People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
The People's Democratic Party is a major contemporary political party in Nigeria. Its policies lie towards the centre-right of the political spectrum, it won every Presidential election between 1999 and 2011, was until the 2015 elections, the governing party in the Fourth Republic although in some cases, amid a few controversial electoral circumstances. PDP controls 14 states out of 36 states in Nigeria. In 1998 the PDP in its first presidential primary election held in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria norminated former military leader Olusegun Obasanjo who had just been released from detention as political prisoner as the presidential candidate in the elections of February 1999, with Atiku Abubakar as his running mate, they won the presidential election and were inaugurated 29 May, 1999. In the legislative election held on 12 April 2003, the party won 54.5% of the popular vote and 223 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives, 76 out of 109 seats in the Senate. Its candidate in the presidential election of 19 April 2003, Olusegun Obasanjo, was re-elected with 61.9% of the vote.
In December 2006 Umaru Yar'Adua was chosen as the presidential candidate of the ruling PDP for the April 2007 general election, receiving 3,024 votes from party delegates. Yar'Adua was declared the winner of the 2007 general elections, held on April 21, was sworn in on May 29, 2007, amid widespread allegations of electoral fraud. In the Nigerian National Assembly election, the party won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives and 85 out of 109 seats in the Senate. At the PDP's 2008 National Convention, it chose Prince Vincent Ogbulafor as its National Chairman on March 8, 2008. Ogbulafor, the PDP's National Secretary from 2001 to 2005, was the party's consensus choice for the position of National Chairman, selected as an alternative to the rival leading candidates Sam Egwu and Anyim Pius Anyim. All 26 other candidates, including Egwu and Anyim, withdrew in favor of Ogbulafor. Meanwhile, Alhaji Abubakar Kawu Baraje was elected as National Secretary. In 2011, after the People's Democratic Party saw members defect for the Action Congress of Nigeria, some political commentators suspected that the PDP would lose the Presidency.
Following PDP candidate Goodluck Jonathan's victory in the 2011 elections, it was reported that there were violent protests from northern youth. The longtime slogan of the People's Democratic Party has been "Power to the people". During the party's National Convention in Port Harcourt, Rivers State on 21 May 2016, David Mark, a former President of the Senate of Nigeria, introduced "Change the change" as the party's campaign slogan for the 2019 general elections; the party has a neoliberal stance in its economic policies and maintains a conservative stance on certain social issues, such as same-sex relations. The PDP favors free-market policies which support economic liberalism, limited government regulation. In 2003, President Olusegun Obasanjo and Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala embarked on a radical economic reform program, which reduced government spending through conservative fiscal policies, saw the deregulation and privatization of numerous industries in Nigerian services sector — notably the Nigerian Telecommunications industry.
On the other hand, the PDP adopts a more leftist stance towards welfare. In 2005, President Obasanjo launched Nigeria's first National Health Insurance Scheme to ensure that every Nigerian has access to basic health care services; the PDP strives to maintain the status quo on oil revenue distribution. Though the PDP government set up the Niger Delta Development Commission to address the needs of the oil-producing Niger Delta states, it has rebuffed repeated efforts to revert to the 50% to 50% federal-to-state government revenue allocation agreement established in 1966 during the First Republic; the PDP is against same-sex relations, favors social conservatism on moral and religious grounds. In 2007, the PDP-dominated National Assembly sponsored a bill to outlaw homosexual relations, making it punishable by law for up to five years in prison; the party is a moderate advocate of religious freedom for the Nigerian states. In the year 2000 the introduction of Islamic law in some states in Northern Nigeria triggered sectarian violence in Kaduna and Abia states.
The PDP-led federal government refused to bow to pressure from the southern, predominantly Christian states to repeal the law, instead opted for a compromise where Islamic law would only apply to Muslims. Tunde Ayeni, chairman of the PDP fundraising event in December 2014 who donated N2 billion was involved in the mismanagement of bank's funds. In the 2015 elections, the incumbent president and PDP presidential nominee, Goodluck Jonathan, was defeated by General Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress by 55% to 45%, losing by 2.6 million votes, out of 28.6 million valid votes cast. Out of Nigeria's 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, General Muhammadu Buhari won 21 states while President Goodluck Jonathan won 15 states and the Federal Capital Territory. In the 2019 elections, Former vice president Atiku Abubakar and PDP presidential candidadate and his party on 25th of February, 2019 rejected the outcome of the elections as INEC was yet to conclude the entire process and make official pronouncement.
PDP National Party, Prince Uche Secondus alleged that the result as announced by INEC were incorrect. Official website
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Plateau is the twelfth-largest state in Nigeria. In the centre of the country, it is geographically unique in Nigeria due to its boundaries of elevated hills surrounding the Jos Plateau its capital, the entire plateau itself. Plateau State is celebrated as "The Home of Peace and Tourism". With natural formations of rocks and waterfalls, it derives its name from the Jos Plateau and has a population of around 3.5 million people. Bauchi State – to the north east Kaduna State – to the north west Nasarawa State – to the south west Taraba State – to the south east Plateau State is located in Nigeria’s middle belt. With an area of 26,899 square kilometres, the State has an estimated population of about three million people, it is located between latitude 08 ° 24 longitude 008 ° 32' and 010 ° 38' east. The state is named after the picturesque Jos Plateau, a mountainous area in the north of the state with captivating rock formations. Bare rocks are scattered across the grasslands; the altitude ranges from around 1,200 metres to a peak of 1,829 metres above sea level in the Shere Hills range near Jos.
Years of tin and columbite mining have left the area strewn with deep gorges and lakes. Though situated in the tropical zone, a higher altitude means that Plateau State has a near temperate climate with an average temperature of between 13 and 22 °C. Harmattan winds cause the coldest weather between February; the warmest temperatures occur in the dry season months of March and April. The mean annual rainfall varies between 131.75 cm in the southern part to 146 cm on the Plateau. The highest rainfall is recorded during the wet season months of August; the average lower temperatures in Plateau State has led to a reduced incidence of some tropical diseases such as malaria. The Jos Plateau, makes it the source of many rivers in northern Nigeria including the Kaduna, Gongola and Yobe rivers; the Jos Plateau is thought to be an area of younger granite, intruded through an area of older granite rock, making up the surrounding states. These "younger" granites are thought to be about 160 million years old.
This creates the unusual scenery of the Jos Plateau. There are numerous hillocks with gentle slopes emerging from the ground like mushrooms scattered with huge boulders. Volcanic activity 50 million years ago created numerous volcanoes and vast basaltic plateaus formed from lava flows; this produces regions of narrow and deep valleys and pediments from the middle of rounded hills with sheer rock faces. The phases of volcanic activities involved in the formation of Plateau State have made it one of the mineral rich states in the country. Tin is still processed on the plateau. Plateau State is known as The Home of Peace and Tourism and there is plenty to see; the Wildlife Safari Park sits in the middle of 8 km2 of unspoiled savanna bush, about 4 km from Jos. It offers a wide variety of wild animals within easy viewing; these include Buffalos, baboons, derby elands, Rock pythons, crocodiles and Marabou storks. It was once home to the rare pygmy hippopotamus, bred in the'hippo pool’; the park boasts great, panoramic views of Jos city.
The National Museum in Jos was founded in 1952, is recognised as one of the best in the country. It is renowned for its archeology and The Pottery Hall has an exceptional collection of finely crafted pottery from all over Nigeria; the museum boasts some fine specimens of Nok terracotta heads and artifacts dating from between 500 BC to 200 AD. The Museum of Traditional Nigerian Architecture is adjacent, with life-size replicas of a variety of buildings, from the walls of Kano and to a Tiv village. In addition, articles of interest from colonial times relating to the railway and tin mining can be found on display. Solomon Lar Amusement Park Situated in Jos city, it is a recreational park named after a former governor of Chief Solomon Lar. Jos Zoo is located beside the museum, it has a good stock of animals and reptiles and was established in 1957. Assop Falls is the most notable of Nigeria's many waterfalls. Located at the edge of the Jos Plateau, about 40 miles from Jos city, on the road to Abuja, this is a tourist stop for picnicking and enjoying the scenery.
Assop Falls is used as a filming location for local soap operas and advertisements. Kurra Falls is an area some 77 kilometers southeast of Jos, it is the location of the state's first hydroelectric power station. It is a beautiful area of rocks hills, lakes, ideal for boating and rock climbing. There is tourist accommodation available. Wase Rock The wase rock is a striking dome-shaped inselberg which juts out of the ground to a height of 450 meters, it is located about 216 kilometers southeast of Jos near Wase town. It is one of the only five breeding places for the white pelican in Africa; because of this, the government now protects about 321 acres of land around the rock as a bird sanctuary and for wildlife development. The Kerang highlands are located about 88 kilometres from Jos; these volcanic hills are the source of natural mountain springs, which supply the spring water company. The Shere Hills include some of the Plateau’s highest peaks, they are a range of hills to the east of Jos which have views of the city below, attract mountain climbers and hill walkers.
Riyom Rock is a rock formation, located 25 kilometers southwest of Jos, near Riyom town. Pandam Game Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary, it is a protected region of natural habitat and is home to hippopotami and snakes of all types. Local park rangers track local game