Manga are comics or graphic novels created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art; the term manga in Japan is a word used to refer to cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics published in Japan. In Japan, people of all ages read manga; the medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action, adventure and commerce, detective, historical, mystery, science fiction and fantasy, erotica and games, suspense, among others. Many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books and manga magazines in Japan. Manga have gained a significant worldwide audience. In 2008, in the U. S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga represent 38% of the French comics market, equivalent to ten times that of the United States.
In France, the manga market was valued at about €460 million in 2005. In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012. Manga stories are printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist. In Japan, manga are serialized in large manga magazines containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. Collected chapters are republished in tankōbon volumes but not paperback books. A manga artist works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated during its run. Sometimes manga are drawn centering on existing live-action or animated films. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world in Algeria, Hong Kong and South Korea; the word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, composed of the two kanji 漫 meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 meaning "pictures".
The same term is the root of the Korean word for the Chinese word. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan; the term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels. The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. During the Edo period, Toba Ehon embedded the concept of manga; the word itself first came into common usage in 1798, with the publication of works such as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the Hokusai Manga books.
Adam L. Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books; these graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Some works were mass-produced as serials using woodblock printing. Writers on manga history have described two complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses U. S. cultural influences, including U. S. comics and images and themes from U. S. television and cartoons. Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka and Machiko Hasegawa. Astro Boy became immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011.
Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots; this kind of visual dynamism was adopted by manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience came to characterize shōjo manga. Between 1950 and 1969, an large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. In 1969 a group of female manga artists made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the
Tankōbon is the Japanese term for a book, complete in itself and is not part of a series or corpus. In modern Japan, though, it is most used in reference to individual volumes of a single manga, as opposed to magazines, which feature multiple series; the largest imprint labels for manga tankōbon publications include Jump Comics, Shōnen Sunday Comics, Shōnen Magazine Comics. After 1959, manga came to be published in thick, phone-book-sized weekly or monthly anthology manga magazines; these anthologies have hundreds of pages and dozens of individual series by multiple authors. They are printed on cheap newsprint and are considered disposable. Since the 1930's though, comic strips had been compiled into tankōbon collecting multiple installments from a single series and reprints them in a paperback-sized volume on higher quality paper than in the original magazine printing. Strips in manga magazines and tankobon are printed in black and white, but sometimes certain sections may be printed in color, or using colored inks or paper.
In English, while a tankōbon translation is marketed as a "graphic novel" or "trade paperback", the transliterated terms tankoubon and tankōbon are sometimes used amongst online communities. Japanese people refer to manga tankōbon by the English loanword "comics", although it is more widespread for being used in place of the word "manga", as they are the same thing; the term refers to the format itself—a comic collection in a trade paperback sized book. Although Japanese manga tankobon may be in various sizes, the most common are Japanese B6 and ISO A5; the tankōbon format has made inroads in the American comics market, with several major publishers opting to release some of their titles in this smaller format, sometimes called "digest format" or "digest size". In the United States, many manga are released in the so-called "Tokyopop trim" or "Tokyopop size". An aizōban is a collector's edition volume; these volumes are more expensive and lavished with special features such as special covers created for the edition, special paper used for the cover, higher quality paper, a special slipcase, so on.
Aizōban are printed in a limited run, thereby increasing the value and collectability of those few copies made. The aizōban format has begun to make inroads into the US market, with titles such as Fruits Basket, Rurouni Kenshin and Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin being reissued in aizōban format. Only the most popular manga are released in this format. A bunkoban edition refers to a tankōbon printed in bunko format, or a typical Japanese novel-sized volume. Bunkoban are A6 size and thicker than tankōbon and, in the case of manga have a new cover designed for the release. In the case of manga, a bunkoban tends to contain more pages than a tankōbon and a republication of tankōbon of the same title which may or may not have been out of print. Thus, the bunko edition of a given manga will consist of fewer volumes. For example, Please Save My Earth was published in 21 tankōbon volumes, re-released in 12 bunko volumes. If the original manga was a wide-ban release, the bunkoban release will have the same number of volumes.
The term is abbreviated in Japanese to just bunko. The kanzenban is another term sometimes used to denote this kind of a special release. A kanzenban release is A5 size and will reproduce individual chapter covers, color pages, side-stories from its original magazine run, features that are omitted or converted to grayscale in standard tankōbon releases. While the aizōban appellation emphasizes the value of the volumes, the term kanzenban emphasizes their completeness, though it is generally reserved for popular manga such as Dragon Ball. Similar to a wide-ban, a shinsōban is a new edition released with a new cover; the volumes in such a release have new color pages and other extras. For example, in 2002, Sailor Moon was reedited. Plus, the chapters were redivided to fit into 12 volumes instead of 18; the sōshūhen is a new format published by Shueisha beginning in 2008. A sōshūhen edition is B5 size, larger than a kanzenban, reproduces chapter covers and color pages while including a variety of bonus features such as posters and interviews.
The majority of sōshūhen releases are for popular manga with ongoing serializations. They contain far more pages than a standard tankōbon and thus feature more chapters in fewer volumes. A wide-ban or waidoban edition is larger than a regular tankōbon. Many manga seinen and josei manga, are published in wide-ban editions after magazine serialization, are never released in the tankōbon format, common in shōnen manga and shōjo manga; when a series published in tankōbon format is re-released in wide-ban format, each volume will contain more pages than in the original edition
Animax Broadcast Japan Inc. stylized as ANIMAX, is a Japanese anime satellite television network, dedicated to broadcasting anime programming. The channel dubbed cartoons in Japanese language. A subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan and Mitsui & Co.'s joint venture AK Holdings, it is headquartered in New Pier Takeshiba North Tower in Minato, Japan, with its co-founders and shareholders including Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan and the noted anime studios Sunrise, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment and production company NAS. Animax is the largest 24-hour network in the world dedicated to anime. Animax operates as separate 24-hour TV channels for Japan and South Korea, in addition to VOD platforms in the United Kingdom, Germany and Switzerland. In India Animax is available online as live channel via Sony LIV. Established on May 20, 1998 by Sony, Animax Broadcast Japan Inc. premiered in Japan on July 1, the same year, across the SKY PerfecTV! Satellite television platform. Headquartered in Minato, Tokyo and presided by Masao Takiyama, Animax's shareholders and founders include Sony Pictures Entertainment, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment, NAS.
Its founders include noted anime producer and production designer Yoshirō Kataoka. The network began broadcasting in high definition from October 2009. Animax exhibits affiliations with anime pioneer Osamu Tezuka's Tezuka Productions company, Nippon Animation, numerous others, it has produced and premiered several anime in Japan, such as Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, Ultra Maniac, Astro Boy, Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, Aishiteruze Baby, many others, including Madhouse's anime adaptations of Marvel's Iron Man, X-Men. Noted Japanese celebrities and personalities to have appeared on Animax with their own programs, include actress Natsuki Katō, among numerous others; the network's narrators are the voice actors Yukari Tamura and Kōsuke Okano, from October 2007, Sayuri Yahagi. Animax hosts and organizes several anime-based competitions across Japan, such as the Animax Taishō scriptwriting competition and Animax Anison Grand Prix anime song music competition, which are judged by a panel of noted anime figures, as well as several events and concerts across Japan, such as the annual Animax Summer Fest, an annual live concert during which renowned Japanese bands and voice actors perform to a live audience held at Zepp Tokyo.
Apart from operating its business as a television network, Animax has begun operating a mobile television service. In February 2007, Animax announced that it would be launching a mobile television service of its network on the mobile phone company MOBAHO! from April 2007, having its programming being viewable by the company's mobile phone subscribers. Since July 2011 a program called STUDIO MUSIX has been transmitted the first Sunday of every month, featuring popular singer May'n as the MC. In each episode there's a segment of May'n and the guests on an interview and a live stage featuring them. Animax launched separate Asian versions of the channel featuring its anime programming within separate networks and feeds in the respective regions and languages beginning in 2004; the first one was launched in Taiwan and the Philippines on January 1, 2004, in Hong Kong on January 12, 2004. A week Animax launched in Southeast Asia on January 19, 2004, featuring its programming within feeds in English audio, as well as Japanese audio, with English subtitling, other languages in the region, becoming the company's first English-language network.
On July 5, 2004, Animax started operations across South Asia including India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives, featuring its programming within an English-language feed. On April 29, 2006, Animax started its operations in South Korea. On August 31, 2006, Animax launched its Malaysian feed. Animax used the latest logo launched on May 3, 2010, until it reverted to their previous logo sometime in 2013. Animax ceased its operations in India and was replaced by Sony Yay on April 18, 2017; the channel moved to its digital platform Sony LIV in HD and Asian feed instead. Animax was launched in Latin America on July 31, 2005, replacing Locomotion after Sony's purchase from Hearst Corporation and Corus Entertainment, in January 2005; the channel's non-anime programming were removed from the lineup, replaced with an all-anime lineup. Animax Latin America began operating across the entire region and broadcasting its anime programming. Unlike Animax's networks in other countries, Animax Latin America was distributed by HBO Latin America Group under license from Sony.
The network's initial programming lineup consisted of shows that aired on Locomotion, which were Saber Marionette J, Saber Marionette J to X, Soul Hunter/Senkai-den Hōshin Engi, Serial Experiments Lain, The Candidate for Goddess and Earth Girl Arjuna, newer series such as Di Gi Charat Nyo!, Fullmetal Alchemist, GetBackers.hack//Sign, Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, Hunter × Hunter, Initial D, Last Exile, Lunar Legend Tsukihime, Martian Successor Nadesico, Pita-Ten, The Prince of Tennis, Crayon Shin-chan, Stratos 4, Vandread. Over the years, Animax has aired various anime series, with the Spanish versions being dubbed in Venezuela by Estudios Lain and after in Mexico, the Portuguese versions dubbed in Brazil, most of whom have never been shown before locally. Its
Weekly Young Magazine
Weekly Young Magazine is a Japanese weekly seinen manga anthology magazine published in Tokyo each Monday by Kodansha. The magazine is targeted at the adult male demographic, its core readership has been dismissively characterized in the past as delinquents. The chapters of the series that run in Weekly Young Magazine are collected and published in tankōbon volumes under the "YoungKC" imprint every four months; the magazine features color photos of pinup girl gravure idols on the cover and first few pages of each issue. Since December 9, 2009, Kodansha has published a monthly sister magazine, Monthly Young Magazine, a retitled makeover of their previous publication Bessatsu Young Magazine, which had published a total of 36 bimonthly issues during its existence. There are 22 manga titles serialized weekly on Weekly Young Magazine. One series is on hiatus. Domu: A Child's Dream Gambler Jiko Chuushinha Akira Be-Bop High School Bataashi Kingyo Shakotan Boogie 3×3 Eyes Ghost in the Shell Wangan Midnight Weather Report Girl Ping-Pong Club Bakugyaku Familia Initial D Dragon Head Tobaku Mokushiroku Kaiji Ago Nashi Gen to Ore Monogatari Taberemasen Nani wa tomo Are Karate Shoukoushi Kohinata Minoru Tobaku Hakairoku Kaiji Chobits Higanjima Kyō no Go no Ni Remote, xxxHolic Kissxsis Out Law Tobaku Datenroku Kaiji Saru Lock Sweet Poolside Gimmick!
Kenka Shōbai Cherry Nights Shinjuku Swan Winning Ticket Coppelion Kaitan Montage Kurohyō: Ryū ga Gotoku Shinshō Prison School Wild Cherry Nights 8♀1♂ Yuki ni Tsubasa Back Street Girls Shoujo Fujuubun Young Magazine - Official publisher page by Kodansha
Initial D is a Japanese street racing manga series written and illustrated by Shuichi Shigeno. It was serialized in Weekly Young Magazine from 1995 to 2013, with the chapters collected into 48 tankōbon volumes by Kodansha; the story focuses on the world of illegal Japanese street racing, where all the action is concentrated in the mountain passes and in cities or urban areas, with the drifting racing style emphasized in particular. Professional race car driver and pioneer of drifting Keiichi Tsuchiya helped with editorial supervision; the story is centered on the prefecture of Gunma, more on several mountains in the Kantō region and in their surrounding cities and towns. Although some of the names of the locations the characters race in have been fictionalized, all of the locations in the series are based on actual locations in Japan. Initial D has been adapted into several anime television and original video animations series by OB Studio Comet, Studio Gallop, Pastel, A. C. G. T and SynergySP.
A live action film by Avex and Media Asia was released in 2005. Both the manga and anime series were licensed for English-language distribution in North America by Tokyopop, the anime license has since been picked up by Funimation, while the manga is no longer available in English; the story is about 18 year old Takumi Fujiwara, an average high school kid. His father, Bunta Fujiwara, owns Takumi is the delivery boy, he uses his father's Panda 1985 Toyota Sprinter Trueno GT Apex AE86 to do the deliveries. Takumi hated driving; the deliveries train his extraordinary driving skills. His friends learn about his skills, introduce Takumi into the world of Touge racing. Takumi loves street racing, driving altogether, he has only one priority: To become the best driver in the Gunma Prefecture; the protagonist, Takumi Fujiwara, is a gas station attendant working with his friend Itsuki to buy a car, which they plan to drift on the twisting roads surrounding nearby Mount Akina. Unbeknownst to his colleagues, Takumi moonlights as a tofu delivery driver for his father's store before sunrise each morning, passively building an impressive amount of skill behind the wheel of the family car, an aging Toyota Sprinter Trueno.
Shortly after the story begins, the Red Suns, an amateur racing team from Mount Akagi led by Ryosuke Takahashi, challenge the local Speedstars team to a set of races on Mount Akina. Dispirited after watching the Red Suns' superior performance during a practice run, the Speedstars expect to lose; that night, the Red Suns' #2 driver, Keisuke Takahashi, heading home after the last practice run, is defeated soundly by a mysterious Sprinter Trueno, despite driving a much more powerful Mazda RX-7. An investigation into the identity of the driver leads to Takumi's father; the Speedstars beg Bunta to help them defeat the Red Suns, he refuses relenting to "maybe" show up at the race. At the same time, Takumi asks Bunta if he can borrow the car for a day to take a trip to the beach with a potential girlfriend, Bunta seizes the moment by granting permission on the condition that Takumi defeats Keisuke. On the night of the race, the Trueno does not show up, the Speedstars enlist a backup driver for the first run.
At the last moment before the race starts, the AE86 arrives. Takumi steps out of the car to the bewilderment of the Speedstars, he defeats Keisuke by utilizing a dangerous "Gutter run" technique on the mountain road's hairpin corners. The Red Suns' embarrassing defeat sets up the plot for the rest of the series: drivers from neighboring prefectures come to challenge Takumi and the "Legendary Eight-Six of Akina" and thus prove themselves as racers; the plot moves away from Mount Akina as Takumi becomes bored with racing on that road. He joins an experimental racing team formed by the disbanded Red Suns and challenges more difficult opponents on their home courses in the pursuit of his dream to be "the fastest driver out there". Initial D manga Japanese release: 48 Volumes Initial D manga Tokyopop release: 33 Volumes The first Initial D volume was released in Japan on November 6, 1995 and concluded on July 29, 2013; the manga has been translated into Chinese and English over its publication run.
As of 2013, 48 volumes have been published. The manga and anime were licensed for English releases in North America by Tokyopop; the company changed the names of the characters in the anime edition, subsequently changed them in the manga to match. These name changes were to reflect the name changes that Sega implemented into the western releases of the Initial D A Stage video games due to name length limits. Tokyopop cut out a character's enjo kōsai relationship with another and edited sex scenes, appearing in volumes 1 and 9 in the original manga. In addition, "street slang" was interlaced in translations; the manga had some translation errors. One example was the technical term "Wastegate", translated as "West Gate". Another was an inaccurate explanation of. Many of the explanations of automotive design an
Iconology Inc. d/b/a ComiXology, is a cloud-based digital distribution platform for comics, with over 200 million comic downloads as of September 2013. It offers a selection of more than 100,000 comic books, graphic novels, manga across Android, iOS, Kindle Fire, Windows 8, the Internet. In April 2014, ComiXology became a subsidiary of Amazon.com. ComiXology's digital platform with Guided View reading technology is used in the company's own branded applications, is the engine used by most major comic book publishers in the United States, including Marvel Comics and DC Comics for their branded digital services. With the release of the third generation iPad and its Retina Display, ComiXology released a high-definition comic format dubbed CMX-HD; the company provides tools for brick-and-mortar comic book retailers to participate in digital comic sales. ComiXology.com was launched July 2007 as an online community for comic book fans. The website displays weekly listings of new titles that can be viewed by issue: displaying cover art, description, page count, other information.
Users can comment on individual comic books. As of July 24, 2014, ComiXology offers DRM-free downloads for the comics available from selected publishers on its online store. Pull List, a mobile comic book store locater providing readers with a digital Pull List tool, allowing fans to pre-order comics for pick up from local stores through the app; this app has been replaced by the Comics by comiXology app and the web app has the retail store locator included. Retailer Tools, a suite of out-of-the-box web solutions for brick-and-mortar comic book retailers to optimize their presence online. Numerous retailers worldwide have integrated comiXology's Retailer Tools into their operations, representing about 2% of all pre-orders in the market. Comics by ComiXology, a digital comic book reader and store for mobile devices, including iOS, Windows 8, the Internet, that allows users to access their digital comic collection across multiple devices; the company was founded in 2007 by CEO David Steinberger, CTO John D. Roberts, Peter Jaffe.
Subsequent to winning the business plan competition at New York University, the company received seed financing from Kit McQuiston, New York Angels and Rose Tech Ventures. In May 2016, the company launched "comiXology Unlimited," a subscription service that gives access thousands of comics to read from most major publishers for a monthly fee of $5.99, however Marvel and DC are not included. ComiXology Unlimited, is an online subscription service by ComiXology, a cloud-based platform for digital comics The service offers more than four thousand issues to its subscribers and launched on May 24, 2016. ComiXology Unlimited contains a selection of titles from Image Comics, Dark Horse, IDW Publishing, BOOM! Studios, Dynamite Entertainment, Kodansha Comics, Oni Press, Valiant Entertainment, Archie Comics, Fantagraphics Books, Action Lab Entertainment, Aspen Comics, Magnetic Press, Zenescope Entertainment and more. According to the company, ComiXology Unlimited offers the widest subscription selection of digital comics in the world.
However, the service does not include DC Comics. ComiXology Unlimited is available in the U. S. and ComiXology plans to expand to other regions in the future. ComiXology updates the content included in the program on a monthly basis. ComiXology's patent-pending Guided View technology allows readers to read through comics in full screen or from panel-to-panel, mimicking the natural movement of the eye as though readers were experiencing reading a print comic book. In June 2018, the company announced ComiXology Originals, an initiative to publish creator-owned titles. ComiXology holds exclusive distribution rights on iOS to DC Comics digital content through branded apps and comics by comiXology. ComiXology holds exclusive digital distribution rights to: All of Robert Kirkman's titles - including The Walking Dead Youngblood and Armageddon Now from Rob Liefeld, original co-founder of Image Comics. ComiXology’s first original digital title, Box 13, has been acquired by Red 5 Comics for print distribution.
ComiXology commissioned a sequel to the comic, titled The Pandora Project. Both Box 13 titles were created by the Harvey Award-winning team behind the Zuda Comics title High Moon - David Gallaher and Steve Ellis Moon Girl is an original comic published by ComiXology, based on a public domain comics character; the creative team on Moon Girl is Tony Trov, Johnny Zito, Rahzzah. In 2018, ComiXology, under the ComiXology Originals banner, announced four new projects, namely: Savage Game, Superfreaks and Ask For Mercy. In March 2013 during SXSW, an issue arose when Marvel Comics attempted to distribute over 700 comics for free via ComiXology for the Marvel #1 promotion; the ComiXology servers were unable to keep up with user demand, preventing users from obtaining the promotional comics, as well as from reading comics they had purchased. This led to the promotions being delayed. Soon afterward, the promotion was offered again and was reported to have "worked flawlessly". In the aftermath of the ensuing difficulties some users have raised concerns regarding access to their files should the platform shut down.
To respond to this concern, in July 2014 selected publishers allow for DRM-free downloads of their comics. On April 9, 2013, writer Bri