred; he was sworn in on August 6.[58][59]
  29. ^ a b Sources disagree on whether Brough succeeded Futrell on January 10 or January 11; a contemporary source states January 10,[60] so this list uses that date.
  30. ^ a b Sources disagree on whether McRae succeeded Brough on January 11 or January 12; a slim majority of sources say January 12.[61]
  31. ^ Martineau resigned to be a judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas;[63] as lieutenant governor, Parnell succeeded him.
  32. ^ Bumpers resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as lieutenant governor, Riley acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  33. ^ Pryor resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; as lieutenant governor, Purcell acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  34. ^ Represented the Democratic Party.
  35. ^ Terms were lengthened from two to four years beginning with this term.
  36. ^ Clinton resigned to be President of the United States; as lieutenant governor, Tucker acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  37. ^ Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud in the Whitewater scandal;[65] as lieutenant governor, Huckabee acted as governor for the remainder of the term.
  38. ^ a b Represented the Republican Party.
  39. ^ Governor Hutchinson's term expires on January 8, 2019; he is not yet term-limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  2. ^ AR Const. art. VI
  3. ^ a b c "Arkansas History Timeline (1819–1861)". Historic Arkansas Museum. Retrieved October 11, 2016. 
  4. ^ Stat. 493
  5. ^ a b "Robert Crittenden (1797–1834)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved August 14, 2008. 
  6. ^ "James Miller (1776–1851)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  7. ^ "George Izard (1776–1828)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  8. ^ Bruce, Henry Addington (1909). The Romance of American Expansion. Moffat, Yard & Company. p. 86. 
  9. ^ Williams, Nancy A.; Jeannie M. Whayne (2000). Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives. University of Arkansas Press. p. 226. ISBN 1-55728-587-X. 
  10. ^ "Fulton, William Savin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved August 31, 2007. 
  11. ^ Stat. 50
  12. ^ "Secession Ordinances of 13 Confederate States". University of Houston. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015. 
  13. ^ An Act to admit the State of Arkansas into the Confederacy Archived August 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., accessed July 8, 2015
  14. ^ a b "Harris Flanagin (1817–1874)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  15. ^ 15 Stat. 72
  16. ^ a b 1836 Const. art. V, § 4
  17. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 1
  18. ^ AR Const. amendment 63
  19. ^ "State Term Limits". Retrieved October 11, 2016. 
  20. ^ 1836 Const. art. V, § 18
  21. ^ 1861 Const. art. V, § 18
  22. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 19
  23. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 20
  24. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 23
  25. ^ 1868 Const. art. VI, § 1
  26. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 12
  27. ^ a b "About The Office – Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas". Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  28. ^ Arkansas Supreme Court, Bryant v. English, 311 Ark. 187, 843 S.W.2d 308 (1992).
  29. ^ "Office of the Governor". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved April 18, 2018. 
  30. ^ a b c "Office of the Governor". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Archibald Yell". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Thomas Stevenson Drew". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Arkansas Governor Richard C. Byrd". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  34. ^ "John Selden Roane". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  35. ^ 1861 Const. art. IV, § 8
  36. ^ "Henry Massie Rector". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  37. ^ The Confederate Governors. p. 51. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  38. ^ a b Hempstead, Fay (1911). Historical Review of Arkansas: Its Commerce, Industry and Modern Affairs, Volume 1. Lewis Publishing Company. p. 250. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Harris Flanagin". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  40. ^ 1864 Const. art. IV, § 8
  41. ^ Herndon p. 287
  42. ^ a b "Ozro Amander Hadley (1826–1915)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  43. ^ Herndon p. 293
  44. ^ "Elisha Baxter". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  45. ^ Herndon p. 306
  46. ^ "James Henderson Berry". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  47. ^ Arkansas Biennial Report of the Auditor of State. Office of Auditor of State, Arkansas. 1886. p. 39. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  48. ^ "Simon Pollard Hughes". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  49. ^ Governors of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  50. ^ "John Sebastian Little". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  51. ^ "John Isaac Moore". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  52. ^ "Xenophon Overton Pindall". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  53. ^ "John Sebastian Little (1851–1916)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  54. ^ "William Kavanaugh Oldham". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  55. ^ "Junius Marion Futrell". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  56. ^ "George Washington Hays". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  57. ^ Futrell v. Oldham (Arkansas Supreme Court 1913). Text
  58. ^ Colby, Frank Moore, ed. (1914). New International Yearbook: A Compendium of the World's Progress. Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 63. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  59. ^ Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Somerset Publishers, Inc. 1998. p. 145. ISBN 0403098505. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  60. ^ Monthly Checklist of State Publications. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1917. p. 61. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  61. ^ Encyclopedia of Arkansas. p. 147. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  62. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Arkansas. p. 148. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  63. ^ "John Ellis Martineau". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  64. ^ a b "Bob Cowley Riley". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  65. ^ R.H., Melton; Michael Haddigan (May 29, 1996). "Three Guilty in Arkansas Fraud Trial". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 

External links[edit]