Central Pacific Railroad
The Central Pacific Railroad was a rail route between California and Utah built eastwards from the West Coast in the 1860s, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. It became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Many 19th century national proposals to build a transcontinental railroad failed because of the energy consumed by political disputes over slavery. With the secession of the South, the modernizers in the Republican Party controlled the US Congress, they passed legislation authorizing the railroad, with financing in the form of government railroad bonds. These were all repaid with interest; the government and the railroads both shared in the increased value of the land grants, which the railroads developed. The construction of the railroad secured for the government the economical "safe and speedy transportation of the mails, munitions of war, public stores." Planned by Theodore Judah, the Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by Congress in 1862.
It was financed and built through "The Big Four": Sacramento, California businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins. Crocker was in charge of construction. Construction crews comprised 12,000 Chinese emigrant workers by 1868, when they constituted eighty percent of the entire work force, they laid the first rails in 1863. The "Golden spike", connecting the western railroad to the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, was hammered on May 10, 1869. Coast-to-coast train travel in eight days became possible, replacing months-long sea voyages and lengthy, hazardous travel by wagon trains. In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad was leased by the Southern Pacific Company. Technically the CPRR remained a corporate entity until 1959, when it was formally merged into Southern Pacific; the original right-of-way is now controlled by the Union Pacific, which bought Southern Pacific in 1996. The Union Pacific-Central Pacific mainline followed the historic Overland Route from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco Bay.
Chinese labor was the most vital source for constructing the railroad. Fifty Chinese laborers were hired by the Central Pacific Railroad in February 1865, soon more and more Chinese men were hired. Working conditions were harsh, Chinese men were compensated less than their white counterparts. Chinese men were paid thirty-one dollars each month, while white workers were paid the same, they were given room and board. Construction of the road was financed by 30-year, 6% U. S. government bonds authorized by Sec. 5 of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. They were issued at the rate of $16,000 per mile of tracked grade completed west of the designated base of the Sierra Nevada range near Roseville, CA where California state geologist Josiah Whitney had determined were the geologic start of the Sierras' foothills. Sec. 11 of the Act provided that the issuance of bonds "shall be treble the number per mile" for tracked grade completed over and within the two mountain ranges, "doubled" per mile of completed grade laid between the two mountain ranges.
The U. S. Government Bonds, which constituted a lien upon the railroads and all their fixtures, were repaid in full by the company as and when they became due. Sec. 10 of the 1864 amending Pacific Railroad Act additionally authorized the company to issue its own "First Mortgage Bonds" in total amounts up to that of the bonds issued by the United States. Such company-issued securities had priority over the original Government Bonds. Sec. 3 of the 1862 Act granted the railroads 10 square miles of public land for every mile laid, except where railroads ran through cities and crossed rivers. This grant was apportioned in 5 sections on alternating sides of the railroad, with each section measuring 0.2 miles by 10 miles. These grants were doubled to 20 square miles per mile of grade by the 1864 Act. Although the Pacific Railroad benefited the Bay Area, the City and County of San Francisco obstructed financing it during the early years of 1863-1865; when Stanford was Governor of California, the Legislature passed on April 22, 1863, "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto".
On May 19, 1863, the electors of the City and County of San Francisco passed this bond by a vote of 6,329 to 3,116, in a controversial Special Election. The City and County's financing of the investment through the issuance and delivery of Bonds was delayed for two years, when Mayor Henry P. Coon, the County Clerk, Wilhelm Loewy, each refused to countersign the Bonds, it took legal actions to force them to do so: in 1864 the Supreme Court of the State of California ordered them under Writs of Mandamus and in 1865, a legal judgment against Loewy (The People ex rel The Centr
Wheeling Suspension Bridge
The Wheeling Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the main channel of the Ohio River at Wheeling, West Virginia. It was the largest suspension bridge in the world from 1849 until 1851. Charles Ellet Jr. designed it and supervised construction of what became the first bridge to span a major river west of the Appalachian mountains. It linked the eastern and western section of the National Road, became strategically important during the American Civil War. Litigation in the United States Supreme Court concerning its obstruction of the new high steamboat smokestacks cleared the way for other bridges needed by expanding railroads; because this bridge was designed during the horse-and-buggy era, 2-ton weight limits and vehicle separation requirements now apply. The main span is 1,010 feet from tower to tower; the east tower rests on the Wheeling shore. The east tower is 153.5 feet above the low-water level of the river, or 82 feet from the base of the masonry. The west tower is 132.75 feet above low water, with 69 feet of masonry.
Detailed analysis of the bridge was conducted by Dr. Emory Kemp; the Wheeling Suspension Bridge was designated a National Historic Landmark on May 15, 1975. It is located in the Wheeling Island Historic District. A charter was granted to the Wheeling and Belmont Bridge Company in 1816 to construct a bridge to extend the National Road across the Ohio River. Although the U. S. Congress authorized the National Road in 1806, cities competing for that crossing included Wellsburg and Steubenville, that bridge connecting Wheeling with Belmont, Ohio was never less completed; the National Road formally reached Wheeling on August 1, 1818, but ferries took passengers and freight to the other section of the National Road which began in Belmont and continued westward. In 1820 Congress authorized the National Road's extension to Missouri; as discussed below, another attempt to charter and construct a bridge across the Ohio River was made more than a decade later. That began in state legislatures and succeeded in getting the bridge built using new technology.
It produced two rounds of important litigation in the United States Supreme Court, in 1849–1852 and again in 1854–56. Since 1820 Congress had spent much money to clear navigation obstacles from the Ohio River, which flows from Pittsburgh down through Wheeling to Cincinnati and reaches the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois downstream of St. Louis, Missouri. Goods and produce could thus ship cheaply and down the Ohio River and reach the ocean port of New Orleans, Louisiana. Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky had become a great proponent of internal improvements, in part because the Ohio River drained the northern part of his state and contributed to the growth of Louisville. Both road and navigation improvements helped bring manufactured goods and people to Kentucky, western Virginia, Indiana, etc. and as well as allowed produce and natural resources to reach eastern and international markets. However, President Andrew Jackson had a much stingier view of internal improvements than Senator Clay, preferring to leave their construction to private or individual state interests, if at all.
Meanwhile, ferrying the U. S. mail, as well as passengers and goods across the Ohio river at Wheeling to connect the two sections of the National Road proved cumbersome and expensive. Maintaining the National Road cost money after floods in 1832 left debris, as well as destroyed shore facilities. In 1835 Congress gave existing sections to the adjoining states, in order to pass on those maintenance costs. In the interim, new steamboat technology helped goods move upstream as well as downstream, both railroad and bridge technology had evolved. Nonetheless, navigation on the Ohio River between Wheeling and Pittsburgh remained hazardous at certain times of year. Pittsburgh and Wheeling both competed to become commercial hubs connecting east and west across the central Appalachian mountains. To the north, the Erie Canal and the Welland Canal proved a commercial boon to cities some distance away. Soon, Pennsylvania competed by subsidizing first a short canal ending at Pittsburgh railroads connecting Pittsburgh to Philadelphia, which had rail and water connections to New York City and was a major international port in its own right.
In 1835, a new incline railroad connected Pittsburgh to goods. The combination of Pennsylvania railroads and canals became known as the "Main Line". In 1846 Pennsylvania's legislature chartered the Pennsylvania Railroad to connect its state capital Harrisburg with Pittsburgh. While transappalachian commerce boomed in part because canals enabled one man, one boy, a horse and a boat to transport what had involved ten men, ten wagons and sixty horses (and the Pennsylvania route was shorter route for most Ohio valley goods and produc
American Society of Civil Engineers
The American Society of Civil Engineers is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Headquartered in Reston, Virginia, it is the oldest national engineering society in the United States, its constitution was based on the older Boston Society of Civil Engineers from 1848. The American Society of Civil Engineers represents more than 150,000 members of the civil engineering profession in 177 countries. Through the expertise of its active membership, ASCE is a leading provider of technical and professional conferences and continuing education, the world’s largest publisher of civil engineering content, an authoritative source for codes and standards that protect the public. ASCE stands for the "American Society of Civil Engineers"; the society was chartered under this full legal name when it was incorporated on April 17, 1877 in New York state. ASCE's membership has long been composed of civil engineers and affiliate members who are not students or classically trained engineers or scientists.
ASCE is dedicated to the "...advancement of the science and profession of Civil engineering and the enhancement of human welfare through the activities of society members." It has about 152,000 members in about 177 countries. Its mission is to provide essential value to "...members, their careers, our partners, the public...... Facilitate the advancement of technology; the first serious and documented attempts to organize civil engineers as a professional society in the newly created United States were in the early 19th century. In 1828, John Kilbourn of Ohio, managed a short-lived "Civil Engineering Journal", editorializing about the recent incorporation of the Institution of Civil Engineers in Great Britain that same year, Kilbourn suggested that the American corps of engineers could constitute an American society of civil engineers. In 1834, an American trade periodical, the "American Railroad Journal" advocated for similar national organization of civil engineers. On December 17, 1838, a petition started circulating asking civil engineers to meet in 1839 in Baltimore, Maryland to organize a permanent society of civil engineers.
Prior to that, thirteen notable civil engineers identifiable as being from New York, Pennsylvania, or Maryland met in Philadelphia. This group presented the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia with a formal proposal that an Institution of American Civil Engineers be established as an adjunct of the Franklin..." Some of them were: Benjamin Wright. In 1969, the American Society of Civil Engineers declared Wright to be the'Father of American Civil Engineering'. William Strickland Pennsylvanians Solomon. W. Roberts, the latter being Chief Engineer for the Allegheny Portage railroad, the first crossing of the Allegheny mountains Forty engineers appeared at the February, 1839 meeting Baltimore including J. Edgar Thomson, Roberts, Edward Miller, the Maryland engineers Isaac Trimble and architect Benjamin H. Latrobe and attendees from as far as Massachusetts and Louisiana. Subsequently, a group met again in Philadelphia, led by its Secretary, Edward Miller to take steps to formalize the society, participants now included such other notable engineers as: John B.
Jervis Claudius Crozet William Gibbs McNeill George Washington Whistler Walter Gwynn J. Edgar Thompson Sylvester Welch, brother of future ASCE president Ashbel Welch Other members included Jonathan Knight and Moncure Robinson. Miller drafted up a proposed constitution which gave the society's purpose as "the collection and diffusion of professional knowledge, the advancement of mechanical philosophy, the elevation of the character and standing of the Civil Engineers of the United States." Membership in the new society restricted membership to engineers and "architects and eminent machinists were to be admitted only as Associates." The proposed constitution failed, no further attempts were made to form another society. Miller ascribed the failure due to the difficulties of assembling members due available means for traveling in the country at time. One of the other difficulties members would have to contend with was the requirement to produce each year, one unpublished paper or "...present a scientific book, plan or model, not in the possession of the Society, under the penalty of $10."
In that same period, the editor of the American Railroad Journal commented that effort had failed in part due to certain jealousies which arose due to the proposed affiliation with the Franklin Institute. That journal continued discussion on forming an engineers' organization from 1839 thru 1843 serving its own self interests in advocating its journal as a replacement for a professional society but to no avail. During the 1840s, professional organizations continued to organize in the United States; the organizers motives were to "... improve common standards, foster research, disseminate knowledge through meetings and publications." Unlike earlier associations such as the American Philosophical Society, these newer associations were not seeking to limit membership as much as pursue "... more specialized interests." Examples of this surge in new professional organizations in America were the American Statistical Association, American Ethnological Society, American Medical Association, American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Education Association.
During this same period of association incorporations on the 1840s, attempts were aga
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties; the lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy; the river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, after whom Hudson Bay in Canada is named.
It had been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper New York Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River – and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlements of the colony clustered around the Hudson, its strategic importance as the gateway to the American interior led to years of competition between the English and the Dutch over control of the river and colony. During the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, an American pastoral style, as well as the concepts of environmentalism and wilderness; the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet. However, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream; the river is named Feldspar Brook until its confluence with Calamity Brook, is named Calamity Brook until the river reaches Indian Pass Brook, flowing south from the outlet of Henderson Lake. From that point on, the stream is cartographically known as the Hudson River; the U. S. Geological Survey uses this cartographical definition; the longest source of the Hudson River as shown on the most detailed USGS maps is the "Opalescent River" on the west slopes of Little Marcy Mountain, originating two miles north of Lake Tear of the Clouds, several miles, past the Flowed Lands, to the Hudson River. And a mile longer than "Feldspar Brook", which flows out of that lake in the Adirondack Mountains. Popular culture and convention, more cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source. Using river names as seen on maps, Indian Pass Brook flows into Henderson Lake, the outlet from Henderson Lake flows east and meets the southwest flowing Calamity Brook.
The confluence of the two rivers is. South of the outlet of Sanford Lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson; the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties. In the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties; the river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake. Shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake, it next goes through Hudson Falls. At this point the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties. Here the river has an elevation of 200 feet. Just south in Fort Edward, the river reaches its confluence with the Champlain Canal, which provided boat traffic between New York City and Montreal and the rest of Eastern Canada via the Hudson, Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
Further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties; the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River. Shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford; the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, marking an impoundment of the river. At an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River. South of the Federal Dam, the Hudson River begins to widen considerably; the river enters the Hudson Valley, flowing along the west bank of Albany and the east bank of Rensselaer. Interstate 90 crosses the Hudson into Albany at this point in the river; the Hudson leaves the Capital District, forming the boundary between Greene and Columbia Counties. It meets its confluence with Schodack Creek, widening at this point.
After flowing by Hudson, the river forms the boundary between Ulster and Columbia Counties and Ulster and Dutchess Counties, passing Germantown and Kingston. The Delaware and Hudson Canal meets the river at t
Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge
The Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge at Savage, Maryland is the sole surviving example of a revolutionary design in the history of American bridge engineering. The 160-foot double-span truss bridge is one of the oldest standing iron railroad bridges in the United States. However, it is in use carrying the Savage Mill Trail across the Little Patuxent River, it was the first successful all-metal bridge design to be adopted and used on a railroad. The type was named for Wendel Bollman, a self-educated Baltimore civil engineer; the bridge was built for an unknown location on the main line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1852, was moved to its present location, spanning the Little Patuxent River on the spur to the Savage Mill, in 1887. This spur line dates to around 1840 and crossed the river on a stone arch bridge; the bridge remained in service until the mill closed in 1947. A smaller, narrower example was installed adjacent to the railbridge for road traffic, torn down after World War I, it was the first successful all-metal bridge design to be adopted and used on a railroad.
The design employs wrought iron tension members and cast iron compression members. It was an improvement over wooden structures, as the independent structural units lessened the possibility of structural failure. Patented on January 6, 1852, the company built about a hundred of these bridges through 1873, their durability and ease of assembly facilitated expansion of American railroads in this period. Bollman's Wills Creek Bridge has survived, but it employs a different type of truss system; the Bollman Bridge is a two-span through-truss, resting on granite abutments at each end and a granite pier in the middle of the river. The truss structure is a mixture of cast iron; the truss configuration is the design patented by Bollman as the "Bollman suspension truss" in 1852. Each span is 25.5 feet wide and about 21 feet tall. The Bollman truss suspends the deck from a network of tension members, while the top chord resists compressive forces; the system is therefore referred to as a suspension truss.
The truss includes decorative elements, such as Doric styled vertical members. The cast iron end towers, which bear transfer the weight of the structure to the abutments and pier, are detailed. A decorative and protective metal enclosure at the top of the towers was lost to vandalism, but was replaced during the restoration work. Metal strips at each portal read "W. BOLLMAN, PATENTEE", "BALTIMORE, MD.", "BUILT BY B&O R. R. CO.", "1869" AND "RENEWED 1866". Replicas of the original strips were installed during the restoration; the bridge was brightly painted, using red oxide for the towers and the heavier compression members and an ivory color for the lighter tension members. The bridge was painted in a three color scheme, documented in black and white photography, with specific shades unknown. In 1966 the American Society of Civil Engineers introduced a new program, designating the bridge as the first-ever Historic Civil Engineering Landmark; the bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 18, 1972, was designated a National Historic Landmark on February 16, 2000.
The bridge was surveyed for restoration in 1978 by Modjeski and Masters with deterioration of the floor trusses noted. A $214,200 restoration contract was let to Dewey-Jordan of Frederick in September 1982; the bridge was restored by Wallace, Montgomery & Associates, LLP, for the Howard County Department of Recreation and Parks in 1983, more underwent additional preservation work and was rededicated on September 16, 2000. Today it receives regular maintenance as part of Savage Park. Nearby Bollman Bridge Elementary School takes its name from the historic bridge. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Maryland List of Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Maryland List of Howard County properties in the Maryland Historical Trust List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland National Register of Historic Places listings in Howard County, Maryland Color images of the Bollman Bridge after preservation work National Historic Landmark information American Society of Civil Engineers - Bollman Truss Bridge Bollman Truss Bridge at Structurae Savage Park History and analysis of the Bollman truss Bollman Suspension Truss Bridge, Howard County, including photo in 1985, at Maryland Historical Trust Historic American Engineering Record No.
MD-1, "Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Truss Bridge, Spanning Little Patuxent River, Howard County, MD", 20 photos, 7 measured drawings, 8 data pages, 4 photo caption pages
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a 1,912-mile continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U. S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants. Construction was financed by both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds; the Western Pacific Railroad Company built 132 mi of track from Oakland/Alameda to Sacramento, California. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California constructed 690 mi eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory; the Union Pacific built 1,085 mi from the road's eastern terminus at Council Bluffs near Omaha, Nebraska westward to Promontory Summit. The railroad opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869 when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" with a silver hammer at Promontory Summit.
The coast-to-coast railroad connection revolutionized the settlement and economy of the American West. It brought the western states and territories into alignment with the northern Union states and made transporting passengers and goods coast-to-coast quicker and less expensive. Paddle steamers linked Sacramento to the cities and their harbor facilities in the San Francisco Bay until 1869, when the CPRR completed and opened the Western Pacific grade to Alameda and Oakland; the first transcontinental rail passengers arrived at the Pacific Railroad's original western terminus at the Alameda Mole on September 6, 1869 where they transferred to the steamer Alameda for transport across the Bay to San Francisco. The road's rail terminus was moved two months to the Oakland Long Wharf about a mile to the north. Service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier continued to be provided by ferry; the CPRR purchased 53 miles of UPRR-built grade from Promontory Summit to Ogden, Utah Territory, which became the interchange point between trains of the two roads.
The transcontinental line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line until 1962. Building a railroad line that connected the United States coast-to-coast was advocated in 1832 when Dr. Hartwell Carver published an article in the New York Courier & Enquirer advocating building a transcontinental railroad from Lake Michigan to Oregon. In 1847 he submitted to the U. S. Congress a "Proposal for a Charter to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean", seeking a congressional charter to support his idea. Congress agreed to support the idea. Under the direction of the Department of War, the Pacific Railroad Surveys were conducted from 1853 through 1855; these included an extensive series of expeditions of the American West seeking possible routes. A report on the explorations described alternative routes and included an immense amount of information about the American West, covering at least 400,000 sq mi.
It included the region's natural history and illustrations of reptiles, amphibians and mammals. The report failed however to include detailed topographic maps of potential routes needed to estimate the feasibility and select the best route; the survey was detailed enough to determine that the best southern route lay south of the Gila River boundary with Mexico in vacant desert, through the future territories of Arizona and New Mexico. This in part motivated the United States to complete the Gadsden Purchase. In 1856 the Select Committee on the Pacific Railroad and Telegraph of the US House of Representatives published a report recommending support for a proposed Pacific railroad bill: The necessity that now exists for constructing lines of railroad and telegraphic communication between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of this continent is no longer a question for argument. In order to maintain our present position on the Pacific, we must have some more speedy and direct means of intercourse than is at present afforded by the route through the possessions of a foreign power.
The U. S. Congress was divided on where the eastern terminus of the railroad should be—in a southern or northern city. Three routes were considered: A northern route along the Missouri River through present-day northern Montana to Oregon Territory; this was considered impractical due to extensive winter snows. A central route following the Platte River in Nebraska through to the South Pass in Wyoming, following most of the Oregon Trail. Snow on this route remained a concern. A southern route across Texas, New Mexico Territory, the Sonora desert, connecting to Los Angeles, California. Surveyors found during an 1848 survey that the best route lay south of the border between the United States and Mexico; this was resolved by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. Once the central route was chosen, it was obvious that the western terminus should be Sacramento, but there was considerable difference of opinion about the eastern terminus. Three locations along 250 miles of Missouri River were considered: St. Joseph, accessed via the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.
Kansas City, Kansas / Leavenworth, Kansas accessed via the Leavenworth and Western Railroad, controlled by Thomas Ewing Jr. and by John C. Fremont. Council Bluffs, Iowa / Omaha, accessed via an extension of Union Pacific financier Thomas C. Durant's proposed Mississippi and
Windsor is a town in Windsor County, United States. As the "Birthplace of Vermont", the town is where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted in 1777, thus marking the founding of the Vermont Republic—a sovereign state until 1791 when Vermont joined the United States. Over much of its history, Windsor was home to a variety of manufacturing enterprises; the population was 3,553 at the 2010 census. One of the New Hampshire grants, Windsor was chartered as a town on July 6, 1761, by colonial governor Benning Wentworth, it was first settled in August 1764 by Captain Steele Smith and his family from Farmington, Connecticut. In 1777, the signers of the Constitution of the Vermont Republic met at Old Constitution House, a tavern at the time, to declare independence from the British Empire. In 1820, it was a thriving center for trade and agriculture. In 1835, the first dam was built across Mill Brook to provide water power. Factories made guns, tinware and harnesses; the community is named for Connecticut.
In 1846, Robbins and Lawerence received a government contract to manufacture firearms. Using advanced machine tools to produce interchangeable parts and their associates established factories in the Connecticut River valley and throughout New England. Two factories, now both closed, sustained the economy of Windsor: Cone Automatic Machine Company and a Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company plant. Windsor village began development at the end of the 18th century and achieved importance in Vermont history as the location of the framing of the constitution of Vermont, it is known as the birthplace of Vermont, where the state constitution was signed, acted as the first capital until 1805 when Montpelier became the official state capital. Commerce prospered due to the village's location on the banks of the Connecticut River where several smaller streams run into it; the economy improved in the mid-19th century when Windsor became the first town in the state to break ground for the railroad with the construction of a rail depot.
Windsor Station connected the town to out-of-state markets. It was. Windsor's war memorial, the City Center Veterans Memorial, was created by sculptor Lawrence Nowlan. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 19.8 square miles, of which 19.5 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water. Home to part of Mount Ascutney, Windsor is situated beside the Connecticut River; the town is crossed by Interstate 91, U. S. Route 5, Vermont Route 12, Vermont Route 44, Vermont Route 44A, it is bordered by the town of Weathersfield to the south, West Windsor to the west, Hartland to the north. To the east, across the Connecticut River, is Cornish, New Hampshire, to which Windsor is connected by the Cornish–Windsor Covered Bridge, one of the longest covered bridges in the world; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,756 people, 1,520 households, 945 families residing in the town. The population density was 192.1 people per square mile. There were 1,611 housing units at an average density of 82.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 97.74% White, 0.24% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.24% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. There were 1,520 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.83. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,815, the median income for a family was $43,551.
Males had a median income of $29,897 versus $23,313 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,640. About 6.4% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.9% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. Windsor is served by Vermont; the district serves grades kindergarten to twelfth. The two schools in the district are Windsor High School; the Mt. Ascutney Hospital and Health Center is located in Windsor. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides daily service through Windsor, operating its Vermonter between Washington, D. C. and St. Albans, Vermont. Moon Dance Since 1999, Windsor has hosted this Autumn street festival, complete with live bands and hypnotists. Windsor is home to Paradise Park in the Windsor Town Forest which borders Runnemede Lake Asa Aikens, Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court Asher Benjamin, author, educator Carlos Coolidge, politician Edward Curtis, politician A. E. Douglass, astronomer Josiah Dunham, Secretary of State of Vermont Maxwell Evarts, president of the Windsor Savings Bank and founded the State Fair Program in Vermont William M. Evarts, United States Attorney General, United States Secretary of State, U.
S. senator for New York Horace Everett, US congressman William Laurel Harris and arts organizer Valentine B. Horton, US congr