The yazh is a harp used in ancient Tamil music, the ancestor of modern-day veena. A related word yali refers to any structure front, that resembles the way the tip of stem of this instrument was carved into; the yazh was an open-stringed polyphonous instrument, with gut strings with a wooden boat-shaped skin-covered resonator and an ebony stem. The Tamil poet Thiruvalluvar mentions yazh in his work Thirukkural. Many major Tamil classical literary masterpieces written during Sangam period have mentioned the yazh. Silappatikaram, written by a Tamil Chera prince Ilango Adigal, mentions four kinds of yazhs: Periyazh – 21 strings Makarayazh – 19 strings Cakotayazh – 14 strings Cenkottiyazh – 7 stringsYazh was played in Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple in early centuries it was mentioned in ShaivaThirumurai 11th Pathigam, it was played by the Musician and poet Panapathirar Tamil: Other types of yazh are:Mayil Yazh – “resembling a peacock” Vil Yazh – "shaped like a bow"The Tamil book Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai says the strings of a yazh should not have any twists in them, the Silappatikaram lists four types of defects in yazh.
Other Tamil literature which have mentions on yazh are Periya Puranam. Yazh are seen in sculptures in the Darasuram and Thirumayam temples in Tamil Nadu and in Amaravathi village, Guntur district. Swami Vipulananda has written a book of scientific research in Tamil called the Yazh Nool; the city of Jaffna is known in Tamil as Yazhpanam. A Sri Lankan Tamil legend recounts that a blind man Panan played on the Yazh so beautiful that he was given a land from a king, which he called after himself meaning "town of harper"
An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes. It is the first of the four main divisions in the original Hornbostel–Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification; the early classification of Victor-Charles Mahillon called this group of instruments autophones. The most common are struck idiophones, or concussion idiophones, which are made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion. Various types of bells fall into both categories. A common plucked idiophone is the Jew's harp; the word is from Ancient Greek, a combination of idio- meaning own, personal, or distinct, -phone, meaning voice or sound. Most percussion instruments that are not drums are idiophones. Hornbostel–Sachs divides idiophones into four main sub-categories; the first division is the struck idiophones. This includes most of the non-drum percussion instruments familiar in the West.
They include all idiophones made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion. Various types of bells fall into both categories; the other three subdivisions are rarer. They are plucked idiophones, such as the Jew's harp, amplified cactus, dan moi, music box and mbira. Other classifications use six main sub-categories: Concussion idiophones are instruments that produce sound by being struck against one another. Percussion idiophones produce sound by being struck with a non-vibrating foreign object. Examples of non-vibrating objects are mallets and sticks. Rattle idiophones are shaken. Scraper idiophones are instruments that are scraped with a stick or other foreign objects to give off a sound. Plucked idiophones produce sound by plucking a flexible tongue from within the instrument itself. Friction idiophones are rubbed to increase vibration and sound intensity. Idiophones are made of materials; the majority of idiophones are made out of glass, metal and wood.
Idiophones are considered part of the percussion section in an orchestra. A number of idiophones that are struck, such as vibraphone bars and cymbals, can be bowed. Pitched percussion instrument https://web.archive.org/web/20130115040826/http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/texti/Idiophone.html
The Sagar veena is a plucked string instrument used in Pakistani music. Similar to the Carnatic Gottuvadhyam and Vichitra veena, it is played with a slide. Developed in 1970 by prominent Pakistani lawyer Raza Kazim, it has evolved from Vichitra veena in both structure and sound. Up until today, Kazim's daughter Noor Zehra is the only player of the Sagar since its inception. More than seventeen Sagar Veena's have been made since its inception, with each version different in variation and advancement; the sagar veena is being developed and researched at the Sanjan Nagar Institute of Philosophy and Arts in Lahore. The sagar veena was strummed by Zehra in the ninth season of Coke Studio, during an original track performed by her sons Ali Hamza and Ali Noor. Sagar Veena at Sanjan Nagar Institute Sagar Veena at YouTube
Villu Paatu known as Villadichampaatu, is an ancient form of musical story-telling in India where narration is interspersed with music, an art of southern state of Kerala and Thovalai in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. This art form is popular among Chettiar castes of erstwhile Travancore kingdom. Simple tunes and verses make the story to be followed easily; the villu, the age-old weapon of warriors - paradoxically lends itself to be used as a primary musical instrument for the Villu Paatu artists. In Tamil villages, performers narrate stories ranging from mythological to social; the main storyteller narrates the story striking the bow. The bow rests on a mud pot kept facing downwards. A co-performer beats the pot while singing. There is another co-singer who acts as active listener to the narration, uttering appropriate oral responses; the local government sometime utilise this as a vehicle for social messages and propaganda. There are Udukku, Thala, which are used as supplementary instruments in performances.
Udukku is a small drum with a slender middle portion, held in the left hand and played by the fingers of the right hand. The Villu Pattu team divides itself into two groups, each trying to prove opposite points-of-view of a subject; this is called Lavani Pattu. The songs used by the Villu Pattu artists are traditional folk-songs, they are played during occasions of temple festivals in villages. The songs sung in Villu Paatu praise a god or tell a story; these days the number of artists performing Villu Paatu is tremendously reduced as the income earned from it is never enough for running one's life. Manohar Laxman Varadpande. History of Indian theatre, Volume 2. P. 125. Source http://villuppaattu-tamil.blogspot.com/ Video: Performed in a Temple in Kallidaikurichi
The Khamak is a string instrument close to ektara, originating in India, common in folk music of Bengal and North East India Baulgaan. It is a one-headed drum with a string attached to it, plucked; the only difference from ektara is that no bamboo is used to stretch the string, held by one hand, while being plucked by another. The khamak consists of three basic parts. A bowl, made out of wood is connected by several strings to another, smaller piece; the bowl is held under the arm holding the smaller piece in the hand of same arm. The string are plucked by the other hand while adjusting the tension of strings creating the desired sound, it is used in Bengali boul songs. It is one of the most ancient string instruments in eastern India. Kendara Ektara Tumbi
A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification; the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification divides membranophones in a numeric taxonomy based on how the sound is produced: 21: by hitting the drumskin with a hand or object 22: by pulling a knotted string attached to the drumskin 23: by rubbing the drumskin with a hand or object 24: by modifying sounds through a vibrating membrane Membranophones can be divided into large divisions based on shape and manner of sound production: Tubular drums include a wide range of drum shapes, like waisted, footed, cylindrical and barrel Mirlitons and Swazzles vibrate in sympathy with sounds travelling across a membrane. These are the only membranophones that are not drums. SIL International maintains a classification system based on shape: Cylindrical drums are straight-sided, two-headed.
A buzzing, percussive string is sometimes used. Examples include the Iranian dohol. Conical drums are sloped on the sides, are one-headed. Examples include the Venezuelan chimbangueles. Barrel drums are one-headed, may be open at the bottom, they bulge in the middle. Examples include the Dhak from eastern parts of India, made by the Mossi of Burkina Faso out of a large calabash, the trong chau of Vietnam. Hourglass drums are hourglass-shaped and two-headed; the drumheads are laced onto the body, the laces may be squeezed during performance to alter the drum's pitch. Examples include folk drums in India and much of Africa, as well as some talking drums. Goblet drums are one-headed and goblet shaped, are open at the bottom. Examples include the Arab darabukka, a range of similar instruments from Armenia, Africa, Southeastern Europe and the Middle East. Footed drums are held above the ground by feet; the space between the drum and the ground provides extra resonance. Examples include a range of Polynesian drums.
Long drums are a diverse category, characterized by extreme length. Examples include the single-headed hollow tree trunk drums of Africa and the ornately carved and dyed gufalo of the Nuna in Burkina Faso. Kettle drums are played in pairs, have a vessel or pot body, are one-headed and tuned to a specific note. Examples include tabla. Frame drums are composed of one or more membranes stretched across a frame. Examples include the bodhran. Friction drums produce sound through friction, such as by rubbing a hand or object against the drumskin. Examples include the Spanish zambomba. Mirlitons and Swazzles produce sound by blowing air across a membrane; the traditional Chinese method of classifying instruments by composite material renders the following categories of drums: Jin: Metal drums, along with bells and gongs Ge: Leather-headed drums Mu: Wood drums and blocks Tu: Clay drums, as well as some kinds of clay ocarinasTraditional Japanese and Korean instrument classification schemes use the same scheme.
The traditional classification of Indian instruments include two categories of membranophones. Ghan: Percussion without membranes, such as chimes and gongs Avanaddh: Percussion with membranes, such as drums with skin heads The predrum category consists of simple drum-like percussion instruments; these include the ground drum, which, in its most common §—Form, consists of an animal skin stretched over a hole in the ground, the pot drum, made from a simple pot. Water drums are sometimes treated as a distinct category of membranophone. Common in Native American music and the music of Africa, water drums are characterized by a unique sound caused by filling the drum with some amount of water; the talking drum is an important category of West African membranophone, characterized by the use of varying tones to "talk". Talking drums are used to communicate across distances. Military drums or war drums are drums in various forms. Semispherical drum Vibrations of a circular membrane
The swarmandal or Indian harp is a zither, originating from the Indian subcontinent, similar to the qanun, today most used as an accompanying instrument for vocal Indian classical music. The name combines mandal, representing its ability to produce a large number of notes. Swarmandals measure from twenty-four to thirty inches in length and twelve to fifteen inches in width; the singer may choose to employ any number of strings from 21 to 36. The strings are hooked in a nail lodged in the right edge of the swarmandal and on the left are wound around rectangular pegs which can be tightened with a special key. Wooden pegs were used instead of metal ones in the medieval period. A sharp 1⁄2-inch ridge on both sides of the swarmandal stands a little apart from the nails on which the strings are tightened; this ridge functions as a bridge on both sides. The swarmandal is similar to the zither in many respects; some of the vocalists who have used this instrument extensively are Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan, Kishori Amonkar, Rashid Khan and Ajoy Chakrabarty.
Other vocalists such as Amir Khan have played around with it but preferred the simpler, less intrusive tanpura for accompaniment. The Beatles' 1967 single "Strawberry Fields Forever" features a swarmandal, played by George Harrison, as does "Within You Without You", from the band's Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album. Autoharp Drone Zither