The International Olympic Committee uses three-letter abbreviation country codes to refer to each group of athletes that participate in the Olympic Games. Each geocode identifies a National Olympic Committee, but there are several codes that have been used for other instances in past Games, such as teams composed of athletes from multiple nations, or groups of athletes not formally representing any nation. Several of the IOC codes are different from the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes. Other sporting organisations, such as FIFA, use similar country codes to refer to their respective teams, but with some differences. Still others, such as the Commonwealth Games Federation or Association of Tennis Professionals, use the IOC list verbatim; the 1956 Winter Olympics and 1960 Summer Olympics were the first Games to feature Initials of Nations to refer to each NOC in the published official reports. However, the codes used at the next few Games were based on the host nation's language or based on the French name for the nation.
By the 1972 Winter Olympics, most codes were standardized on the current usage, but several have changed in recent years. Additionally, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and unification of Germany, breakup of Yugoslavia, dissolution of Czechoslovakia, several other instances of geographical renaming have all resulted in code changes. In addition to this list of over 200 NOCs, the participation of National Paralympic Committees at the Paralympic Games requires standardised IOC codes, such as Macau and the Faroe Islands, coded MAC and FRO respectively. There are 206 current NOCs within the Olympic Movement; the following tables show the used code for each NOC and any different codes used in past Games, per the official reports from those Games. Some of the past code usage is further explained in the following sections. Codes used for a Summer Games only or a Winter Games only, within the same year, are indicated by "S" and "W" respectively. Most National Paralympic Committees cover a territory with an active NOC.
In these cases the NPC codes matches the IOC codes shown above. The two current NPCs without a corresponding NOC use the following NPC codes. Fourteen historical NOCs or teams have codes that are still used in the IOC results database to refer to past medal winners from these teams. Two other significant code changes have occurred, both because of a change in the nation's designation as used by the IOC: HOL was changed to NED for the Netherlands for the 1992 Games, reflecting the change in designation from Holland. IRN was changed to IRI for Iran for the 1992 Games, reflecting the change in designation to Islamic Republic of Iran. Comparison of IOC, FIFA, ISO 3166 country codes List of FIFA country codes Lists of National Olympic Committees by continental association: Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa European Olympic Committees Oceania National Olympic Committees Olympic Council of Asia Pan American Sports Organization List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games List of CGF country codes
The Cotton Plantation Record and Account Book is a best-selling and pioneering guide to farm accounting in the antebellum cotton-producing regions of the United States. It was first published in 1847 or 1848 by Thomas Affleck, a Scottish immigrant and owner of the Glenblythe Plantation in Gay Hill, Washington County, Texas; the book contains a detailed system, including blank tables to be filled in, that allowed plantation owners to track the efficiency of their production. It includes essays on various aspects of plantation management, such as the proper care and discipline of slaves. Thomas Affleck published the first edition of the Cotton Plantation Record and Account Book in 1847 or 1848. In 1842 he established a plant nursery and experimental cotton farm near Mississippi. Discussing the origin of his Account Book, Affleck wrote: During my first year's planting, I prepared two books with the pen identical to that now published for the cotton plantation, gave one to each of my next year's overseers, making it a part of my contract with them, that these books were to be kept and returned to me at the end of the year.
And, with a little assistance and encouragement, it was done. And what a satisfaction it was to me! Soon after that, at the suggestion of a New Orleans Publisher, I prepared him a transcript of the plan for publication. Affleck published new editions every year thereafter until the American Civil War of 1861-1865. After the war, the name of the book was changed to The Farmers' Record and Account Book and the scope widened to include "any system of husbandry... the products of any climate, and... farms of any extent." Affleck's book was a consistent antebellum bestseller in the cotton-producing states of the lower Mississippi River Valley. Historian Mark M. Smith has noted that "it was on plantations that masters employed the most rigorous, capitalist management techniques," which created a need for specialized ledgers and accounting techniques, Affleck's being "one of the most popular record book brands." By the end of the 1850s, his Account Book had sold over three thousand copies, contributing to his powerful influence on the direction of the "plantation economy into scientific and systematic channels."According to historian Robert Williams, Affleck's manual included "a number of other forms which marked an improvement in the system of rural book-keeping.
The record forms were consistent with the intent and purpose of modern cost-accounting, followed the best and most advanced principles of efficient administrative management." The book contained a detailed system which allowed plantation owners to record and track the accounts of their plantations, including pounds of cotton produced per slave, per acre, per bale of cotton, the gross and net value of production. Space was provided for recording births and deaths of slaves, their clothing and tools, other such assets and debits. Unlike many contemporary systems of agricultural book-keeping, Affleck's book took account of depreciation, the costs of labor, other "often neglected factors." According to historian Walter Johnson, the book "provided a convenient table by which slaves' annual increase in value could be tracked in the same set of tables as their daily cotton production, a page at the back where the planter could fill in the value of his slave force, calculate "interest on the same at ten percent.""It was published in four numbers for plantations with fewer than 40, 80, 120, 160 "hands," which retailed for $2.50, $3.00, $3.50, $4.00 respectively.
It contained advertising for the slave markets of New Orleans. Affleck's book contained essays and advice on slave management, including, e.g. George Washington's instructions to his own slave overseer and instructions for managing the health of slaves; the Account Book included Affleck's essay, The Duties of an Overseer, which noted that one of the most important aspects "of a fine crop is an increase in the number and a marked increase in the condition and value of the negroes." Slaveowners, for various reasons, were willing or eager to allow their slaves to attend religious services and Affleck, in The Duties of an Overseer, agreed with this practice: You will find that an hour devoted every Sabbath morning to their moral and religious instruction would prove a great aid to you in bringing about a better state of things amongst the Negroes. It has been tried, with the most satisfactory results, in many parts of the South; as a matter of mere interest it has proved to be advisable. The effect upon their general good behavior, their cleanliness, good conduct on the Sabbath is such as alone to recommend it to the Planter and Overseer.
Duties of an Overseer from Affleck's Cotton Plantation Record and Account Book, reprinted in The American Cotton Planter Vol.2, no.12, December, 1854, pp. 353–6
MathOverflow is a mathematics question-and-answer website, which serves as an online community of mathematicians. It allows users to ask questions, submit answers, rate both, all while getting merit points for their activities, it is a part of the Stack Exchange Network. It is for asking questions on mathematics research – i.e. related to unsolved problems and the extension of knowledge of mathematics into areas that are not yet known – and does not welcome requests from non-mathematicians for instruction, for example homework exercises. It does welcome various questions on other topics that might be discussed among mathematicians, for example about publishing, advising, getting tenure, etc, it is inhospitable to questions perceived as tendentious or argumentative. The website was started by Berkeley graduate students and postdocs Anton Geraschenko, David Zureick-Brown, Scott Morrison on 28 September 2009; the hosting was supported by Ravi Vakil. The site ran on a separate installation of the StackExchange 1.0 software engine.
According to MathOverflow FAQ, the proper spelling is "MathOverflow" rather than "Math Overflow". The original version of the website did not support LaTeX markup for mathematical formulas. To support most of the functionality of LaTeX, MathJax was added in order for the site to transform math equations into their appropriate forms. In its current state, any post including "Math Mode" will translate into proper mathematical notation; as of April 4, 2012, there were 16,496 registered users on MathOverflow, most of whom were located in the United States and the United Kingdom. By December 11, 2018, the number of registered users had grown to 87,850; as of June 2019, 103,308 questions have been posted. In 2011, questions were answered an average of 3.9 hours after they were posted, "Acceptable" answers took an average of 5.01 hours. Terence Tao compared it to "the venerable newsgroup sci.math, but with more modern,'Web 2.0' features." John C. Baez writes that "website'Math Overflow' has become a universal clearinghouse for math questions".
According to Gil Kalai, MathOverflow "is ran by an energetic and impressive group of young people". Jordan Ellenberg comments that the website "offers a changing array of new questions" and is "addictive" in a "particularly pure form", as he compares it to the Polymath Project. Jared Keller in The Atlantic writes, "Math Overflow is an anti-social network, focused on productively addressing the problems posed by its users." He quotes Scott Morrison saying "Mathematicians as a whole are skeptical of many aspects of the modern Internet... In particular, things like Facebook, etc. are viewed as enormous wastes of time." NLab PhysicsOverflow Tausczik, Yla R.. "Collaborative Problem Solving: A Study of MathOverflow". Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, Maryland, USA. New York, NY, USA: ACM. pp. 355–367. Doi:10.1145/2531602.2531690. ISBN 978-1-4503-2540-0. Montoya, Leydi Viviana. "Social Achievement and Centrality in MathOverflow". In Ghoshal, Gourab.
Complex Networks IV: Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Complex Networks. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer. Pp. 27–38. Doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36844-8_3. Martin, Ursula. "Mathematical Practice and Social Machines". In Carette, Jacques. Intelligent Computer Mathematics: MKM, Calculemus, DML, Systems and Projects 2013, Held as Part of the International Conference on Intelligent Computer Mathematics, Bath, UK, July 8-12, 2013, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7961. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer. Pp. 98–119. ArXiv:1305.0900. Doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39320-4_7. Official website "Podcast #86". Stack Exchange Blog. 23 March 2010. — podcast with Joel Spolsky and Jeff Atwood and Anton Geraschenko