Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th
Andrew Fisher was an Australian politician who served three separate terms as Prime Minister of Australia – from 1908 to 1909, from 1910 to 1913, from 1914 to 1915. He was the leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1907 to 1915. Fisher was born in Crosshouse, Scotland, he left school at a young age to work in the nearby coal mines, becoming secretary of the local branch of the Ayrshire Miners' Union at the age of 17. Fisher emigrated to Australia in 1885, he settled in Gympie, in 1893 was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly as a representative of the Labor Party. Fisher lost his seat in 1896, but returned in 1899 and that year served as a minister in the government of Anderson Dawson. In 1901, Fisher was elected to the new federal parliament representing the Division of Wide Bay, he served as Minister for Trade and Customs for a few months in 1904, in the short-lived government of Chris Watson. Fisher was elected deputy leader of the Labor Party in 1905, replaced Watson as leader in 1907.
At the time, Labor supported the Protectionist Party minority government of Alfred Deakin. Deakin resigned as prime minister in November 1908 after Labor withdrew their support, Fisher subsequently formed a minority government of his own, it lasted only a few months, as in June 1909 Deakin returned as prime minister at the head of the new Commonwealth Liberal Party. Fisher returned as prime minister after the 1910 election, which saw Labor attain majority government for the first time in its history. Fisher's second government passed wide-ranging reforms – it established old-age and disability pensions, enshrined new workers' rights in legislation, established the Commonwealth Bank, oversaw the continued expansion of the Royal Australian Navy, began construction on the Trans-Australian Railway, formally established what is now the Australian Capital Territory. At the 1913 election, Labor narrowly lost its House of Representatives majority to the Liberal Party, with Fisher being replaced as prime minister by Joseph Cook.
After just over a year in office, Cook was forced to call a new election, the first double dissolution. Labor won back its majority in the House, Fisher returned for a third term as prime minister, he struggled with the demands of Australia's participation in World War I, in October 1915 resigned in favour of Billy Hughes. Fisher subsequently accepted an appointment as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, holding that position from 1916 to 1920. After a brief return to Australia, he retired to London, dying there at the age of 66. In total, Fisher served as prime minister for just under five years. Fisher was born on 29 August 1862 in Crosshouse, a mining village 2 miles west of Kilmarnock, Scotland, he was the second of eight children born to Robert Fisher. His younger sister died at the age of 10 in 1879, the only one of the siblings not to live to adulthood. Fisher's mother worked as a domestic servant. On his father's side, he was descended from a long line of Ayrshire coalminers. According to family tradition, his paternal grandfather was persecuted for his involvement in the fledgling union movement, on one occasion was left homeless with five young children.
Although he was only literate, Fisher's father was prominent in the local community and involved with various community organisations. He was the leader of a temperance society, in 1863 was one of ten miners who co-founded a cooperative society, he and his family were active members of the Free Church of Scotland. Fisher spent most of his childhood living in a miners' row, which had an earthen floor and no running water, he was kicked in the head by a cow as a small child, leaving him deaf in one ear. The injury may have contributed to a childhood speech impediment and his reserved nature as an adult; as a boy and his brothers fished in Carmel Water, a tributary of the River Irvine, enjoyed long walks across the countryside. He was athletic, helping form a local football team, stood 178 centimetres as an adult, above the average at the time. In life, Fisher recalled attending four schools as a boy; the exact details are uncertain, but he is known to have finished his schooling in Crosshouse and to have attended a school in nearby Dreghorn for a period.
The standard of public education in Scotland was high at the time, his schoolmaster in Crosshouse had received formal training in Edinburgh. He supplemented his limited formal education by attending night school in Kilmarnock and reading at the town library; the exact age at which Fisher left school is uncertain, but he could have been as young as nine or as old as thirteen. He is believed, to have begun his working life as a trapper and closing the trapdoors that allowed for ventilation and the movement of coal, he was placed in charge of the pit ponies, took his place performing "pick-and-shovel work" at the coalface. When he was 16, he was promoted to air-pump operator, which required additional training and was seen as a prestigious position. Fisher's father suffered from black lung disease, gave up mining around the same time as his oldest sons began working, he subsequently became the manager of the foodstore at the local cooperative, the family moved out of miners' row. They lived in Kilmaurs for a p
John Armstrong (Australian politician)
John Ignatius Armstrong AC was an Australian politician and diplomat. He served as a Senator for New South Wales from 1938 to 1962, representing the Labor Party, was a minister in the Chifley Government. Armstrong served as Lord Mayor of Sydney from 1965 to 1967, as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1973 to 1974. Armstrong was born into a large Roman Catholic family in the Sydney suburb of Ultimo to William and Ellen Armstrong, both emigrants from Ireland, he was educated at St Bede's School, at the Marist Brothers' High School, Darlinghurst. In 1934, he was elected as an alderman of Sydney Municipal Council, representing the Labor Party until 1948. Armstrong was selected for Labor's slate of candidates for the Australian Senate for the 1937 election because his name would appear high on the alphabetic ballot and he was duly elected, effective from July 1938, he married Joan Therese Josephine Curran in October 1945. During 1945, Prime Minister John Curtin's health deteriorated but politicians and the media declined to publicly discuss Curtin's health for fear of concerning the Australian public during World War II.
As a result, Armstrong gave a speech in the Senate on 13 June which included the first public reference to Curtin's health, left the Australian public surprised. He was appointed Minister for Munitions in Ben Chifley's November 1946 ministry. In April 1948, his portfolio was merged with the Supply functions of Bill Ashley's portfolio to create the portfolio of Supply and Development and he was attacked by the opposition for the breadth of his powers. Following Labor's defeat at the 1949 election, he became deputy-leader of the Opposition in the Senate, he was relegated to an unwinnable fourth position on Labor's ticket for the 1961 election and left parliament in July 1962. Armstrong was elected Lord Mayor of Sydney in 1966, but the position was abolished by the Askin government in 1967; the Whitlam government appointed him Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1973 to 1974. In 1977, he was made a Companion of the Order of Australia, he died of a myocardial infarction in Batemans Bay, aged 68, survived by his wife, a son and four daughters
Sir Alexander Russell "Alick" Downer was an Australian politician and diplomat. He was a member of the House of Representatives between 1949 and 1963, representing the Liberal Party, served as Minister for Immigration in the Menzies Government, he was High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1963 to 1972. Downer was born in Adelaide as a member of the influential Downer family, his father, Sir John Downer, was a member of the Australian Senate. His mother was Una Russell, daughter of Henry Chamberlain Russell, who remarried when Alick was 8, to D’Arcy Wentworth Addison. Sir Alick's son, Alexander Downer a Liberal politician, was Leader of the Opposition 1994–95 and Foreign Minister of Australia 1996–2007, he was educated at Geelong Grammar School and at the University of Oxford, where he graduated in economics and political science. He was the godfather of Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, brother of Diana, Princess of Wales; the Earl's godmother was Queen Elizabeth II. After graduating from Oxford in 1932 he read law in London, in 1934 he was admitted to the bar at Inner Temple.
Returning to Adelaide, he joined the South Australian Bar in 1935. He practised as a barrister until joining the Australian Army in 1940, he served in Malaya and was a prisoner-of-war for three years, where he set up a camp library and gave lessons to other prisoners. He was promoted to sergeant due to these efforts, but the promotion was not recognised upon his release, his book Six prime ministers was published in 1982. After the war, Downer joined the newly formed Liberal Party of Australia, in 1949 he was elected to the House of Representatives for the rural-based Division of Angas. By invitation of the premier, Thomas Playford, he joined the board of the Electricity Trust of South Australia for three years and the Art Gallery board where he remained for seventeen years until his appointment as High Commissioner, he served as Minister for Immigration from 1958 to 1963. During his term in office, migration laws were reformed, which led to the arrival of hundreds of thousands of migrants from Britain and Europe, where new recruitment posts had been created.
Many refugees were accepted. As a result of his experience as a prisoner of war, he arranged for non-criminal deportees to be held in detention centres instead of being sent to jail, he retired from Parliament upon his appointment as Australian High Commissioner in London, a position he held until 1972. The building of the High Commission, Australia House, has a Downer Room on the first floor, named in his honour. Downer was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1965 Birthday Honours, he was made a Freeman of the City of London in 1965. On 23 April 1947, he married Mary Gosse, daughter of Sir James Gosse, whom he had met at a cocktail party in Adelaide. Together they had four children, Stella Mary, Alexander John Gosse and Una Joanna. Downer family The Alexander Downer Archival Collection at the University of South Australia Library
Sir Gordon Freeth, KBE was an Australian politician and diplomat. He served in the House of Representatives from 1949 to 1969, including as a minister in the Coalition governments from 1958 to 1969, he served as Ambassador to Japan from 1970 to 1973 and High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1977 to 1980. Freeth was born in the son of Robert Freeth and Gladys Mary Snashall, he attended Sydney Church of England Grammar School and the Guildford Grammar School in Western Australia, where his father was Headmaster from 1928 to 1949. In 1937 he rowed in the bow seat of the Western Australian men's eight which contested the King's Cup at the Australian Interstate Regatta, he was awarded a Bachelor of Laws by the University of Western Australia in 1938. That same year he was selected to row for Australia and won a gold medal in the coxed fours in the 1938 British Empire Games in Sydney. In 1939 he married Joan Baker and they had twin daughters and Susan and a son, Robert. In 1939, he began practising law in Western Australia.
With the outbreak of World War II, he joined the Royal Australian Air Force and he flew Beaufort bombers in New Guinea and had been promoted to flight lieutenant by 1945, when he was demobilised. Freeth was elected as the Liberal Party of Australia member for Forrest in the 1949 election, he was appointed Minister for the Interior and Minister for Works in 1958 and in 1963 he was appointed Minister for Shipping and Transport. In February 1968, he was appointed Minister for Air, he was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs, replacing Paul Hasluck, in February 1969 when Hasluck became Governor-General. In this role, Freeth made some unfortunate comments about relations with Russia, which in the Cold War atmosphere of the times were interpreted as being somewhat'soft on communism'. Freeth was defeated at the 1969 election by Frank Kirwan, his defeat at a time when the government of which he was a part was secure was attributed in part to his statements about relations with Russia, but to discontent by farmers in his rural electorate who were suffering a degree of economic recession at the time.
Freeth was Ambassador to Japan from 1970 to 1973 and High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1977 to 1980. Freeth died in Perth in 2001, survived by his three children. Freeth was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1978
Major General Sir Granville de Laune Ryrie, was an Australian soldier and diplomat. He served in the Boer War and the First World War, in the latter commanding the 2nd Light Horse Brigade and ANZAC Mounted Division, his military career overlapped with his political career in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly and Federal House of Representatives. He concluded his public service as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, the first time the position had been held by someone other than a former prime minister. Ryrie was born in New South Wales on 1 July 1865, into a farming family, his father was Alexander Ryrie, a grazier and member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly and of the Legislative Council, his mother was Charlotte, née Faunce, both born in New South Wales. Granville was educated at The King's School, Sydney, he was a good heavyweight boxer. In 1896 he married Mary McFarland, whom Ryrie nicknamed "Mick". Mary McFarland was the daughter of a judge in New South Wales. Ryrie volunteered to serve in the Second Boer War, from 1899 to 1902.
He was selected to serve in one of the Bushmen's Contingents, groups of light horsemen, because of his skills on horseback and in shooting. During the war he was promoted to the position of honorary major. In April 1906, Ryrie was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as member for Queanbeyan, where he served until 1910, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Australian House of Representatives at the 1910 election, but was elected for North Sydney at a by-election on 11 March 1911, following the death of Hon. George Edwards. At the beginning of the First World War, Ryrie was promoted to Brigadier-General, was given command of the 2nd Light Horse Brigade, part of the ANZAC Mounted Division, he was in the Suez canal area and joined the Gallipoli Campaign on 19 May 1915, where he was wounded twice. He was moved to Egypt and London for respite, but rejoined the Brigade for the Sinai and Palestine campaign, he was involved in the famous charge of the light horse in the Third Battle of Gaza, in which Australian forces captured the town of Beersheba.
In December 1918 he was made commander of the ANZAC Mounted Division, in April 1919 was put in charge of the Australian Imperial Force in Egypt. He was promoted major general in September. After returning to Australia, Ryrie remained the Member for North Sydney. In 1920, he was made an Assistant Minister for Defence in the ministry of Billy Hughes, assisting Senator George Pearce. At the 1922 election the newly created Division of Warringah was carved out of part of North Sydney, Ryrie transferred there to be succeeded by Hughes, he served until 1927, when he was appointed the Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom in London. He was an Australian delegate to the League of Nations. In 1928 and 1929 Ryrie acted as the Australian accredited representative before the League's Permanent Mandates Commission for the annual examinations of the Australian administration of the Mandated Territory of New Guinea. Ryrie returned to Australia in 1932, died in Sydney on 2 October 1937, survived by his wife and children.
He was buried at Michelago, New South Wales, after a state service at St Andrew's Anglican Cathedral. Michelago Station is still in the Ryrie family and is run by David Ryrie, Granville's eldest grandson. David and his family still reside in the original homestead. Ryrie Street in North Ryde, Sydney is named in his honour. Vincent, Phoebe.. My Darling Mick: the Life and Times of Granville Ryrie, 1865–1937. Canberra: National Library of Australia. "Major General Granville de Laune Ryrie". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 19 November 2005. Serle, Percival. "Ryrie, Granville". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 2008-11-01. A. J. Hill,'Ryrie, Sir Granville de Laune', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, MUP, 1988, pp 502–504