Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south west of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties. Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State and coded as "IE-M". Geographically, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,280,020, with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Waterford. In the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches and ordained priests.
During the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty. Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Corcu Loígde overlords. Rulers from the Eóganachta included Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, Déisi Muman. By the 9th century, the Gaels had been joined by Norse Vikings who founded towns such as Cork and Limerick, for the most part incorporated into a maritime empire by the Dynasty of Ivar, who periodically would threaten Munster with conquest in the next century. Around this period Ossory broke away from Munster; the 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond, north of the River Shannon to Munster. Their leaders were the ancestors of the O'Brien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru the most noted High King of Ireland, several of whose descendants were High Kings.
By 1118, Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the O'Briens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the short-lived Kingdom of Ormond under the O'Kennedys. The three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. There was Norman influence from the 14th century, including by the FitzGerald, de Clare and Butler houses, two of whom carved out earldoms within the Lordship of Ireland, the Earls of Desmond becoming independent potentates, while the Earls of Ormond remained closer to England; the O'Brien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, joining the Kingdom of Ireland. The impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed. By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine the west; the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War.
The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel O'Connell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry. Noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth-century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of ancient goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn and Queen Mongfind; the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. Another legendary figure is Donn; the province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe. The tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster; the Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their ceremonial capital at the Rock of Cashel.
The majority of Irish ogham inscriptions are found in Munster, principally in areas occupied by the Iverni the Corcu Duibne. Europe's first linguistic dictionary in any non-Classical language, the Sanas Cormaic, was compiled by Munster scholars, traditionally thought to have been directed by the king-bishop Cormac mac Cuilennáin; the School of Ross in Munster was one of Europe's leading centres of learning in the Early Middle Ages. Several sports in Munster are organised on a provincial basis, or operate competitions along provincial lines; this includes traditionally popular sports such as hurling, Gaelic football, rugby union and soccer, as well as cricket and others. Munster is noted for its tradition of hurling. Three of the four most successful teams in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship are from Munster; the final of the Munster Senior Hurling Championship is one of the most important days in the Irish GAA calendar. Munster is the only province in Ireland that all of its counties have won an All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship.
Traditionally, the dominant teams in Munster football are Kerry GAA and Cork GAA, although Tipperary GAA and Limerick GAA have won All-Ireland Senior Football Championships. Kerry in particular are the most successful county in the history of football. Rugby is a popular game in the cities of Limerick a
Ardmore is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Delaware and Montgomery counties in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The population was 12,455 at the 2010 census. Ardmore is a suburb on the west side of Philadelphia, within Lower Merion Township in Montgomery County and Haverford Township in Delaware County. Named "Athensville" in 1853, the community and its railroad station were renamed "Ardmore" in 1873 by the Pennsylvania Railroad, on whose Main Line, west out of Philadelphia, Ardmore sits at Milepost 8.5. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land. Ardmore is adjacent to Wynnewood, Haverford and Havertown. Residents from South East Ardmore and Wynnewood cooperate as the ArdWood Civic Association; the Ardmore Progressive Civic Association serves the black section of Ardmore bordered by ArdWood Civic Association, Haverford College, Montgomery Avenue, the Montgomery/Delaware County line. The North Ardmore Civic Association represents residents of North Ardmore and Wynnewood north of Montgomery Avenue.
The South Ardmore Betterment Alliance is a community group in the southern portion of Ardmore which organizes various community activities. Ardmore's train station is served by SEPTA Regional Rail's Paoli/Thorndale Line and Amtrak passenger trains. Residents and visitors enjoy several recreation areas, including South Ardmore Park, located in neighboring Wynnewood, though many mistake it for Ardmore. Suburban Square, opened in 1928 as one of the earliest shopping centers in the United States, is located adjacent to the Ardmore train station. Ardmore contains the nation's first suburban branch of a major department store, the former Strawbridge & Clothier which opened there in 1930. Other landmarks within the Ardmore Progressive Civic Association borders include the Ardmore Post Office and Ardmore Public Library on South Ardmore Avenue. Two sites, located in the Haverford Township section of Ardmore, the Merion Golf Club East Course and Pont Reading are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
As of the 2010 census, the CDP was 76.8% White, 12.9% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 1.2% were Some Other Race, 2.3% were two or more races. 4.0 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,616 people, 5,529 households, 3,129 families residing in Ardmore; the population density was 6,588.5 people per square mile. There were 5,711 housing units at an average density of 2,982.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 83.51% White, 11.47% African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.58% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 1.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.05% of the population. There were 5,529 households, out of which 23.9% included children under the age of 18, 43.0% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.4% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.98. In the CDP, the population was spread out, with 20.3% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $60,966, the median income for a family was $75,828. Males had a median income of $46,920 versus $40,802 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $36,111. About 2.4% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. Pupils living in the Lower Merion Township portion attend schools in the Lower Merion School District, while pupils living in the Haverford Township portion attend schools in the School District of Haverford Township. Among the many notable graduates of Lower Merion High School in Ardmore are General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Commanding General of the U.
S. Army Air Forces in WWII. In 2004–2006, Ardmore's business district was the subject of a hotly contested eminent domain battle. A grassroots organization, the Save Ardmore Coalition, along with local businesses and other civic groups, opposed an eminent domain/redevelopment program that would have involved the demolition of historic buildings, in favor of preserving those buildings for other commercial use. In March 2006 the Lower Merion Township Board of Commissioners adopted a resolution disavowing the use of eminent domain for the benefit of private redevelopment projects; the Ardmore battle was instrumental in prompting the Pennsylvania General Assembly to enact legislation in 2006 restricting the use of eminent domain for private projects. The Ardmore Presbyterian Church is a congregation of the Presbyterian Church located at the corner of Montgo
Bangor is a city and community in Gwynedd, northwest Wales. It is the oldest city in Wales, one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. In Caernarfonshire, it is a university city with a population of 18,808 at the 2011 census, including around 10,500 students at Bangor University, it is one of only six places classed as a city in Wales, although it is only the 25th-largest urban area by population. At the 2001 census, 46.6% of the non-student resident population spoke Welsh. The origins of the city date back to the founding of a monastic establishment on the site of Bangor Cathedral by the Celtic saint Deiniol in the early 6th century AD. Bangor itself is an old Welsh word for a wattled enclosure, such as the one that surrounded the cathedral site; the present cathedral is a somewhat more recent building and has been extensively modified throughout the centuries. While the building itself is not the oldest, not the biggest, the bishopric of Bangor is one of the oldest in the UK. Another claim to fame is that Bangor has the longest High Street in Wales and the United Kingdom.
Friars School was founded as a free grammar school in 1557, the University College of North Wales was founded in 1884. In 1877, the former HMS Clio became a school ship, moored on the Menai Strait at Bangor, had 260 pupils. Closed after the end of hostilities of World War I, she was sold for scrap and broken up in 1919. During World War II, parts of the BBC evacuated to Bangor during the worst of the Blitz. In June 2012 Bangor was the first city in the UK to impose a city centre wide night time curfew on under-16s; the six-month trial was brought in by Gwynedd Council and North Wales police, but opposed by civil rights groups. Bangor has been unique outside of England in using the title of'city' by ancient prescriptive right, due to its long-standing cathedral. However, city status was conferred on it by the Queen in 1974. By means of various measures, it is one of the smallest cities in the UK. Using 2011 statistics, comparing Bangor to: Population of city council areas in Wales, is third with St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within Wales, is the second smallest city behind St Asaph Urban areas within Wales, is third placed behind St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within the UK, is fourth after the City of London, Wells and St Asaph Urban areas within the UK, is fifth placed Population of city council areas within the UK, is sixth.
Bangor lies on the coast of North Wales near the Menai Strait which separates the island of Anglesey from Gwynedd unitary authority, the town of Menai Bridge lying just over the strait. The combined population of the two amounts to 22,184 people as of the 2011 census. Bangor Mountain lies to the east of the main part of the city, but the large housing estate of Maesgeirchen built as council housing, is to the east of the mountain near Port Penrhyn. Bangor Mountain casts a shadow across the High Street, Glan Adda and Hirael areas, so that from November to March some parts of the High Street in particular receive no direct sunlight. Another ridge rises to the north of the High Street, dividing the city centre from the south shore of the Menai Strait. Bangor has two rivers within its boundaries; the River Adda is a culverted watercourse which only appears above ground at its western extremities near the Faenol estate, whilst the River Cegin enters Port Penrhyn at the eastern edge of the city. Port Penrhyn was an important port in the 19th century, exporting the slates produced at the Penrhyn Quarry.
Bangor railway station is located on the North Wales Coast Line from Chester to Holyhead. The A55 runs to the south of Bangor, providing a route to Holyhead and Chester; the nearest airport with international flights is 83 miles by road. Bangor lies at the western end of the North Wales Path, a 60 miles long-distance coastal walking route to Prestatyn. Bangor is on routes NCR 8 and NCR 85 of the National Cycle Network. Classical music is performed in Bangor, with concerts given in the Powis and Prichard-Jones Halls as part of the university's Music at Bangor concert series; the city is home to Storiel. A new arts centre complex, the replacement for Theatr Gwynedd, was scheduled for completion in the summer of 2014, but the opening was delayed until November 2015. Bangor hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1890, 1902, 1915, 1931, 1940, 1943, 1971 and 2005, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1874. Garth Pier is the second longest pier in Wales, the ninth longest in the British Isles, at 1,500 feet in length.
It was opened in 1893 and was a promenade pier, for the amusement of holiday-makers who could stroll among the pinnacle-roofed kiosks. In 1914 it was struck by a vessel; the damaged section was repaired temporarily by the Royal Engineers, but when in 1922, a permanent repair was contemplated, it was found that the damage was more severe than had been thought. The repairs were made at considerable cost and the pier remained open until 1974 when it was nearly condemned as being in poor condition, it was sold for a nominal price to Arfon Borough Council who proposed to demolish it, but the County Council, encouraged by local support, ensured that it survived by obtaining Grade II Listed building status for it. When it was listed that year, the British Listed Buildings inspector considered it to be "the best in Britain of t
County Armagh is one of the traditional counties of Ireland and one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the southern shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 1,326 km² and has a population of about 174,792. County Armagh is known as the "Orchard County" because of its many apple orchards; the county is part of the historic province of Ulster. The name "Armagh" derives from the Irish word Ard meaning Macha. Macha is mentioned in The Book of the Taking of Ireland, is said to have been responsible for the construction of the hill site of Emain Macha to serve as the capital of the Ulaid kings thought to be Macha's height. From its highest point at Slieve Gullion, in the south of the County, Armagh's land falls away from its rugged south with Carrigatuke and Camlough mountains, to rolling drumlin country in the middle and west of the county and flatlands in the north where rolling flats and small hills reach sea level at Lough Neagh. County Armagh's boundary with Louth is marked by the rugged Ring of Gullion rising in the south of the county whilst much of its boundary with Monaghan and Down goes unnoticed with seamless continuance of drumlins and small lakes.
The River Blackwater marks the border with County Tyrone and Lough Neagh otherwise marks out the County's northern boundary. There are a number of uninhabited islands in the county's section of Lough Neagh: Coney Island Flat, Croaghan Flat, Phil Roe's Flat and the Shallow Flat. Despite lying in the east of Ireland, Armagh enjoys an oceanic climate influenced by the Gulf Stream with damp mild winters, temperate, wet summers. Overall temperatures drop below freezing during daylight hours, though frost is not infrequent in the months November to February. Snow lies for longer than a few hours in the elevated south-east of the County. Summers are mild and wet and although with sunshine interspersed with showers, daylight lasts for 18 hours during high-summer. Ancient Armagh was the territory of the Ulaid before the fourth century AD, it was ruled by the Red Branch. The site, subsequently the city, were named after the goddess Macha; the Red Branch play an important role in the Ulster Cycle, as well as the Cattle Raid of Cooley.
However, they were driven out of the area by the Three Collas, who invaded in the 4th century and held power until the 12th. The Clan Colla ruled the area known as Oriel for these 800 years; the chief Irish septs of the county were descendants of the Collas, the O'Hanlons and MacCanns, the Uí Néill, the O'Neills of Fews. Armagh was divided into several baronies: Armagh was held by the O'Rogans, Lower Fews was held by O'Neill of the Fews, Upper Fews were under governance of the O'Larkins, who were displaced by the MacCanns. Oneilland East was the territory of the O'Garveys, who were displaced by the MacCanns. Oneilland West, like Oneilland East, was once O'Neill territory, until it was held by the MacCanns, who were Lords of Clanbrassil. Upper and Lower Orior were O'Hanlon territory. Tiranny was ruled by Ronaghan. Miscellaneous tracts of land were ruled by O'Kelaghan; the area around the base of Slieve Guillion near Newry became home to a large number of the McGuinness clan as they were dispossessed of hereditary lands held in the County Down.
Armagh was the seat of St. Patrick, the Catholic Church continues to be his see. County Armagh is presently one of four counties of Northern Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Catholic background, according to the 2011 census; the southern part of the County has been a stronghold of support for the IRA, earning it the nickname "Bandit Country" though this is regarded as an untrue media label that has resulted in the vilification and demonisation of the local community. South Armagh is predominantly nationalist, with most of the population being opposed to any form of British presence that of a military nature; the most prominent opposition to British rule was the Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade. On 10 March 2009, the CIRA claimed responsibility for the fatal shooting of a PSNI officer in Craigavon, County Armagh—the first police fatality in Northern Ireland since 1998; the officer was fatally shot by a sniper as he and a colleague investigated "suspicious activity" at a house nearby when a window was smashed by youths causing the occupant to phone the police.
The PSNI officers responded to the emergency call, giving a CIRA sniper the chance to shoot and kill officer Stephen Carroll. County Armagh is no longer used as an administrative district for local Government purposes. County Armagh ceased to serve as a local government unit in 1973; the county is covered for local government purposes by four district councils, namely Armagh City and District Council, most of Craigavon Borough Council the western third of Newry and Mourne District Council and a part of Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council, centred around Peatlands Park. With the proposed reform of local government in Northern Ireland in 2011, County Armagh would have comprised part of two new council areas, Armagh City and Bann District, Newry City and Down. Armagh ceased to serve as an electoral constituency in 1983, but remains the core of the Newry and Armagh constituency represented at Westminster and
The Mourne Mountains called the Mournes or Mountains of Mourne, are a granite mountain range in County Down in the south-east of Northern Ireland. It includes the province of Ulster; the highest of these is Slieve Donard at 850 m. The Mournes is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and has been proposed as the first national park in Northern Ireland; the area is owned by the National Trust and sees a large number of visitors every year. The name Mourne is derived from the name of a Gaelic sept called the Múghdhorna; the Mournes are visited by many tourists, hillwalkers and rock climbers. Following a fundraising drive in 1993, the National Trust purchased nearly 5.3 km2 of land in the Mournes. This included a part of Slieve Donard and nearby Slieve Commedagh, at 767 m the second-highest mountain in the area; the Mourne Wall is among the more famous features in the Mournes. It is a 35 km dry-stone wall that crosses fifteen summits, constructed to define the boundaries of the 36 km2 area of land purchased by the Belfast Water Commissioners in the late nineteenth century.
This followed a number of Acts of Parliament allowing the sale, the establishment of a water supply from the Mournes to the growing industrial city of Belfast. Construction of the Mourne Wall was started in 1904 and was completed in 1922; some of the mountains have names beginning "Slieve", from the Irish word sliabh, meaning "mountain". Examples are Slieve Lamagan and Slieve Muck. There are a number of curious names: Pigeon Rock; the Mournes are popular as a destination for many Duke of Edinburgh's Award expeditions and those taking part in the Mourne Mountain Challenge. The Isle of Man, the mountains of the Lake District, Snowdonia in Wales can sometimes be seen across the Irish Sea from some parts of the Mournes on clear days; the mountains are visible from parts of Dublin and Galloway on clear days. Aside from grasses, the most common plants found in the Mournes are gorse. Of the former, three species are found: the cross-leaved heath, the bell heather, the ling. Of the latter, two species are found: western gorse.
Other plants which grow in the area are: bog cotton, harebell, marsh St John's wort, wild thyme, wood sorrel and heath spotted orchids. Sheep graze high into the mountains, the range is home to birds, including the common raven, peregrine falcon, wren and native meadow pipit, grey wagtail and snipe; the golden eagle, a former inhabitant, has not been seen in the Mournes since 1836. It has been proposed; the plan has been subject to controversy because of the area's status as private property, with over 1,000 farmers based in the proposed park, because of fears over the impact on local communities and house prices. The mountains are immortalised in a song written by Percy French in 1896, "The Mountains of Mourne"; the song has been recorded by many artists, including Don McLean, was quoted in Irish group Thin Lizzy's 1979 song'Roisin Dubh: A Rock Legend.' The Mourne Mountains influenced C. S. Lewis to write The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe."The Mountains of Mourne" are mentioned in John Lennon's song "The Luck of the Irish" on the album Some Time in New York City.
The scenery of the Mourne Mountains have provided the backdrop for a number of productions, including Philomena and Game of Thrones. The Mournes are a popular area for hiking, the Wall providing a convenient navigation aid. There are a large number of granite cliffs, in the form of outcrops and tors, scattered throughout the range, making the Mournes one of Northern Ireland's major rock-climbing areas since the first recorded ascents in the 1930s; the rock forms are quite rounded, thus depending on cams for protection, but with good friction. The 1998 guidebook lists 26 separate crags, with a total of about 900 routes of all grades; the Northern Ireland Railways service and the Enterprise link into Newry railway station. On 23 October 2010 an AgustaWestland AW109 was operating a VFR flight from Enniskillen Airport to Caernarfon Airport, Wales. While en route the helicopter crashed into the western side of Shanlieve, killing all three passengers and crew on board; the cause of the accident was determined to be pilot error in heavy fog.
List of mountains in Northern Ireland List of mountains in Ireland Kirk, David. The Mountains of Mourne: A Celebration of a Place Apart. Belfast: Appletree Press. ISBN 0-86281-846-X. About the Mourne Mountains The website of the book above under'References' A local family's site with some information about the mountains Mournes Climbers Photos and commentary of the walk around the Mourne Wall BBC article about the Mourne Wall
Place names in Ireland
The vast majority of placenames in Ireland are anglicisations of Irish language names. However, some names come directly from the English language, a handful come from Old Norse and Scots; the study of placenames in Ireland unveils features of the country's history and geography, the development of the Irish language. The name of Ireland itself comes from the Irish name Éire, added to the Germanic word land. In mythology, Éire was an Irish goddess of the land and of sovereignty. In some cases, the official English or anglicised name is wholly different from the official Irish language name. An example is Dublin, its name is derived from the Irish dubh linn. For most of the "Gaelic period", there were few towns or large settlements in Ireland. Hence, most places were named after noteworthy features of the landscape, such as hills, valleys, lakes and harbours; as time went on, more places were named after man-made features, such as churches and bridges. Some of the most common elements found in Irish placenames are shown in the table below.
The differences in spelling are due to differences in pronunciation. During the 800s and 900s, Vikings from Scandinavia raided monasteries along Ireland's coasts and waterways; the Vikings spoke the Old Norse language and are called Norsemen. They set up small coastal camps called longphorts — these were used as bases for their raiding parties and as shelters during the winter; some longphorts grew into Norse settlements and trading ports. The biggest of these were Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Over time, the Norsemen embraced Gaelic culture, becoming known as the Norse-Gaels. Placenames derived from Old Norse: After the Norman invasion of Ireland, which began in 1169, Anglo-Norman and English language placenames emerged in the areas under Anglo-Norman control. Most of these are within the bounds of "The Pale" — the area that stayed under direct English control for the longest, where English language and culture held sway, it stretched along the east coast from Dundalk in the north to Dalkey in the south.
Between 1556 and 1641, during its "conquest of Ireland", the English colonised parts of the country with settlers from Great Britain. This is known as the "Plantations of Ireland". After the 1601 Battle of Kinsale defeat in which the Gaelic aristocracy fled to continental Europe the northern province of Ulster was the most colonised; those who settled as part of the "Plantation of Ulster" were required to be English speaking made up of Lowland Scots and some northern English. The result is that northeast Ulster has a great number of English-derived placenames; such placenames refer to buildings and other manmade features. They include forms such as -town, -ton, -ville, -borough, -bury, mill, abbey, etc. However, forms such as hill, mont, bay, brook etc. are not uncommon. Some placenames that seem to come from English are in fact anglicized Irish names modified by folk etymology. Examples include Longford and Forkhill; the Lowland Scots who settled during the Plantation of Ulster contributed to place-names in the north of Ireland in the Ulster Scots areas.
The Scots influence can be seen in places such as Burnside, Calheme from'Cauldhame', Corby Knowe Glarryford from'glaurie', Gowks Hill and Loanends in County Antrim, Whaup Island and Whinny Hill from'whin' in County Down and the frequent elements burn, dyke, knowe, sheuch or sheugh and vennel. Other Scots elements may be obscured due to their being rendered in Standard English orthography; some places in Ireland bear names from beyond Norse or English. One reason for this is. In middle-class areas, names of Italian origin have been used because of this perception and many roads and housing estates have obtained their names in this way. More this has led to the naming of whole suburbs. Portobello, Dublin was named in celebration of the British victory at the 1739 Battle of Porto Bello. Another source of place names is from Anglo-Norman. Considering the number of surnames of Norman origin in Ireland, these are rare; some examples do exist, such as the town of Buttevant and the village of Brittas. Others exist in portmanteau with words of Irish or English origin, such as Castletownroche, which combines the English Castletown and the French Roche, meaning rock.
Most widespread is the term Pallas which appears in over 20 place names, including the towns Pallasgreen and Pallaskenry. A further source of place names of other origin is places names after religious sites outside Ireland. Examples are Pic du Jer Park in Cork; the baronies of North Salt and South Salt are derived from Saltus Salmonis, a Latin calque of the town name of Leixlip (from Norse Lax Hlaup, "sa
Ardmore, South Dakota
Ardmore is an unincorporated community in Fall River County, South Dakota, United States. The town was founded in 1889 by European-American settlers. In 1927, President Calvin Coolidge stopped in Ardmore; the town survived the Great Depression without one family on welfare. The decline of agriculture and move of young people to other areas for work reduced the population; the last time the town had a recorded population was in 1980, when the 1980 census showed a population of 16 residents. The town is believed to have been derived from the name of a local teacher, it is at an elevation of 3,556 feet. Ardmore was featured in the May 2004 issue of National Geographic Magazine; the community is located one mile north of the South Dakota-Nebraska border along South Dakota Highway 71. It is located next to a stretch of BNSF railroad. 15-25 abandoned houses have survived at the site. The town sign is still standing. Among its former residents was the outlaw Doc Middleton. Ardmore celebrated a reunion on September 4, 2010, at the Ardmore Volunteer Fire Department