Rivers State known as Rivers, is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. According to census data released in 2006, the state has a population of 5,198,716, making it the sixth-most populous state in the country, its capital and largest city, Port Harcourt, is economically significant as the centre of Nigeria's oil industry. Rivers State is bounded on the South by the Atlantic Ocean, to the North by Imo and Anambra States, to the East by Akwa Ibom State, to the West by Bayelsa and Delta states, it is home to many indigenous ethnic groups: Ogoni, Ekpeye, Ibani, Eleme and Kalabari, Ogba, Egbema and others. The people from Rivers State are known as "Riverians"; the inland part of the state consists of tropical rainforest. Rivers State, named after the many rivers that border its territory, was part of the Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 till 1893, when it became part of the Niger Coast Protectorate. In 1900 the region was merged with the chartered territories of the Royal Niger Company to form the colony of Southern Nigeria.
The state was formed in 1967 with the split of the Eastern Region of Nigeria. In 1996 the state lost territory to form Bayelsa State. In the early days of the colonial period, several protection treaties were signed between various indigenous communities and the British colonial government. Between 1941 and 1952, agitation for the creation of Rivers province began with the formation of the Ijo Rivers People's League. By 1953, the Council of Rivers Chiefs was birthed as a replacement body for the League, the same year, another organisation, the Calabar Ogoja Rivers State Movement became existent; the Council of Rivers Chiefs was renamed in 1954 to Rivers Chiefs and People's Congress and in 1956, the organisation became known as the Rivers Chiefs People's Conference. Until 1958, hopes of an independent state resonated with the region, lingered in the minds of its natives. During the constitutional conference that year, the country's nationhood was affirmed while an agreement was reached on some measures to mitigate the fears of the ethnic minorities in the area.
Around this time, the COR State Movement had broken away to press their own case. Thereafter, the British launched a commission led by Sir Henry Willink to look into the misgivings of these autochthons; the Willink Commission initiated the conception of the Niger Delta Development Board. The purpose was to tackle the problems of underdevelopment, this failed to rise to the expectations of the masses. After much discontent, some of the people attempted to take the extralegal route to achieve their goals. In February 1966, Isaac Boro, Sam Owonaro and Nottingham Dick alongside their supporters proclaimed a "Delta People's Republic"; the rebellion was crushed by the Federal and the old Eastern Nigeria government. On 27 May 1967, under the administration of General Yakubu Gowon, decree No. 14 was issued, allowing the creation of Rivers State. From on, complaints about political marginalisation, environmental degradation and economic pauperisation remained among the Ijaw groups, such that a separate Bayelsa State was carved out of Rivers State by the military government during 1996.
Rivers State is a predominantly low-lying pluvial state in southern Nigeria, located in the eastern part of the Niger Delta on the oceanward extension of the Benue Trough. The inland part of the state consists of tropical rainforest, towards the coast, the typical Niger Delta environment features many mangrove swamps. Rivers State has a total area of 11,077 km², making it the 26th largest state in Nigeria. Surrounding states are Imo and Anambra to the north, Akwa Ibom to the east and Bayelsa to the west. On the south, it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, its topography ranges with a network of rivers to tributaries. Rainfall is seasonal, variable, as well as heavy, occurs between the months of March and October through November; the wet season peaks in July, lasting more than 290 days. The only dry months are February having little to no effect. Total annual rainfall decreases from about 4,700 mm on the coast, to about 1,700 mm in the extreme north, it is 4,698 mm at 1,862 mm at Degema. For Port Harcourt, temperatures throughout the year are constant with little variation throughout the course of the seasons.
Average temperatures are between 25 °C−28 °C. Some parts of the state still receive up to 150 mm of rainfall during the dry period. Relative humidity dips below 60% and fluctuates between 90% and 100% for most of the year; the land surface of Rivers State can be divided into three zones: freshwater swamps, mangrove swamps and coastal sand ridges. The freshwater zone extends north wards from the mangrove swamps; this land surface is less than 20m above sea level. As a lower Niger floodplain, it contains a greater silt and clay foundation and is more susceptible to perennial inundation by river floods; the floodplain's total thickness rises to about 45m in the northeast and over 9m in the beach ridge barrier zones to the southwest. On coastal sand ridges, the soils are sandy or sandy loams. Various crops are supported including oil palm, raffia palm and cocoyam; the drier upland region of Rivers State covers 61% of landmass while the riverine areas, with a relief range of 2m to 5m, take up 39%. Due to its geographical location, Rivers State has always played an important role in the natural history of Nigeria, having been found to host a vast array of wildlife and plants.
Its tropical rainforests are home to more species than all other local
Cross River State
Cross River is a state in South Nigeria, bordering Cameroon to the east. Its capital is Calabar, its name is derived from the Cross River, which passes through the state. English, Bekwarra and Efik are major languages of this state. Cross River State derives its name from the Cross River, it is a coastal state located in the Niger Delta region, occupies 20,156 square kilometers. It shares boundaries with Benue State to the north and Abia States to the west, to the east by Cameroon Republic and to the south by Akwa-Ibom and the Atlantic Ocean; the South-South State was created on 27 May 1967 from the former Eastern Region, Nigeria by the General Yakubu Gowon regime. Its name was changed to Cross River State in the 1976 state creation exercise by the General Murtala Mohammed regime from South Eastern State; the present day Akwa Ibom State was excised from it in the state creation exercise of September 1987 by the regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. Its capital is Calabar, its major towns are Akamkpa, Calabar South, Igede, Odukpani, Bekwarra, Obudu, Akpabuyo, Iso-bendghe, Boki, Bendeghe Ekiem, Etomi and Ukelle.
The state has been governed by many governors and administrators including Udoakaha J. Esuene, Paul Omu, Tunde Elegbede, Clement Isong, Donald Etiebet, Daniel Archibong, Ibim Princewill, Ernest Atta, Clement Ebri, Ibrahim Kefas, Gregory Agboneni, Umar Faoruk Ahmed, Christopher Osondu, Donald Duke, Liyel Imoke and Benedict Ayade; the Current Governor is Benedict Ayade, sworn into office on 29 May 2015. The State is composed of several ethnic groups, which include the Efik, the Ejagham, Bette, Igede and the Bekwarra. There are four major languages spoken in the state: French, Efik and Ejagham; the Efik language is spoken in the southern part of Cross River State in Calabar Municipality, Calabar South, Akpabuyo and Odukpani Local Government Areas. The Ejagham language is the most spoken language in Cross River State; the Efik-speaking people live in the Southern senatorial districts of Cross River, or as it is referred to, the Greater Calabar district, which includes Calabar Municipality, Calabar South, Biase, Akpabuyo and Akamkpa LGAs.
There is the Qua community in Calabar, which speaks Ejagham. The main Ejagham group occupies the Greater Calabar areas of Calabar Municipality, Odukpani and Akampkpa sections of Cross River State. There are the Yakurr/Agoi/Bahumono ethnic groups in Yakurr and Abi LGA, while the Mbembe are predominantly found in Obubra LGA. Further up the core northern part of the state are several sub-dialectical groups, among which are Etung, Ofutop, Nkim/Nkum, Abanajum and Boki in both Ikom and Boki LGAs; the Yala/Yache, Ukelle, Mbube, Bette and Utugwanga people are found in Ogoja, Yala and Obanliku and Bekwarra LGA's. The Yala are a subgroup of the Idoma nation, part of the Yala LGA's subgroups are the Igede speaking people believed to have migrated from the Oju part of Benue State, who migrated from Ora, in Edo North. In Cross River North, Bekwarra is the most spoken language, it is understood by other tribes in the district. This language along with Efik and Ejagham is used for news broadcast in the state owned radio and TV stations.
Cross River State epitomises the nation's linguistic and cultural plurality and it is important to note that, in spite of the diversity of dialects, all the indigenous languages in the state have common linguistic roots as Niger–Congo languages. The State boasts of being the venue of the largest carnival in Africa. Cross River healthcare delivery system is skewed in favour of the urban settlements. Cross River State consists of seventeen Local Government Areas, they are: In line with the objectives of the former Governor of the state Mr. Donald Duke to mix business with pleasure, there are many festivals; these festivals bring in tourists from far and wide into the state to enjoy themselves and do business in the state. These festivals include The Cross River State Christmas Festival, which promises to be an event that will rival any festival events in Africa, with over 30 days of endless fun, games, cultural display, art exhibition and music performance; this year's Christmas event and Carnival promise to be the best.
The Cross River State Christmas Festival – 1 December to 31 December annually The Cross River State Carnival Float – 26 and 27 December yearly The Yakurr Leboku Yam festival – 28 August annually The Calabar Boat RegataAnother Interesting Festival in cross River state is Anong Bahumono Festival which holds in Anong Village, during which different cultural dances are showcased, including Ikpobin, Obam and Etangala Dances. Bekwarra,Obudu,Obanliku New yam festival, held every 1st Saturday of September every year has grown to become a national festival. From the soaring plateaus of the mountain tops of Obanliku to the Rain forests of Afi, from the Waterfalls of Agbokim and Kwa to the spiralling ox-bow Calabar River which provides sights and images of the Tinapa Business Resort, Calabar Marina, Calabar Residency Museum and the Calabar Slave Park along its course, there is always a thrilling adventure awaiting the eco-tourist visiting Cross River State. Other tourist attractions are the Ikom Monoliths, the Mary Slessor Tomb, Calabar Drill Monkey Sanctu
Clement Nyong Isong, CFR was a Nigerian banker and politician, governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria during the military regime of General Yakubu Gowon. He was elected governor of Cross River State in the Nigerian Second Republic. Isong was born on 20 April 1920 in Akwa Ibom State, he studied at University College, Iowa Wesleyan College, Mount Pleasant and the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, where he obtained a Ph. D. in Economics. He taught economics in the University of Ibadan before joining the Central Bank of Nigeria as secretary becoming director of research, he was seconded to the International Monetary Fund as an adviser in the African Department. Yakubu Gowon appointed Isong governor of the CBN in August 1967, an office he held until September 1975, he headed the CBN during the subsequent oil boom. During his tenure Nigeria avoided running up unsupportable debts. Isong complained that Nigeria was accumulating foreign reserves but had "nowhere to invest them properly", although there was huge scope for infrastructure improvements.
When the United States Senate killed the foreign aid bill in October 1971, Isong said the $35 million in annual aid was a drop in the bucket. After retirement from the CBN, Isong entered politics and was elected the first civilian Governor of Cross River State from 1979 to 1983 on the National Party of Nigeria platform. In 1981 Isong had to deal with a border crisis with Cameroon that originated in the Ikang area, visiting the trouble spot in person. In 1982, having contributed to the growth and development of Nigeria, Dr. Isong was honoured with Nigeria’s national honour of Commander of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Isong was opposed in the 1983 elections by Senate President Joseph Wayas, the leader of the NPN party's "Lagos Group" that supported Senator Donald Etiebet as governor. Etiebet won the NPN nomination and the subsequent election, taking office in October 1983, but the result was moot due to the resumption of military government after a coup by Major-General Muhammadu Buhari in December that year.
Isong died on 29 May 2000. His portrait features on the 1,000 Naira note brought into circulation on October 12, 2005
Liyel Imoke was elected governor of Cross River State, Nigeria in April 2007, taking office on 29 May 2007. He is a member of the People's Democratic Party. Liyel Imoke hails from Agbo tribe in Abi Local Government Area of Cross River State, his father, Dr. Samuel Imoke was a medical doctor who became a cabinet minister and leader of Parliament in the former Eastern Region. Liyel Imoke was born on 10 July 1961 at Ibadan in the Western Region of Nigeria. Liyel Imoke attended Mary Knoll College, Okuku and the Federal Government College Enugu for his secondary education, he obtained a bachelor's degree in International Relations and Economics at the University of Maryland in the United States in 1982. He studied Law at the University of Buckingham, gaining an LLB degree in 1985, studied at the American University in Washington, D. C. where he gained a master's degree in Law. He completed his legal education at the Nigerian Law School, Lagos, in 1988. Liyel Imoke practiced law in Washington, D. C. and Lagos between 1982 and 1992.
He was principal partner of Liyel Co.. Lagos. In 1992, Liyel Imoke was elected a Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria at the age of 30 during the Ibrahim Babangida transition government, his term ended with the dissolution of the government in November 1993 by the military regime headed by General Sani Abacha. Between 1993 and 1999, he was a Managing Consultant at Lagos. In 1999, he was appointed a Special Adviser on Public Utilities by President Olusegun Obasanjo, he was Executive Chairman of the Special Board charged with winding down the Oil Minerals Producing Areas Development Commission. He was Chairman of Technical Board of the National Electric Power Authority. In July 2003, Liyel Imoke was appointed Federal Minister of Power and Steel, for a while was Federal Minister of Education. Imoke implemented reforms laid out in the Nigerian Power Sector Reform Act of 2005, leading to establishment of the Nigerian Energy Regulatory Commission, the Rural Electrification Agency and the unbundling of the National Electric Power Authority.
In 2008, the House of Representatives set up a panel to look into how $16 billion for the National Integrated Power Project was disbursed, asking for testimony by Liyel Imoke and Olusegun Agagu, who had served as Minister of Power and Steel. The panel cleared Imoke of wrongdoing. In July 2008 the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission said that Liyel Imoke was under investigation. Imoke had lost his constitutional immunity after his election as governor of Cross River state had been annulled. In April 2007, Liyel Imoke ran for governor of Cross River State under the People's Democratic Party platform, he took office on 29 May 2007. The election was annulled by an Election Appeal Tribunal in July 2008, he was elected again in a re-run on 23 August 2008
Brigadier General Dan Patrick Archibong was a Nigerian soldier, Military Governor of Cross River State from January 1984 until 1986. Archibong was admitted to the Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna in January 1964, he did not complete the course with his original class because of the crisis of 1966. He was commissioned in August 1970, with loss of seniority. Promoted to Colonel, Archibong was appointed Military Governor of Cross River State in January 1984 following the coup in which General Muhammadu Buhari took power, held the position until 1986. Promoted to Brigadier, Archibong was the Director of the Department of Joint Studies at the Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji from 16 January 1988 to 1 January 1990, he was principal staff officer to the Chief of General Staff when he died on 11 March 1990 in a car accident on the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway. There were no other injuries, leading to rumors that his death was not accidental; the Patrick Dan Archibong Barracks - Calabar was named after him, but reverted to its location name.
Archibong is survived by six children and 12 grand children. Amanda Archibong, Michelle Adanna Ijomah, Daniel Archibong, Samantha-Louise Archibong, Ikechukwu John-Russell Ijomah, Arthur-Javis Archibong, Toyosi Sanni, Toluwani Sanni, Jahkin Solomon, Owen Archibong, Nolan Solomon and Jules Marie Archibong
People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
The People's Democratic Party is a major contemporary political party in Nigeria. Its policies lie towards the centre-right of the political spectrum, it won every Presidential election between 1999 and 2011, was until the 2015 elections, the governing party in the Fourth Republic although in some cases, amid a few controversial electoral circumstances. PDP controls 14 states out of 36 states in Nigeria. In 1998 the PDP in its first presidential primary election held in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria norminated former military leader Olusegun Obasanjo who had just been released from detention as political prisoner as the presidential candidate in the elections of February 1999, with Atiku Abubakar as his running mate, they won the presidential election and were inaugurated 29 May, 1999. In the legislative election held on 12 April 2003, the party won 54.5% of the popular vote and 223 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives, 76 out of 109 seats in the Senate. Its candidate in the presidential election of 19 April 2003, Olusegun Obasanjo, was re-elected with 61.9% of the vote.
In December 2006 Umaru Yar'Adua was chosen as the presidential candidate of the ruling PDP for the April 2007 general election, receiving 3,024 votes from party delegates. Yar'Adua was declared the winner of the 2007 general elections, held on April 21, was sworn in on May 29, 2007, amid widespread allegations of electoral fraud. In the Nigerian National Assembly election, the party won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives and 85 out of 109 seats in the Senate. At the PDP's 2008 National Convention, it chose Prince Vincent Ogbulafor as its National Chairman on March 8, 2008. Ogbulafor, the PDP's National Secretary from 2001 to 2005, was the party's consensus choice for the position of National Chairman, selected as an alternative to the rival leading candidates Sam Egwu and Anyim Pius Anyim. All 26 other candidates, including Egwu and Anyim, withdrew in favor of Ogbulafor. Meanwhile, Alhaji Abubakar Kawu Baraje was elected as National Secretary. In 2011, after the People's Democratic Party saw members defect for the Action Congress of Nigeria, some political commentators suspected that the PDP would lose the Presidency.
Following PDP candidate Goodluck Jonathan's victory in the 2011 elections, it was reported that there were violent protests from northern youth. The longtime slogan of the People's Democratic Party has been "Power to the people". During the party's National Convention in Port Harcourt, Rivers State on 21 May 2016, David Mark, a former President of the Senate of Nigeria, introduced "Change the change" as the party's campaign slogan for the 2019 general elections; the party has a neoliberal stance in its economic policies and maintains a conservative stance on certain social issues, such as same-sex relations. The PDP favors free-market policies which support economic liberalism, limited government regulation. In 2003, President Olusegun Obasanjo and Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala embarked on a radical economic reform program, which reduced government spending through conservative fiscal policies, saw the deregulation and privatization of numerous industries in Nigerian services sector — notably the Nigerian Telecommunications industry.
On the other hand, the PDP adopts a more leftist stance towards welfare. In 2005, President Obasanjo launched Nigeria's first National Health Insurance Scheme to ensure that every Nigerian has access to basic health care services; the PDP strives to maintain the status quo on oil revenue distribution. Though the PDP government set up the Niger Delta Development Commission to address the needs of the oil-producing Niger Delta states, it has rebuffed repeated efforts to revert to the 50% to 50% federal-to-state government revenue allocation agreement established in 1966 during the First Republic; the PDP is against same-sex relations, favors social conservatism on moral and religious grounds. In 2007, the PDP-dominated National Assembly sponsored a bill to outlaw homosexual relations, making it punishable by law for up to five years in prison; the party is a moderate advocate of religious freedom for the Nigerian states. In the year 2000 the introduction of Islamic law in some states in Northern Nigeria triggered sectarian violence in Kaduna and Abia states.
The PDP-led federal government refused to bow to pressure from the southern, predominantly Christian states to repeal the law, instead opted for a compromise where Islamic law would only apply to Muslims. Tunde Ayeni, chairman of the PDP fundraising event in December 2014 who donated N2 billion was involved in the mismanagement of bank's funds. In the 2015 elections, the incumbent president and PDP presidential nominee, Goodluck Jonathan, was defeated by General Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress by 55% to 45%, losing by 2.6 million votes, out of 28.6 million valid votes cast. Out of Nigeria's 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, General Muhammadu Buhari won 21 states while President Goodluck Jonathan won 15 states and the Federal Capital Territory. In the 2019 elections, Former vice president Atiku Abubakar and PDP presidential candidadate and his party on 25th of February, 2019 rejected the outcome of the elections as INEC was yet to conclude the entire process and make official pronouncement.
PDP National Party, Prince Uche Secondus alleged that the result as announced by INEC were incorrect. Official website
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago