Sani Abacha was a Nigerian Army officer and dictator who served as the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. He is the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full star General without skipping a single rank, he is accredited for his economic reforms and achievements, after he died allegations surrounding his administration use of government funds marred the unprecedented growth rates and indices recorded by his administration. He is seen as the most enigmatic leader the country has had. Sani is popular the Northern region of Nigeria Kano State, Borno State, Kaduna State and Sokoto State, many still decorate their vehicles with his posters and praise him for the various establishments he laid around the country and for bringing back security to the region. Further south of the country, there is still a disdain for the late military ruler; this can be attributed to the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa after being found guilty of killing four Ogoni leaders. A Kanuri from Borno, Abacha was brought up in Kano, Nigeria.
He attended the Nigerian Military Training College and Mons Officer Cadet School before being commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in 1963. Abacha was commissioned in 1963 after he had attended Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, England. Before he had attended the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna; the military career of Abacha was marked by involvement by a string of successful coups. When he was still a Second Lieutenant with the 3rd Battalion in Kaduna, he took part in the July 1966 Nigerian counter-coup from the conceptual stage, he could well have been a participant in the Lagos or Abeokuta phases of the coup the previous January as well. In addition, Abacha took a prominent role in the 1983 Nigerian coup d'état which brought General Muhammadu Buhari to power in 1983, the August 1985 coup which removed Buhari from power; when General Ibrahim Babangida was named President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1985, Abacha was named Chief of Army Staff.
He was appointed Minister of Defence in 1990. Abacha became in 1993 the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full General without skipping a single rank. On 17 November 1993, Abacha took over from the transitional government - being the Minister of Defence and most senior official - after Chief Ernest Shonekan resigned. In his nationwide broadcast, Abacha cited the stagnant nature of Chief Ernest Shonekan's government, being unable to manage the democratic process in the country as a cause of his resignation. In September 1994, he issued a decree that placed his government above the jurisdiction of the courts giving him absolute power. Another decree gave him the right to detain anyone for up to three months without trial. During Abacha's regime, he established The Petroleum Trust Fund under Decree 25, of which Muhammadu Buhari, it was inaugurated on the 25th March 1995. The PTF was formed to undertake major economic issues. Between 25-100km of urban road in major cities such as Kano, Benin, Zaria, Kaduna, Lagos and Port Harcourt each.
A N27.3bn contract was awarded for road rehabilitation in the first quarter of 1996. Before the disestablishment of the PTF in 1999 by Olusegun Obasanjo, the PTF had undertaken a holistic stance to support the sum of N1.328bn, awarded to 53 pharmaceutical companies for the supply of drugs, while the importation of vaccines cost N229.9m. As at December 31, 1997, funds available to PTF stood at N115.1bn. They oversaw the restructuring of major insurance companies that supported SME's across the entire country. Contrary to many views that the Abacha administration was financially shrouded in secrecy, Abacha had mandated the PTF to publicise its accounts as it was the second largest public corporation at the time. In 1997, the account of PTF showed that it disbursed N24.3bn on roads, N21.2bn on security, N7.8bn on health, N3bn on other projects. Other disbursements include N936m on food supply and N476m on education, it realised a total of N1.049bn from various investment activities. The Abacha administration became the first to record unprecedented economic achievements: he oversaw an increase in the country's foreign exchange reserves from $494 million in 1993 to $9.6 billion by the middle of 1997, reduced the external debt of Nigeria from $36 billion in 1993 to $27 billion by 1997.
He is revered for achieving this, in comparison no other administration before or after the inception of the Fourth Nigerian Republic had been able to achieve this. Sani Abacha brought all the controversial privatization programs of the Ibrahim Babangida administration to a halt, reduced an inflation rate of 54% inherited from IBB to 8.5% between 1993 and 1998, all while the nation's primary commodity, oil was at an average of $15 per barrel. Between 1993 and 1998, during his presidency, the country cracked-down on insecurity. Abacha, being a military man disincentivized crime on the streets or the formation of any insurgent groups; the Nigeria Police Force underwent a large scale retraining, The term'Abacha boy' emerged after the success and efficiency of security implementation by security agents of the Abacha administration. In 2013, The Goodluck Jonathan administration launched a recall of able'Abacha boy' to rejoin the security apparatus of the country but was unsuccessful because a large portion had been retired at the time.
The 1994-1995 National Constitutional Conference, which sat for one year had reasonable time to discuss and ponder over many thorny issues that concerned the Nige
People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
The People's Democratic Party is a major contemporary political party in Nigeria. Its policies lie towards the centre-right of the political spectrum, it won every Presidential election between 1999 and 2011, was until the 2015 elections, the governing party in the Fourth Republic although in some cases, amid a few controversial electoral circumstances. PDP controls 14 states out of 36 states in Nigeria. In 1998 the PDP in its first presidential primary election held in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria norminated former military leader Olusegun Obasanjo who had just been released from detention as political prisoner as the presidential candidate in the elections of February 1999, with Atiku Abubakar as his running mate, they won the presidential election and were inaugurated 29 May, 1999. In the legislative election held on 12 April 2003, the party won 54.5% of the popular vote and 223 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives, 76 out of 109 seats in the Senate. Its candidate in the presidential election of 19 April 2003, Olusegun Obasanjo, was re-elected with 61.9% of the vote.
In December 2006 Umaru Yar'Adua was chosen as the presidential candidate of the ruling PDP for the April 2007 general election, receiving 3,024 votes from party delegates. Yar'Adua was declared the winner of the 2007 general elections, held on April 21, was sworn in on May 29, 2007, amid widespread allegations of electoral fraud. In the Nigerian National Assembly election, the party won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives and 85 out of 109 seats in the Senate. At the PDP's 2008 National Convention, it chose Prince Vincent Ogbulafor as its National Chairman on March 8, 2008. Ogbulafor, the PDP's National Secretary from 2001 to 2005, was the party's consensus choice for the position of National Chairman, selected as an alternative to the rival leading candidates Sam Egwu and Anyim Pius Anyim. All 26 other candidates, including Egwu and Anyim, withdrew in favor of Ogbulafor. Meanwhile, Alhaji Abubakar Kawu Baraje was elected as National Secretary. In 2011, after the People's Democratic Party saw members defect for the Action Congress of Nigeria, some political commentators suspected that the PDP would lose the Presidency.
Following PDP candidate Goodluck Jonathan's victory in the 2011 elections, it was reported that there were violent protests from northern youth. The longtime slogan of the People's Democratic Party has been "Power to the people". During the party's National Convention in Port Harcourt, Rivers State on 21 May 2016, David Mark, a former President of the Senate of Nigeria, introduced "Change the change" as the party's campaign slogan for the 2019 general elections; the party has a neoliberal stance in its economic policies and maintains a conservative stance on certain social issues, such as same-sex relations. The PDP favors free-market policies which support economic liberalism, limited government regulation. In 2003, President Olusegun Obasanjo and Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala embarked on a radical economic reform program, which reduced government spending through conservative fiscal policies, saw the deregulation and privatization of numerous industries in Nigerian services sector — notably the Nigerian Telecommunications industry.
On the other hand, the PDP adopts a more leftist stance towards welfare. In 2005, President Obasanjo launched Nigeria's first National Health Insurance Scheme to ensure that every Nigerian has access to basic health care services; the PDP strives to maintain the status quo on oil revenue distribution. Though the PDP government set up the Niger Delta Development Commission to address the needs of the oil-producing Niger Delta states, it has rebuffed repeated efforts to revert to the 50% to 50% federal-to-state government revenue allocation agreement established in 1966 during the First Republic; the PDP is against same-sex relations, favors social conservatism on moral and religious grounds. In 2007, the PDP-dominated National Assembly sponsored a bill to outlaw homosexual relations, making it punishable by law for up to five years in prison; the party is a moderate advocate of religious freedom for the Nigerian states. In the year 2000 the introduction of Islamic law in some states in Northern Nigeria triggered sectarian violence in Kaduna and Abia states.
The PDP-led federal government refused to bow to pressure from the southern, predominantly Christian states to repeal the law, instead opted for a compromise where Islamic law would only apply to Muslims. Tunde Ayeni, chairman of the PDP fundraising event in December 2014 who donated N2 billion was involved in the mismanagement of bank's funds. In the 2015 elections, the incumbent president and PDP presidential nominee, Goodluck Jonathan, was defeated by General Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress by 55% to 45%, losing by 2.6 million votes, out of 28.6 million valid votes cast. Out of Nigeria's 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, General Muhammadu Buhari won 21 states while President Goodluck Jonathan won 15 states and the Federal Capital Territory. In the 2019 elections, Former vice president Atiku Abubakar and PDP presidential candidadate and his party on 25th of February, 2019 rejected the outcome of the elections as INEC was yet to conclude the entire process and make official pronouncement.
PDP National Party, Prince Uche Secondus alleged that the result as announced by INEC were incorrect. Official website
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago