Amalia of Oldenburg
Amalia of Oldenburg was queen consort of Greece from 1836 to 1862 as the spouse of King Otto. As the daughter of Duke Paul Frederick Augustus of Oldenburg, she was born a duchess of Oldenburg, though that title was never used in Greece; when she arrived in Greece in 1837, she at first won the hearts of the Greeks with her refreshing beauty. After the Queen became more politically involved, she became the target of harsh attacks — and her image suffered further as she proved unable to provide an heir, she and her husband were expelled from Greece after an uprising. She spent the rest of her years in exile in Bavaria. Duchess Amalia Maria Frederica was born on 21 December 1818 in Oldenburg, capital of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, she was the first child of Duke Paul Frederick Augustus of Oldenburg and his first wife, Princess Adelheid of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym. She was less than two years old when her mother died, on 13 September 1820. On 22 December 1836, Duchess Amalia of Oldenburg married King Otto of Greece in Oldenburg.
Born as the second son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Prince Otto of Bavaria had been appointed king of the newly created Kingdom of Greece in 1833. In the early years of the new monarchy, Queen Amalia, with her beauty and vivaciousness, brought a spirit of smart fashion and progress to the impoverished country, she laboured towards social improvement and the creation of gardens in Athens, at first won the hearts of the Greeks with her refreshing beauty. The town of Amaliada in Elis, the village of Amaliapolis in Magnesia, were named for the Queen, she was the first to introduce the Christmas tree to Greece. As King Otto and his Bavarian advisers became more enmeshed in political struggles with Greek political forces, the Queen became more politically involved, also, she became the target of harsh attacks when she became involved in politics - and her image suffered further as she proved unable to provide an heir. She remained a Protestant in an universally Orthodox country, throughout her husband's reign.
Her Mistress of the Robes Baroness de Pluscow was rumored to influence state affairs in matters relating to Austria, through both the queen and the king, which exposed her to controversy: when the king and queen was deposed, it was reported in the press that all their courtiers were left unmolested with the exception of Pluscow, exposed to sarcasm from the crowd when she left. When she arrived in Greece as a queen in 1837, she had an immediate impact on social life and fashion, she realized that her attire ought to emulate that of her new people, so she created a romantic folksy court dress, which became a national Greek costume still known as the Amalía dress. It follows the Biedermeier style, with a loose-fitting, white cotton or silk shirt decorated with lace at the neck and cuffs, over which a richly embroidered jacket or vest is worn of dark blue or claret velvet; the skirt was ankle-length, unpressed-pleated silk, the color azure. It was completed with a soft cap or fez with a single, golden silk tassel, traditionally worn by married women, or with the kalpaki of the unmarried woman, sometimes with a black veil for church.
This dress became the usual attire of all Christian townswomen in both Ottoman Empire-occupied and liberated Balkan lands as far north as Belgrade. In February 1861, a university student named Aristeidis Dosios unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate the Queen, he was sentenced to death, but the Queen intervened, he was pardoned and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was hailed as a hero for his attempt by certain factions, but the attempt provoked among the people spontaneous feelings of sympathy towards the royal couple. Just over a year an uprising took place in Athens while the royal couple were on a visit to the Peloponnese; the Great Powers, who had supported Otto, urged them not to resist, Otto's reign came to an end. They left Greece aboard a British warship, with the Greek royal regalia that they had brought with them, it has been suggested that the King would not have been overthrown had Amalia borne an heir, as succession was a major unresolved question at the time of uprising. It is true, that the Constitution of 1843 made provision for Otto to be succeeded by his two younger brothers and their descendants.
King Otto and Queen Amalia spent the rest of their years in exile, at home in Bavaria. They decided to speak Greek each day between 8 o'clock to remember their time in Greece. King Otto died in 1867. Queen Amalia survived her husband by eight years and died in Bamberg on 20 May 1875, she was buried beside the king at the Theatinerkirche in Munich. The cause of the royal couple's infertility remained contested after an autopsy was performed on the queen. 21 December 1818 – 20 May 1875: Her Highness Duchess Amalie of Oldenburg, Princess of Holstein-Gottorp 22 December 1836 – 23 October 1862: Her Majesty The Queen of Greece 23 October 1862 – 20 May 1875: Her Majesty Queen Amalia of Greece Brekis, Spyros L. Ph. D.. ISBN 960-410-254-0 </references> Greek royal tombs "The Costume in 1800s". Www.annaswebart.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-26. Retrieved 2008-06-11. "Amalie, Marie Friederike". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Kingdom of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers. It was internationally recognised by the Treaty of Constantinople, where it secured full independence from the Ottoman Empire; this event marked the birth of the first independent Greek state since the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in the mid-15th century. The Kingdom succeeded from the Greek provisional governments after the Greek War of Independence, lasted until 1924. In 1924 the monarchy was abolished, the Second Hellenic Republic was established, after Greece's defeat by Turkey in the Asia Minor Campaign, it lasted until 1935. The restored Kingdom of Greece lasted from 1935 to 1973; the Kingdom was again dissolved in the aftermath of the seven-year military dictatorship, the Third Republic, the current Greek state, came to be, after a popular referendum. Most of Greece became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century; the Eastern Roman, the direct continuation to the ancient Roman Empire who ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over 1100 years, had been fatally weakened since the sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in 1204.
The Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by a victory over the Serbs to its north. First, the Ottomans won at 1371 on the Maritsa River – where the Serb forces were led by the King Vukašin of Serbia, the father of Prince Marko and the co-ruler of the last emperor from the Serbian Nemanjic dynasty; this was followed by a draw in the 1389 Battle of Kosovo. With no further threat by the Serbs and the subsequent Byzantine civil wars, the Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453 and advanced southwards into Greece, capturing Athens in 1458; the Greeks held out in the Peloponnese until 1460, the Venetians and Genoese clung to some of the islands, but by 1500 most of the plains and islands of Greece were in Ottoman hands. The mountains of Greece were untouched, were a refuge for Greeks to flee foreign rule and engage in guerrilla warfare. Cyprus fell in 1571, the Venetians retained Crete until 1670; the Ionian Islands were only ruled by the Ottomans, remained under the rule of Venice. In the context of ardent desire for independence from Turkish occupation, with the explicit influence of similar secret societies elsewhere in Europe, three Greeks came together in 1814 in Odessa to decide the constitution for a secret organization in freemasonic fashion.
Its purpose was to unite all Greeks in an armed organization to overthrow Turkish rule. The three founders were Nikolaos Skoufas from the Arta province, Emmanuil Xanthos from Patmos and Athanasios Tsakalov from Ioannina. Soon after they initiated a fourth member, Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos from Andritsaina. Lots of revolts were planned across the Greek region and the first of them was launched on 6 March 1821, in the Danubian principalities, it was put down by the Ottomans, but the torch had been lit and by the end of the same month the Peloponnese was in open revolt. In 1821, the Greeks rose up against the Ottoman Empire. Following a protracted struggle, the autonomy of Greece was first recognized by the Great Powers in 1828. Count Ioannis Kapodistrias became Governor of Greece in 1827, but was assassinated in 1831. At the insistence of the Powers, the 1832 Treaty of London made Greece a monarchy. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the first candidate for the Greek throne. Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria was chosen as its first King.
Otto arrived at Nafplion, in 1833 aboard a British warship. Otto's reign would prove troubled, but managed to last for 30 years before he and his wife, Queen Amalia, left the way they came, aboard a British warship. During the early years of his reign, a group of Bavarian Regents ruled in his name and made themselves unpopular by trying to impose German ideas of rigid hierarchical government on the Greeks, while keeping most significant state offices away from them, they laid the foundations of a Greek administration, justice system and education system. Otto was sincere in his desire to give Greece good government, but he suffered from two great handicaps, his Roman Catholic faith, the fact that his marriage to Queen Amalia remained childless. Furthermore, the new Kingdom tried to eliminate the traditional banditry, something that in many cases meant conflict with some old revolutionary fighters who continued to exercise this practice; the Bavarian Regents ruled until 1837, when at the insistence of Britain and France, they were recalled, Otto after that appointed Greek ministers, although Bavarian officials still ran most of the administration and the army.
But Greece still had no constitution. Greek discontent grew until a revolt broke out in Athens in September 1843. Otto agreed to grant a constitution, convened a National Assembly which met in November; the new constitution created a bicameral parliament, consisting of a Senate. Power passed into the hands of a group of politicians, most of whom had been commanders in the War of Independence against the Ottomans. Greek politics in the 19th century was dominated by the national question. Greeks dreamed of liberating them all and reconstituting a state embracing all the Greek lands, with Constantinople as its capital; this was called the Great Idea, it was sustained by cont
Aspasia Manos was a Greek aristocrat who became the wife of Alexander I, King of Greece. Due to the controversy over her marriage, she was styled Madame Manos instead of Queen Aspasia, until recognized as Princess Alexander of Greece and Denmark after Alexander's death and the restoration of King Constantine I, on 10 September 1922. Daughter of Colonel Petros Manos, aide of King Constantine I of Greece, Maria Argyropoulos, Aspasia grew up close to the royal family. After the divorce of her parents, she was sent to study in Switzerland, she returned to Greece in 1915 and met Prince Alexander, to whom she became secretly engaged due to the expected refusal of the royal family to recognize the relationship of Alexander I with a woman who did not belong to one of the European ruling dynasties. Meanwhile, the domestic situation in Greece was complicated by World War I. King Constantine I abdicated in 1917 and Alexander was chosen as sovereign. Separated from his family and subjected to the Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, the new ruler found comfort in Aspasia.
Despite the opposition of his parents and Venizelists, King Alexander I secretly married Aspasia on 17 November 1919. The public revelation of the wedding shortly after caused a huge scandal, Aspasia temporarily left Greece. However, she was reunited with her husband after a few months of separation and was allowed to return to Greece without receiving the title of Queen of the Hellenes, she became pregnant. At the same time, the situation in Greece was deteriorating again: the country was in the middle of a bloody conflict with the Ottoman Empire, Constantine I was restored only to be deposed again, this time in favor of Diadochos George. First excluded from the royal family, Aspasia was integrated after the birth of her daughter Alexandra on 25 March 1921 and was recognized with the title of Princess Alexander of Greece and Denmark after a decree issued by her father-in-law, her situation remained precarious due to the dislike of her sister-in-law Elisabeth of Romania and the political instability of the country.
As the only members of the royal family to be allowed to stay in Greece after the proclamation of the Republic on 25 March 1924, Aspasia and her daughter chose to settle in Florence, with Queen Sophia. They remained there until 1927 divided their time between the United Kingdom and Venice; the restoration of the Greek monarchy in 1935 did not change Aspasia's life. Sheltered by her in-laws, she made the Venetian villa Garden of Eden her main residence, until the outbreak of the Greco-Italian War in 1940. After a brief return to her country, where she worked for the Red Cross, the princess spent World War II in England. In 1944, her daughter married the exiled King Peter II of Yugoslavia, Aspasia became a grandmother with the birth of Prince Alexander in 1945. Once peace was restored, Aspasia returned to live in Venice, her last days were marked by economic hardship and worry for her daughter, who made several suicide attempts. Aspasia died in 1972, but it wasn't until 1993 that her remains were transferred to the royal necropolis of Tatoi.
Aspasia was born in Tatoi, Athens on 4 September 1896 as the eldest daughter of Colonel Petros Manos and his first wife, Maria Argyropoulos. Named after her maternal grandmother, Aspasia Anargyrou Petrakis, she had one younger full-sister, Roxane wife of the athlete and industrialist Christos Zalokostas. From her father's second marriage with Sophie Tombazi-Mavrocordato, she had one half-sister, Rallou, a choreographer, modern dancer and dance teacher; the Manos family descended, from Phanariote Greeks living in Constantinople. Some of her ancestors had been leaders during the Greek War of Independence, some had been Hellenic leaders in Constantinople for centuries under the Ottoman Empire, some had been reigning princes of Danubian Principalities: Șerban Cantacuzino, Ioan Teodor Callimachi, Nicolae Caradja and Michael Drakos Soutzos. In addition, among Aspasia's immediate family were Greek personalities of the first order: her great-grandfather was Anargyros Petrakis, the first Mayor of Athens and several times Minister and her uncles were the deputy and writer Konstantínos Manos, the Minister and diplomat Periklis Argyropoulos and the Prime Minister Kyriakoulis Mavromichalis.
After the divorce of her parents, Aspasia left Athens to complete her studies in France and Switzerland. Having returned to Greece in 1915, she came to live with her mother. Shortly after, she meets her childhood friend, Prince Alexander of Greece, at a party given by Marshal Theodore Ypsilantis. Described by many of her contemporaries as a beautiful woman, Aspasia caught the attention of the prince who has no other wish than to conquer her. Aspasia was reluctant to accept the romantic advances of the prince. Renowned for his many female conquests, Alexander seemed to her untrustworthy because their social differences impeded any serious relationship. However, the perseverance of the Greek prince, who travelled to Spetses in the summer of 1915 with the only purpose to see Aspasia overcame her misgivings. In love with each other, they became engaged but their marital project remained secret. Alexander's parents Queen Sophia (born a Prussian princess of the House of Hohenzo
Second Hellenic Republic
The Second Hellenic Republic is a modern historiographical term used to refer to the Greek state during a period of republican governance between 1924 and 1935. To its contemporaries it was known as the Hellenic Republic or more as Greece, it occupied the coterminous territory of modern Greece and bordered Albania, Bulgaria and the Italian Aegean Islands. The term Second Republic is used to differentiate it from the Third republics; the fall of the monarchy was proclaimed by the country's parliament on 25 March 1924. A small country with a population of 6.2 million in 1928, it covered a total area of 130,199 km2. Over its eleven-year history, the Second Republic saw some of the most important historical events in modern Greek history emerge; the Second Hellenic Republic was abolished on 10 October 1935, its abolition was confirmed by referendum on 3 November of the same year, accepted as having been mired with electoral fraud. The fall of the Republic paved the way for Greece to become a totalitarian single-party state, when Ioannis Metaxas established the 4th of August Regime in 1936, lasting until the Axis occupation of Greece in 1941.
When the Republic was proclaimed on 25 March 1924, the official name adopted for the country was Hellenic State. However, the name was changed to Hellenic Republic on 24 May 1924 by vote of the Parliament. Accordingly, the title of the country's head of state was changed from Governor to President of the Republic; the collapse of the Hellenic Army in Asia Minor was followed by the collapse of the government. Public outrage at the Asia Minor disaster, as Greece's defeat in the war became known, was reflected in the military coup which followed it; the coup, orchestrated by army officers, took the name The Revolution. Although The Revolution itself did not abolish the monarchy, one of its first acts was to shut down all the royalist newspapers as well as use the Armed Forces to prosecute known royalists; the decision whether or not to abolish the monarchy is one which divided Greek society, as some Liberal Party supporters, including the Party's founder, Eleftherios Venizelos, spoke out in favour of retaining the monarchy as a safety net against instability.
After the defeat of Greece by the Turkish National Movement of 1922, the defeated army revolted against the royal government. Under Venizelist officers like Nikolaos Plastiras and Stylianos Gonatas, King Constantine I was again forced to abdicate, died in exile in 1923, his eldest son and successor, King George II, was soon after asked by the parliament to leave Greece so the nation could decide what form of government it should adopt. In a 1924 plebiscite, Greeks voted to create a republic; these events marked the culmination of a process that had begun in 1915 between King Constantine and his political nemesis, Eleftherios Venizelos. The Republic was proclaimed on 25 March 1924 by the Parliament. Following the proclamation of the change in form of government from constitutional monarchy to republic, a referendum was held proclaimed for 13 April 1924. Voters were asked whether they "approve of the decision of the National Assembly that Greece be reorganised into a Republic on the parliamentary model".
Voting was to be secret, although the requirement that "yes" votes be cast with white ballots and "no" votes with yellow ones defeated the purpose of secrecy. The results of the referendum were a clear victory for the Republican campaign: 69.9% in favour of a republic and 30.1% in favour of the monarchy. Newspapers from a wide range of the political spectrum noted a lack of violence, implying a lack of electoral intimidation in favour of one side or another; the newspaper Forward wrote that the vote was "historic for the order which prevailed during the voting time", Skrip commented that people refrained from "any action which could be seen as a provocation" and that "the military measures made this easier", while the Communist Party's Rizospastis commented on the "relative calm" that prevailed in the electoral district of Athens. Makedonia added that so many people disregarded the yellow "no" ballots, that the floors inside the electoral centers and the streets around were littered with them.
Meanwhile, the decree of 1924 "on the safeguard of the republican regime" introduced the jail sentence for a minimum of six months for advocating in public the return of the monarchy, disputing the results of the referendum or publishing slander against the founders of the republic. In an interview following the referendum, then-Prime Minister Alexandros Papanastasiou defended government plans to pass such a decree, saying that the government must be allowed to move forward with its reforms without any sort of hindrance for a limited amount of time; the fragile nature of the young Greek republic became evident from the first year of its
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort shares her husband's social rank and status, she holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles, but she does not share the king's political and military powers. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, who has become queen by inheriting the throne upon the death of the previous monarch. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent to queen consort in English, as were the consorts of tsars when Bulgaria was still a monarchy; the title of king consort for the husband of a reigning queen is not unheard of. Examples are: Lord Darnley, in Scotland. Where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today, the number of wives of the king varies.
In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, the title of princess. Prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent; the king's other consorts are accorded royal titles. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status. A Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives as "Great Wife", which would be the equivalent to queen consort. Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chief's consorts are of equal rank. Although one of their number the one, married to the chief for the longest time, may be given a chieftaincy of her own to highlight her higher status when compared to the other wives; when a woman is to be vested with an authority similar to that of the chief, she is a lady courtier in his service, not married to him, but, expected to lead his female subjects on his behalf. In general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized.
However the queen consort of a deceased king has served as regent if her child, the successor to the throne, was still a minor—for example: Anne of Kiev, wife of Henry I of France Munjeong, mother of King Myeongjong of Korea Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots Catherine of Austria, grandmother of Sebastian of Portugal Marie de Medici, mother of Louis XIII of France Kösem Sultan, mother of Sultan Murad IV of the Ottoman Empire Luisa de Guzmán, mother of Afonso VI of Portugal Lakshmi Bai, the Rani of Jhansi and mother of Damodar Rao Maria Christina of Austria, mother of Alfonso XIII of Spain Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, mother of Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Anna Khanum, mother of Abbas II of Persia Helen of Greece, mother of King Michael of RomaniaBesides these examples, there have been many cases of queens consort being shrewd or ambitious stateswomen and unofficially, being among the king's most trusted advisors. In some cases, the queen consort has been the chief power behind her husband's throne.
Past queens consort: Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon. Demoted back in 1694 to the rank of hui-bin, Royal Noble Consort Joseon rank 1 Queen Marie Antoinette, consort to Louis XVI of France Queen Charlotte was George III's consort for 57 years, 70 days, between 1761 and 1818, making her Britain's longest-tenured queen consort. Queen Mary, consort of George V Queen Elizabeth, consort of George VI Queen Fabiola, consort of Baudouin I of the Belgians Queen Paola, consort of Albert II of Belgium Queen Anne Marie, consort of Constantine II of Greece Queen Geraldine, consort of Zog I of Albania Queen Marie José, consort of Umberto II of Italy Queen Kapiolani, consort of King Kalākaua of Hawaiʻi Queen Soraya Tarzi, consort of King Amanullah Khan of Afghanistan Tsaritsa Ioanna, consort of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria Queen Regent Saovabha Phongsri, consort of Chulalongkorn of Siam Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmi Pilla Kochamma Chempakaraman Arumana Ammaveedu, wife of Visakham Thirunal Maharajah of Travancore Queen Catherine, first queen consort of Henry VIII of England, was regent when he was in a war in France.
Queen Hortense, consort of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland Shahbanu Farah Pahlavi, consort of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran Queen Wilhelmine, consort of William I of the Netherlands Queen Anna Pavlovna, consort of William II of the Netherlands Queen Sophie, first consort of William III of the Netherlands Queen Emma, second consort of William III of the Netherlands: When William died on 23 November 1890, Emma became regent for her underaged daughter, the late king's only surviving child. Queen Ratna, second consort of Mahendra of Nepal Queen Sirikit, consort of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand Queen Ruth, consort of Seretse Khama, King of the Bamangwato Tswanas of BotswanaPast empresses consort: Empress Theodora, consort of Justinian I, East Roman Emperor Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, consort of Akbar the Great, the third Mughal Emperor. Empress Hürrem Sultan, consort of Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, her imperial title was Haseki Sultan Empress Nur Jahan, consort of Jahangir, Mughal Emperor Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, consort of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor Titular Empress Carlota Joaquina of Spain, consort of John VI
Queen Anne-Marie of Greece
Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, RE is the wife of King Constantine II, who reigned from 1964 until 1973. Anne-Marie is the youngest daughter of his wife Ingrid of Sweden, she is the youngest sister of the reigning Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and cousin of the reigning King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. Princess Anne-Marie was born on 30 August 1946 at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen as the third and last daughter and child of the Crown Prince of Denmark and the Crown Princess, Princess Ingrid of Sweden, her father was the eldest son of the King and the Queen, Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, her mother was the only daughter of the Crown Prince of Sweden and his British-born first wife, daughter of the Duke of Connaught, Princess Margaret of Connaught. The princess was baptised on 9 October 1946 in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen, her godparents are the King of Queen of Denmark. At her birth, Princess Anne-Marie had two elder sisters: Princess Margrethe, the present Queen of Denmark, Princess Benedikte, who married Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives in Germany.
Princess Anne-Marie and her sisters grew up in apartments at Frederick IX's Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and in Fredensborg Palace in North Zealand. She spent summer holidays with the royal family in her parent's summer residence at Gråsten Palace in Southern Jutland. On 20 April 1947, King Christian X died and Anne-Marie's father ascended the throne as King Frederick IX. At the time of her father's accession to the throne, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark; as Anne-Marie's parents had no sons, it was assumed that her uncle Prince Knud would one day assume the throne. The popularity of Frederick IX and his daughters and the more prominent role of women in Danish life paved the way for a new Act of Succession in 1953 which permitted female succession to the throne following the principle of male-preference primogeniture, where a female can ascend to the throne if she has no brothers. Anne-Marie's eldest sister Margrethe therefore became heir presumptive, Princess Benedikte and Princess Anne-Marie became second and third in the line of succession.
Anne-Marie was educated at N. Zahle's School, a private school in Copenhagen, from 1952 to 1961. In 1961 she attended the Chatelard School for Girls, an English boarding school outside Montreux in Switzerland. In 1963 and 1964 she attended the Institut Le Mesnil, a Swiss finishing school in Montreux. In 1959, at the age of thirteen, Anne-Marie first met her future husband, her third cousin Constantine, Crown Prince of Greece, who accompanied his parents, King Paul and Queen Frederica, on a state visit to Denmark, they met a second time in Denmark in 1961, when Constantine declared to his parents his intention to marry Anne-Marie. They met again in Athens in May 1962 at the marriage of Constantine's sister Princess Sofia of Greece and Denmark to Prince Juan Carlos of Spain at which Anne-Marie was a bridesmaid: and again in 1963 at the centenary celebrations of the Greek monarchy. On 6 March 1964, King Paul died, Constantine succeeded him as King of the Hellenes. In July 1964, the announcement of the engagement of Constantine and Anne-Marie raised the polite protests of the Left in Denmark.
Anne-Marie and Constantine were married on 18 September 1964 in the Metropolis, the Greek Orthodox Cathedral of Athens. The bride wore a Jørgen Bender design. Prior to the wedding, Anne-Marie converted from Lutheranism to the Greek Orthodox Church. In view of the fact that she was marrying a foreign ruler, consent to the marriage was given on the condition that Anne-Marie renounced her succession rights to the Danish throne for herself and her descendants. Anne-Marie and her husband Constantine are third cousins: they share King Christian IX of Denmark as patrilineal great-great-grandfather, they share Queen Victoria as a great-great-grandmother. They have five children: Princess Alexia, Crown Prince Pavlos, Prince Nikolaos, Princess Theodora and Prince Philippos; as Queen of Greece, Anne-Marie spent much of her time working for a charitable foundation known as "Her Majesty's Fund" which provided assistance to people in rural areas of Greece. Constantine and Anne-Marie have nine grandchildren.
Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark. She was married on 9 July 1999 in London to Carlos Morales Quintana, they have four children: Arrietta Morales y de Grecia Ana-Maria Morales y de Grecia Carlos Morales y de Grecia Amelia Morales y de Grecia Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece, Prince of Denmark. He was married on 1 July 1995 in London to Marie-Chantal Miller, styled thereafter as The Crown Princess Marie-Chantal of Greece, Princess of Denmark, they have five children: Princess Maria-Olympia of Greece and Denmark Prince Constantine-Alexios of Greece and Denmark Prince Achileas-Andreas of Greece and Denmark Prince Odysseas Kymon of Greece and Denmark Prince Aristidis Stavros of Greece and Denmark Prince Nikolaos of Greece and Denmark. On 25 August 2010 on the Greek island of Spetses, he marri
Ferdinand I of Romania
Ferdinand I, nicknamed Întregitorul, was King of Romania from 1914 until 1927. Although a member of Germany's ruling Hohenzollern imperial family, Ferdinand sided against the Central Powers in World War I. Thus, at the war’s end, Romania emerged as a much-enlarged kingdom, including Bessarabia and Transylvania, Ferdinand was crowned king of ‘Greater Romania’ in a grand ceremony in 1922, he died from cancer in 1927, succeeded by his grandson Crown Prince Michael under a regency. Prince Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was born in Sigmaringen in southwestern Germany; the name was shortened to Hohenzollern after the extinction of the Hohenzollern-Hechingen branch in 1869. The princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen had ruled the principality until 1850, when it was annexed to Prussia. Ferdinand I was the son of Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Infanta Antónia of Portugal, daughter of Queen Maria II of Portugal and Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, heir to the Slovakian-originated Hungarian magnates of Kohary on his mother's side.
Following the renunciations, first of his father in 1880 and of his elder brother Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1886, young Ferdinand became the heir-presumptive to the throne of his childless uncle, King Carol I of Romania, who would reign until his death in October 1914. In 1889, the Romanian parliament recognized Ferdinand as a prince of Romania; the Romanian government did not require his conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy from Catholicism, as was the common practice prior to this date, thus allowing him to continue with his born creed, but it was required that his children be raised Orthodox, the state religion of Romania. For agreeing to this, Ferdinand was excommunicated from the Catholic Church, although this was lifted. Ferdinand's mother's first cousin Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria sat on the throne of the neighbouring Bulgaria beginning in 1887, was to become the greatest opponent of the kingdom of his Romanian cousins; the neighboring Emperor Francis Joseph, monarch of Austria-Hungary and as such, ruler of Transylvania, was Ferdinand's grandmother's first cousin.
Ferdinand, a complete stranger in his new home, started to get close to one of Queen Elisabeth's ladies in waiting, Elena Văcărescu. Elisabeth, the Queen consort of Romania close to Elena herself, encouraged the romance, although she was aware of the fact that a marriage between the two was forbidden by the Romanian constitution; the affair caused a sort of dynastic crisis, in 1891. The result of this was the exile of both Elisabeth and Elena, as well as a trip by Ferdinand through Europe in search of a suitable bride, whom he found in Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Marie of Edinburgh. In Sigmaringen on 10 January 1893, Prince Ferdinand of Romania married his distant cousin, the Lutheran Princess Marie of Edinburgh, daughter of Anglican Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the Orthodox Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia. Marie and Ferdinand were third cousins in descent from Franz Frederick Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Marie's paternal grandparents were Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
Her maternal grandparents were Alexander II of Russia and Marie by Rhine. The reigning Emperor of the neighbouring Russia, at the time of the marriage was Marie's uncle, Tsar Alexander III, who would be succeeded by his eldest son, Marie's cousin, Tsar Nicholas II, the following year; the marriage produced three sons: Carol and Mircea and three daughters: Elisabeta and Ileana. The marriage was unhappy and the couple's two youngest children and Mircea, are acknowledged to have been sired by Marie's long-time lover, Barbu Știrbey. Ferdinand succeeded his uncle on the latter's death as King of Romania on 10 October 1914, reigning until his own death on 20 July 1927, he was the 1,174th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Austria in 1909 and the 868th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1924. Though a member of a cadet branch of Germany's ruling Hohenzollern imperial family, Ferdinand presided over his country's entry into World War I on the side of the Triple Entente powers against the Central Powers on 27 August 1916.
Thus he gained the nickname the Loyal, respecting his oath when sworn in before the Romanian Parliament in 1914: "I will reign as a good Romanian." As a consequence of this "betrayal" toward his German roots, Kaiser Wilhelm II had Ferdinand's name erased from the Hohenzollern House register. Despite the setbacks after the entry into war, when Dobruja and Wallachia were occupied by the Central Powers, Romania fought in 1917 and stopped the German advance into Moldavia; when the Bolsheviks sued for peace in 1918, Romania was surrounded by the Central Powers and forced to conclude the Treaty of Bucharest, 1918. However, Ferdinand refused to sign the treaty; when the Allied forces advanced on the Thessaloniki front, they knocked Bulgaria out of the war, Ferdinand ordered the re-mobilization of the Romanian Army. Romania re-entered the war on the side of the Triple Entente; the outcome of Romania's war effort was the union of Bessarabia and Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918. Ferdinand became the ruler of a enlarged Romanian state in 1918–1920 following the Entente's victory over the Central Powers, a war between the Kingdom of Romania and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, the civil war in Russia.
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