Interstate 69 in Texas
Interstate 69 is an Interstate Highway in the U. S. state of Texas, planned to pass through the eastern part of the state and along the Gulf Coast to Victoria, where it will split into multiple segments with I-69E terminating in Brownsville, I-69C terminating in Pharr, I-69W terminating in Laredo. The first segment of I-69 in Texas was opened in 2011 near Corpus Christi; the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials approved an additional 53 miles of US 77 from Brownsville to Raymondville for designation as I-69, to be signed as I-69E upon concurrence from the Federal Highway Administration. FHWA approval for this segment was announced on May 29, 2013. By March 2015, a 74.9 mile section of US-59 had been completed and designated as I-69 through the Houston Metropolitan Area. The congressionally designated I-69 corridor begins at the Mexican border with 3 auxiliary routes: I-69W begins at the entrance to the World Trade International Bridge, which connects to Mexican Federal Highway 85D, near the border in Laredo.
It is co-signed with both US 59 and Loop 20 and extends 1.4 miles to I-35. It will continue on US 59 east to George West, where it will intersect I-69C, it will intersect I-37 east of George West, it will continue east to Victoria. I-69C begins in Pharr at I-2 and is designated for 18 miles through Edinburg and co-signed with US 281, it will continue north along US 281 to George West, where it will intersect I-69W and terminate at this point. I-69E begins just north of the Veterans International Bridge. 101 and Fed. 180, near the border in Brownsville and continues for 53.3 miles through Olmito, where it intersects I-169 and through Harlingen, where it intersects I-2 and past Raymondville and co-signed with US 77, it is co-signed with US 83 from Brownsville to Harlingen. The route will follow the US 77 corridor north to Corpus Christi, where a 7.8-mile segment is designated as I-69E and co-signed with US 77 and intersects I-37, it will continue north to Victoria. I-69W and I-69E will merge just south of Victoria, where mainline I-69 will follow US 59 northeast to Fort Bend County.
In the Houston area, I-69 follows US 59 from Fort Bend County to the west loop of I-610. I-69 follows US 59 from the north loop of I-610 to the Liberty-Montgomery county line; the segment of US 59 inside Loop I-610, through downtown Houston, was approved for designation as I-69 by the FHWA on March 9, 2015 and approved for signage as I-69 by the Texas Transportation Commission on March 25, 2015. I-69 will follow US 59 to the north, serving Cleveland, Livingston, Lufkin and Tenaha. At Tenaha, I-69 will head into Louisiana along the US 84 corridor; the segment of US 59 from Tenaha to Texarkana will be signed as I-369. Since the first section of US 77 between Corpus Christi and Robstown was signed as I-69, it implied that the I-69 mainline would follow the coastal route from Victoria to Brownsville; this implied that the branch along US 59 from Victoria to Laredo and the branch along US 281 from George West to Pharr would be signed as either three-digit spurs of I-69 or as separate two-digit Interstate Highways.
While federal legislation designating the south Texas branches as I-69 suggested that these routes may be designated as "I-69E", "I-69C", "I-69W", the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Special Committee on Route Numbering rejected the Texas Department of Transportation's request for these three designations along the proposed I-69 branches, citing that AASHTO policy no longer allows Interstate Highways to be signed as suffixed routes. Stating that the I-69E, I-69C, I-69W designations for the three I-69 branches south of Victoria were written into federal law, the initial denial of TxDOT's applications were subsequently overturned by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Highways, the approval for the I-69E, I-69C, I-69W branch designations were confirmed by the AASHTO Board of Directors, pending concurrence from the Federal Highway Administration during the AASHTO Spring Meeting on May 7, 2013. During this same meeting, the section of US 83 between Harlingen and Penitas was conditionally approved to be designated as I-2, with FHWA concurrence.
The US 83 freeway in south Texas was anticipated to receive an I-x69 designation instead of I-2. In any case, Texas is proceeding in the same fashion as Indiana, conducting environmental studies for its portion of I-69 in a two-tier process; the mainline route through Texas will be 500 miles. On June 11, 2008, TxDOT announced they planned to limit further study of I-69 to existing highway corridors outside transition zones in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Laredo and Texarkana. Texas sought a public-private partnership to construct much of the route through Texas as a operated toll road under the failed Trans-Texas Corridor project. However, on June 26, 2008, TxDOT announced that they had approved a proposal by Zachry American and ACS Infrastructure to develop the I-69 corridor in Texas, beginning with upgrades to the US 77 corridor between Brownsville and I-37. Original plans for the route included a potential overlap with the "TTC-35" corridor component as well, but the preferred alternative for that component follows I-
U.S. Route 59
U. S. Route 59 is a north–south United States highway. A latecomer to the U. S. numbered route system, US 59 is now a border-to-border route, part of NAFTA Corridor Highway System. It parallels U. S. Route 75 for nearly its entire route, never much more than 100 miles away, until it veers southwest in Houston, Texas, its number is out of place since US 59 is either concurrent with or west of U. S. Route 71; the highway's northern terminus is nine miles north of Lancaster, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 59. Its southern terminus is at the Mexico–US border in Laredo, where it continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85D. U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. Senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway, one of the busiest sections of freeway in the United States with a vehicle count, as of 2006, over 330,000 vehicles per day just outside the Loop.
US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90% of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75 mph speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. From the southwestern suburbs of Houston to Downtown Houston, U. S. 59 is referred to as the "Southwest Freeway," sometimes derisively as the "Southwest's Best Freeway." Supporting 371,000 vehicles per day, it is one of the busiest freeways in the United States. U. S. 59 is known as the "Eastex Freeway" in the north/northeast part of the Houston region. At the Mexico -- US border, it ends at the World Trade International Bridge in Texas. In Laredo, U. S. 59 is co-signed with both Interstate 69W and Loop 20 and has an intersection with Interstate 35 which ends at the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge.
After crossing the bridge into Mexico, Interstate 35 continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85 in Nuevo Laredo which runs through Mexico and Central America and ends in Panama at the Panama Canal. In Arkansas, US 59 is concurrent with U. S. Route 71 from Interstate 30 at Texarkana to Acorn, with U. S. Route 270 from Acorn to the Oklahoma state line; the Third Loop was to be Extended on Interstate 49 from its original northern end to US-71 at the Texas state line opened on May 15, 2013 and was extended to State Line Road, where it intersects US-59 and US-71 in Texas. US 59 and U. S. Route 412 are co-signed for 10 miles in Oklahoma. US 59 is co-signed with U. S. Route 270 from the Arkansas State Line to Heavener and U. S. Route 271 from Poteau to west of Spiro, it is co-signed with U. S. Route 64 in Sallisaw. U. S. 59 runs nearly directly north across the state. U. S. 59 runs concurrently with U. S. 169 starting about five miles south of Garnett and diverges north again south of Garnett. The intersection south of Garnett used to be a "braided" intersection with stop and yield signs.
It was identified as a high crash location in 2001, was rebuilt as a roundabout that opened in April 2006. The Kansas Department of Transportation is rebuilding or planning to rebuild several other rural intersections as roundabouts for increased safety; until 2012 US 59 passed through Ottawa and had to be shut down or detoured every time the Marias Des Cygnes floodwall gates were closed across the highway. The highway now bypasses around Ottawa, running concurrently with Interstate 35 for five miles and utilizing that highway's bridges over the Marias Des Cygnes. US 59 passes through Lawrence; the street name of US 59 in Lawrence is Iowa Street 6th Street as it joins U. S. 40 and jogs east to cross the Kansas River near downtown. North of the U. S. 40 and 59 Bridges, it splits with U. S. 40 as it joins U. S. 24 and jogs back west before resuming a northerly course. It continues north to Nortonville northeast to Atchison, where it crosses the Missouri River over the Amelia Earhart Bridge. U. S. 59 has been rebuilt and rerouted just to the east between Lawrence and Ottawa as a divided highway, as the former road was one of the most dangerous stretches of highway in the state.
The project began in mid 2007 and was completed and opened to the public on October 17, 2012. In Missouri, US 59 follows the Missouri River in the northwest corner of the state, from its entrance at Winthrop. In Saint Joseph the highway is paired with Interstate 229 through downtown. US 59 departs from I-229 as Saint Joseph Avenue, joining with U. S. Route 71 at Interstate 29; the two highways separate in Savannah. US 59 follows Interstate 29 closely until turning northward at Craig, it exits the state 10 miles north of Tarkio. This section of US 59 is immortalized in the Brewer and Shipley song "Tarkio Road". In Iowa, US 59 is a main north–south artery in the western part of the state, it junctions Interstate 80 at Avoca. It passes through the county seats of Harlan, Denison and Primghar. Except for small stretches of expressway near Avoca and Holstein, the entire length of US 59 in Iowa is an undivided two-lane road. US 59 exits the state near Hawkeye Point, the highest p
Interstate 45 is an interstate highway located within the U. S. state of Texas. While most interstate routes ending in five are cross-country north-south routes, I-45 is comparatively short, with the entire route located in Texas, it connects the cities of Dallas and Houston, continuing southeast from Houston to Galveston over the Galveston Causeway to the Gulf of Mexico. I-45 replaced US 75 over its entire length, although portions of US 75 remained parallel to I-45 until its elimination south of downtown Dallas in 1987. At the south end of I-45, State Highway 87 continues into downtown Galveston; the north end is at Interstate 30 in downtown Dallas. A short continuation, known by traffic reporters as the I-45 overhead, signed as part of US 75, Interstate 345, continues north to the merge with the current end of US 75. Traffic can use Spur 366 to connect to Interstate 35E at the north end of I-345; the portion of I-45 between downtown Houston and Galveston is known to Houston residents as the Gulf Freeway.
The short elevated section of I-45 which forms the southern boundary of downtown Houston is known as the Pierce Elevated, after the surface street next to which the freeway runs, while north of Interstate 10 it is known as the North Freeway. I-45 and I-345 in the Dallas area, north of the interchanges with Interstate 20 and State Highway 310, is the Julius Schepps Freeway; the Gulf Freeway and North Freeway both include reversible high-occupancy vehicle lanes for buses and other high-occupancy vehicles to and from downtown Houston. In addition to the official control cities of Galveston and Dallas, I-45 serves a number of other communities, including La Marque, League City, The Woodlands, Willis, Madisonville, Buffalo, Fairfield and Ennis. U. S. Highway 190 joins I-45 for 26 miles from Huntsville, Texas to Texas. U. S. Highway 287 joins I-45 for 18 miles from Corsicana, Texas to Texas. US 287 signs are only posted from the northern end of Business Loop 45 in Corsicana to the Ellis County line.
Interstate 45 gained notoriety during Hurricane Rita in 2005. Thousands of Houston area evacuees jammed the roadway trying to leave; as a result, the freeway became a parking lot. Gas stations ran dry and hundreds of people's cars ran empty, their occupants having to spend the night along the shoulder. Four-hour drives became 24-hour drives. Though the Texas Department of Transportation started contraflow lane reversal at FM 1488, it did not alleviate the traffic jam deep into the city, as that starting point was north of The Woodlands, close to Conroe, the northern terminus of the greater Houston area. At just 284.913 miles, I-45 is the shortest of the primary interstates, the only primary interstate to be inside of one state. The stretch of I-45 connecting Galveston with Houston is known as the Gulf Freeway, it was the first freeway built in Texas—opened in stages beginning on October 1, 1948, up to a full completion to Galveston in 1952, as part of U. S. Highway 75. At the north end, it connects to the North Freeway via the short Pierce Elevated, completed in 1967.
The section north of the curve near Monroe Road/State Highway 3 in southeastern Houston was built on the right-of-way of the former Galveston-Houston Electric Railway, which entered downtown on Pierce Street. From January 1974 until December 1995, the speed limit was 55 mph for the entire route of the Gulf Freeway Houston-GalvestonAfter several interchanges, I-45 crosses the Galveston Causeway and passes Tiki Island. Old U. S. Highway 75 south of this junction was upgraded on the spot; the Gulf Freeway parallels State Highway 3 about 1 mile to the west, bypassing La Marque and South Houston. It includes interchanges with several other freeways: the Emmett F. Lowry Expressway, NASA Road 1 Bypass and the Sam Houston Tollway, meeting the north end of State Highway 3 in southeastern Houston. A center reversible HOV lane begins just south of the Sam Houston Tollway. In Houston, I-45 meets Interstate Highway State Highway 35 at a complicated interchange. At the merge with Spur 5, a short freeway spur to the University of Houston, elevated collector/distributor roads begin.
The C/D roads and the HOV lane end at the original end of the Gulf Freeway. Just past Emancipation Avenue is an interchange with Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59 and State Highway 288, after which I-45 technically becomes the North Freeway as it runs along the northwest half of the block between Pierce Street and Gray Street as the Pierce Elevated; the reversible high-occupancy vehicle lane begins in downtown Houston at the intersection of St. Joseph Parkway and Emancipation Avenue, with easy access inbound to St. Joseph Parkway and outbound from Pierce Street, it runs down the median of the Gulf Freeway at the same level as the main lanes. Ramps are provided for access to and from the following roads: Eastwood Transit Center — full access Interstate Highway 610 north frontage road — full access Monroe Road and Monroe Park & Ride — full access Fuqua Park & Ride and South Point Park & Ride — full access Frontage roads north of Dixie Farm Road - towards downtown, with a ramp stub for continuation The Interstate 45 North Freeway HOV begins in downtown Houston near the University of Houston–Downtown, with easy access inbound on Milam Street and outbound on Travis Street.
Ramps and ent
Interstate 10 in Texas
Interstate 10 is the major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. In the U. S. state of Texas, it runs east from Anthony, at the border with New Mexico, through El Paso, San Antonio and Houston to the border with Louisiana in Orange, Texas. At just under 880 miles, the Texas segment of I-10, maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation, is the longest continuous untolled freeway in North America, operated by a single authority, it is the longest stretch of highway with a single designation within a single state. Mile marker 880 and its corresponding exit number in Orange, are the highest numbered mile marker and exit on any freeway in North America. After widening was completed in 2008, a portion of the highway west of Houston is now believed to be the widest in the world, at 26 lanes. There is a wider section in China on the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway. More than a third of I-10's entire length is located in Texas alone. El Paso, near the Texas–New Mexico state line, is 785 miles from the western terminus of I-10 in Santa Monica, making it closer to Los Angeles than it is to Orange, Texas, 857 miles away at the Texas–Louisiana state line.
Orange is only 789 miles from the eastern terminus of I-10 in Jacksonville, Florida. I-10 replaced and runs concurrently with U. S. Highway 85 from the New Mexico border up until the two diverge at mile marker 13; the two highways parallel each other for several miles until US 85 continues to head south to the border with Mexico and I-10 turns east towards Downtown El Paso. Prior to the Interstate Highway system, US 85 ran concurrent with US 80 from the New Mexico border until the two diverged in Downtown El Paso; when I-10 was constructed in downtown El Paso, several blocks were demolished, a sub-grade trench was built for the freeway. A series of overpasses now carry the preexisting north-south surface streets over the east-west stretch of I-10 through downtown. I-10 replaced US 80 through El Paso and to the southeast and east to the present day junction of I-10 and I-20. US 80 along this route has been removed from the highway system in favor of I-10. At the junction with I-20, I-10 replaced US 290 eastward to the present day junction of I-10 and US 290 southeast of Junction.
This section of US 290 was deleted from the highway system. From this point to near Comfort, I-10 replaced State Highway 27. SH 27 still exists along this stretch paralleling I-10 to the south. From Comfort southeast to San Antonio, I-10 directly replaced US 87. I-10 follows the alignment of US 87 on the northwest side of San Antonio into downtown. A new alignment was built to the south of downtown for the freeway since it was impossible to upgrade the surface streets in downtown that US 87 and US 90 followed prior to the Interstate Highway System. Southeast of downtown, I-10 curves back to the northeast to connect with the pre-interstate alignment of US 90. Construction of portions of I-10 were well underway and completed prior to the commissioning of the highway in 1959; the section from Culebra Road to Woodlawn Avenue opened as the first freeway in San Antonio in 1949, but was signed as US 87. Expansion and construction continued in the 1950s, but the bulk of the construction occurred in the 1960s after the interstate was commissioned.
The current alignment was completed by 1968. Rapid growth in San Antonio has resulted in the original highway becoming inadequate, resulting in the highway being in perpetual construction and expansion. In the 1980s the portion just northwest of downtown was reconstructed to add a double deck feature to expand the freeway to five lanes in each direction. In 1990, the interstate had only two lanes in each direction from Loop 1604 to where the double-deck freeway begins near downtown. Recent construction has expanded the freeway to five lanes in each direction from just outside the I-410 loop all the way into downtown; the I-10/I-410 interchange was reconstructed into a four-level stack interchange. When constructed during the 1960s, the I-10 Katy from Houston, known as the Katy Freeway, was built with six to eight lanes wide barring side lanes, being modest by Houston standards because existing traffic demand to the farming area of West Houston was low; as the population and economic activity increased in the area vehicular traffic increased, reaching an annual average daily traffic of 238,000 vehicles just west of the West Loop in 2001.
In 2000 increased traffic levels and congestion led to plans being approved for widening of the freeway to 16 lanes with a capacity for 200,000 cars per day. An old railway running along the north side of the freeway was demolished in 2002 in preparation for construction which began in 2004; the interior two lanes in each direction between SH 6 and west I-610, the Katy Freeway Managed Lanes or Katy Tollway, were built as high-occupancy toll lanes and are managed by the Harris County Toll Road Authority. The section just west of SH 6 to the Fort Bend–Harris county line opened in late June 2006. Two intersections were rebuilt, toll booths were added, together with landscaping as part of Houston's Highway Beautification Project. Most of the section between Beltway 8 and SH 6 had been laid by September 2006 and work was completed in October 2008. Tolls on the managed lanes vary by axle count and time of day. High occupancy vehicles may travel for free at certain times. Severe flooding of the Sabine River occurred in March 2016.
Days of continuous heavy rains, coupled with the controversial opening of the Toledo Bend Dam and the release of 207,000 to 208,000 cubic feet per second into the river, caused th
University of Houston
The University of Houston is a state research university and the main institution of the University of Houston System. Founded in 1927, UH is the third-largest university in Texas with nearly 44,000 students, its campus spans 667 acres in southeast Houston, was known as University of Houston–University Park from 1983 to 1991. The Carnegie Foundation classifies UH as a doctoral degree-granting institution with "highest research activity." The U. S. News & World Report ranks the university No. 171 in its National University Rankings, No. 91 among top public universities. The university offers more than 282 degree programs through its 14 academic colleges on campus—including programs leading to professional degrees in architecture, law and pharmacy; the institution conducts $150 million annually in research, operates more than 40 research centers and institutes on campus. Interdisciplinary research includes superconductivity, space commercialization and exploration, biomedical sciences and engineering and natural resources, artificial intelligence.
Awarding more than 9,000 degrees annually, UH's alumni base exceeds 260,000. The economic impact of the university contributes over $3 billion annually to the Texas economy, while generating about 24,000 jobs; the University of Houston hosts a variety of theatrical performances, concerts and events. It has 17 intercollegiate sports teams. Annual UH events and traditions include The Cat's Back and Frontier Fiesta; the university's varsity athletic teams, known as the Houston Cougars, are members of the American Athletic Conference and compete in the NCAA Division I in all sports. The football team makes bowl game appearances, the men's basketball team has made 20 appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament—including five Final Four appearances; the men's golf team has won 16 national championships—the most in NCAA history. The University of Houston began as Houston Junior College. On March 7, 1927, trustees of the Houston Independent School District Board of Education unanimously passed a resolution that authorized the founding and operating of a junior college.
The junior college was operated and administered by HISD. HJC was located in San Jacinto High School and offered only night courses, its first session began March 1927, with an enrollment of 232 students and 12 faculty. This session was held to educate the future teachers of the junior college. A more accurate date for the official opening of HJC is September 19, 1927, when enrollment was opened to all persons having completed the necessary educational requirements; the first president of HJC was Edison Ellsworth Oberholtzer, the dominant force in establishing the junior college. The junior college became eligible to become a university in October 1933 when the Governor of Texas, Miriam A. Ferguson, signed House Bill 194 into law. On April 30, 1934, HISD's Board of Education adopted a resolution to make the school a four-year institution, Houston Junior College changed its name to the University of Houston. UH's first session as a four-year institution began June 4, 1934, at San Jacinto High School with an enrollment of 682.
In 1934, the first campus of the University of Houston was established at the Second Baptist Church at Milam and McGowen. The next fall, the campus was moved to the South Main Baptist Church on Main Street—between Richmond Avenue and Eagle Street—where it stayed for the next five years. In May 1935, the institution as a university held its first commencement at Miller Outdoor Theatre. In 1936, heirs of philanthropists J. J. Settegast and Ben Taub donated 110 acres to the university for use as a permanent location. At this time, there was no road that led to the land tract, but in 1937, the city added Saint Bernard Street, renamed to Cullen Boulevard, it would become a major thoroughfare of the campus. As a project of the National Youth Administration, workers were paid fifty cents an hour to clear the land. In 1938, Hugh Roy Cullen donated $335,000 for the first building to be built at the location; the Roy Gustav Cullen Memorial Building was dedicated on June 4, 1939, classes began the next day.
The first full semester of classes began on Wednesday, September 20, 1939. In a year after opening the new campus, the university had about 2,500 students; as World War II approached, enrollment decreased due to enlistments. The university proposed to be in a new unusual training activity of the United States Navy, was one of six institutions selected to give the Primary School in the Electronics Training Program. By the fall of 1943, there were only about 1,100 regular students at UH; this training at UH continued with a total of 4,178 students. On March 12, 1945, Senate Bill 207 was signed into law, removing the control of the University of Houston from HISD and placing it into the hands of a board of regents. In 1945, the university—which had grown too large and complex for the Houston school board to administer—became a private university. In March 1947, the regents authorized creation of a law school at the university. In 1949, the M. D. Anderson Foundation made a $1.5 million gift to UH for the construction of a dedicated library building on the campus.
By 1950, the educational plant at UH consisted of 12 permanent buildings. Enrollment was more than 14,000 with a full-time faculty of more than 300. KUHF, the university radio station, signed on in November. By 1951, UH had achieved the feat of being the second-largest university in the State
Port Huron, Michigan
Port Huron is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of St. Clair County; the population was 30,184 at the 2010 census. The city is administratively autonomous. Located along the St. Clair River, it is connected to Point Edward, Ontario in Canada via the Blue Water Bridge; the city is the easternmost point on land in Michigan. Port Huron is home to two paper mills, Mueller Brass, many businesses related to tourism and the automotive industry; the city features a historic downtown area, marina, museum and the McMorran Place arena and entertainment complex. This area was long occupied by the Ojibwa people. French colonists had a temporary trading fort at this site in the 17th century. In 1814 following the War of 1812, the United States established Fort Gratiot at the base of Lake Huron. A community developed around it; the early 19th century was the first time a settlement developed with a permanent European-American population. Until 1836, an Ojibwa reservation occupied land in part of the modern area of Port Huron.
They were removed by the United States to west of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. In 1857, Port Huron became incorporated, its population grew after the 1850s due a high rate of immigration attracted by the successful shipbuilding and lumber industries. In 1859 the city had a total of 4,031 residents. By 1870, Port Huron's population exceeded that of surrounding villages. In 1871, the State Supreme Court designated Port Huron as the county seat. On October 8, 1871, the city, as well as places north in Sanilac and Huron counties, burned in the Port Huron Fire of 1871. A series of other fires leveled Holland and Manistee, Michigan, as well as Peshtigo and Chicago on the same day; the Thumb Fire that occurred a decade also engulfed Port Huron. In 1895 the village of Fort Gratiot, in the vicinity of the former Fort Gratiot, was annexed by the city of Port Huron; the following historic sites have been recognized by the State of Michigan through its historic marker program. Fort St. Joseph; the fort was built in 1686 by the French explorer Duluth.
This fort was the second European settlement in lower Michigan. This post guarded the upper end of the St. Clair River, the vital waterway joining Lake Erie and Lake Huron. Intended by the French to bar English traders from the upper lakes, the fort in 1687 was the base of a garrison of French and Indians. In 1688 the French abandoned this fort; the site was incorporated into Fort Gratiot in 1814. A park has been established at the former site of the fort. Fort Gratiot Light; the Fort Gratiot Lighthouse was built in 1829 to replace a tower destroyed by a storm. In the 1860s workers extended the tower to its present height of 84 feet; the light, automated in 1933, continues to guide shipping on Lake Huron into the narrow and swift-flowing St. Clair River, it was the first lighthouse established in the State of Michigan. Lightship Huron. From 1935 until 1970, the Huron was stationed in southern Lake Huron to mark dangerous shoals. After 1940 the Huron was the only lightship operating on the Great Lakes.
Retired from Coast Guard Service in 1970, she was presented to the City of Port Huron in 1971. Grand Trunk Railway Depot; the depot, now part of the Port Huron Museum, is where 12-year-old Thomas Edison departed daily on the Port Huron – Detroit run. In 1859, the railroad's first year of operation, Edison convinced the railroad company to let him sell newspapers and confections on the daily trips, he became so successful. He made enough money to buy chemicals and other experimental materials. Port Huron Public Library. In 1902 the city of Port Huron secured money from philanthropist Andrew Carnegie to erect a municipal library. In 1904, a grand Beaux-Arts-style structure was built at a cost of $45,000. At its dedication, Melvil Dewey, creator of a used book classification system, delivered the opening address; the Port Huron Public Library served in its original capacity for over sixty years. In 1967, a larger public library was constructed; the following year the former library was renovated and re-opened as the Port Huron Museum of Arts and History.
An addition was constructed in 1988. Harrington Hotel; the Hotel opened in 1896 and is a blend of Romanesque and Queen Anne architecture. The hotel closed in 1986, but a group of investors bought the structure that same year to convert it into housing for senior citizens; the Harrington Hotel is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Grand Trunk Western Railroad Tunnel; the tunnel links Port Huron with Canada. This international submarine railway tunnel was the first international tunnel in the world; the tunnel's total length is 6,025 feet, with 2,290 feet underwater. The tunnel operations were electrified in 1908. Tracks were lowered in 1949 to accommodate larger freight cars. During World War I, a plot to blast the tunnel was foiled. A new tunnel has since been opened; the city received the All-America City Award in 1955 and 2005. Port Huron is the only site in Michigan; the event is now memorialized. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.26 square miles, of which 8.08 square miles is land and 4.18 square miles is water.
The city is considered to be part of the Thumb area of East-Central Michigan called the Blue Water Area. The easternmost point of Michigan can be found in Port Huron, near the site of the Municip
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia