Alda Merini was an Italian writer and poet. Merini was quite young when, as a poet, she gained the attention and the admiration of other Italian writers, such as Giorgio Manganelli, Salvatore Quasimodo and Pier Paolo Pasolini, her writing style is described as intense and mystic, it bears an influence from Rainer Maria Rilke. Some of her poems concern her time in a mental home and are of a long and dramatic nature, she explores the "otherness" of madness as part of creative expression. The poem "The other truth. Diary of a dropout" is considered by some as her masterpiece, Scheiwiller, 1986. In 1996 she was nominated by the Académie Française as candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature. In 2007 she won the Elsa Morante Ragazzi Award with Alda e Io – Favole written in cooperation with the fable writer Sabatino Scia. Giorgio Napolitano President of the Italian Republic described her, at her death, as an "inspired and limpid poetic voice." Alda Giuseppina Angela Merini was born on March 21, 1931, in viale Papiniano 57, Milan in a family of modest means.
The father, Nemo Merini, was an employee working at the insurance company "Vecchia Mutua Grandine ed Eguaglianza il Duomo". The mother, Emilia Painelli, was a housewife. Alda was the second daughter of three children, including Anna, born on November 26, 1926, Ezio, born in January 1943, who appear, albeit with a certain detachment, in her poems. Known about her childhood is only the little she wrote in the short autobiographical notes on the occasion of her second edition of the Spagnoletti Anthology: "a sensitive girl, with a rather melancholic character, quite excluded and little understood by her parents but good at her classes in primary school... because studying has always been a vital part of my life". After finishing the primary cycle with high grades, she attended the three-year school-to-work transition programme at the Istituto "Laura Solera Mantegazza" in via Ariberto in Milano, trying in the meantime to be admitted to Liceo Manzoni. However, she did not succeed. In the same period she studied the piano, an instrument she loved.
She made her authorial debut at the age of fifteen, under the guidance of Giacinto Spagnoletti, who discovered her artistic talent. In 1947, Merini met " the first shadows of her mind" and was interned for a month in the clinic Villa Turro in Milano; when she left the clinic, some friends got close to her and Giorgio Manganelli, whom she met at the house of Spagnoletti together with Luciano Erba and David Maria Turoldo, sent her to the psychoanalysts Fornari and Musatti. Giacinto Spagnoletti was the first to publish her work, in Antologia della poesia italiana contemporanea 1909–1949, published in 1950; the chosen works were the lyric poems Il gobbo, dated 22 December 1948, Luce, dated 22 December 1949, dedicated to Giacinto Spagnoletti. In 1951, at the suggestion of Eugenio Montale and Maria Luisa Spaziani, the editor Giovanni Scheiwiller published two of the author's unpublished poems in Poetesse del Novecento. From 1950 to 1953, the writer developed a professional connection and a close friendship with Salvatore Quasimodo.
At the end of the relationship with Giorgio Manganelli, August 9, 1953 she married Ettore Carniti, a bakery owner from Milan. The same year Schwarz publishing house published her first volume of poems entitled La presenza di Orfeo. In 1955 her second collection of poems was published, Paura di Dio, that included the poems written between 1947 and 1953, after which followed Nozze romane and, in the same year, Bompiani published the work in prose La pazza della porta accanto. In the same year, her first daughter, was born, the writer dedicated to Pietro De Pascale, the doctor who took care of her child, the collection of poems Tu sei Pietro, published in 1962 by Scheiwiller. AfterTu sei Pietro was the beginning of a period of isolation and silence for the author, due to her internment in the clinic "Paolo Pini", which lasted until 1972, albeit with sporadic visits home during which other three daughters were born. A time split between periods of health and illness followed caused by her bipolar disorder.
In 2007 with Alda e Io – Favole, written in collaboration with the fable writer Sabatino Scia, she won the Elsa Morante Ragazzi prize. The 17 October 2007 the poet obtained a degree honoris causa in "Teorie della comunicazione e dei linguaggi" at the School of Education Sciences at the University of Messina, giving lectio magistralis on the meandering twists and turns of events that constituted her life. In 1979, Merini began her most intense works on her dramatic and upsetting experience at the psychiatric hospital; these works were included in what Maria Corti called "her masterpiece", la Terra Santa, thanks to which 1993 she won the Librex Montale Prize. On July 7, 1983, her husband died and Alda,without any support from the literary world, fruitlessly tried to spread her poems. Maria Corti asserts that Merini attempted to have her works published by some of the most important Italian editors too, but without any success. However, in 1982, Paolo Mauri offered to have thirty of her poems, chosen from a typewritten document of about 100 texts, to be published on his journal.
Shortly after that, together with the publisher Scheiwiller, other ten poems were added and, in 1984, La Terra Santa was issued. During that time, Merini rented a room in her house to the painter Charles and started being in touch with the poet Michele Pierri that, in that difficult period of recreating bonds with the literary world, showed to value her poems. In October 1983 Alda and Michele got marrie
Giovanni Placido Agostino Pascoli was an Italian poet, classical scholar and an emblematic figure of Italian literature in the late nineteenth century. He was, together with the greatest Italian decadent poet. Giovanni Pascoli was born into a well-to-do family, he was the fourth of ten children of Caterina Vincenzi Alloccatelli. His father was administrator of an estate of farm land of the Princes Torlonia on which the Pascoli family lived. On the evening of 10 August 1867 as Ruggero Pascoli was returning home from the market at Cesena in a carriage drawn by a black and white mare, he was shot and killed by an assassin hiding in a ditch by the road; the mare continued on her way and brought home the body of her slain master. The murderer was never apprehended. Giovanni Pascoli had a tragic childhood, struck by the murder of his father and the early deaths of his mother and two brothers, the subsequent financial decline of the family; the father's assassination echoes in particular in one of his most popular poems, "La cavalla storna".
His whole first work, reflects his unhappy childhood. In 1871 he moved to Rimini with six of his brothers. Here he made friends with Andrea Costa, began to participate in Socialist demonstrations; this led to another key event in Pascoli's life, his brief imprisonment in Bologna following a protest against the capture of the anarchist Giovanni Passannante, who attempted to kill Humbert I. Pascoli composed an Ode to Passannante, which he tore up soon after reading it during a socialist gathering in Bologna. Pascoli studied at the University of Bologna, where his mentor was Giosuè Carducci, he graduated in 1882, began to teach in high schools in Matera and Massa. He lived next to his sisters Ida and Maria, in an attempt to renew the original family, building a "nest" for the sisters and himself. Although he was married, it is speculated that he never did because of an immature and ambiguous relationship with his sisters. In The same year, Pascoli dedicated a literary work to the memory of Giuseppe Garibaldi, a leading figure of the Italian Risorgimento movement, as well as to Carducci, his beloved teacher and close friend.
In the meantime he began to collaborate with the magazine Vita nuova, which published his first poems collected in Myricae. In 1894 Pascoli was called to Rome to work for the Ministry of Public Instruction, there he published the first version of Poemi conviviali, he moved between cities living in Bologna and Messina, but remained always psychologically rooted to his original, idealized peasant origins. In 1895 he and his sister Maria moved into a house at Castelvecchio, near Barga, in Tuscany, bought with money gained from literary awards; the political and social turmoil of the early 20th century, to lead to Italy's participation in World War I and to the advent of Fascism, further strengthened Pascoli's insecurity and pessimism. From 1897 to 1903 he taught Latin at the University of Messina, in Pisa; when Carducci retired, Pascoli replaced him as professor of Italian literature at the University of Bologna. In 1912 ill of cirrhosis, Giovanni Pascoli died of liver cancer at the age of 56 in Bologna.
An atheist, he was entombed in the chapel annexed to his house at Castelvecchio, where his beloved sister, would be laid to rest. Although he was not an active participant in any literary movement of the time, nor showed any particular propensity towards contemporary European poetry, he manifests in his works spiritualistic and idealistic tendencies, typical of late nineteenth century culture marked by the progressive exhaustion of Positivism. Overall his work appears to be followed by a constant tension between the old classicist tradition inherited from his teacher Giosuè Carducci, the new themes of decadentism, his earlier poems look simple, focus on domestic life and nature. However, Pascoli in that period of Positivism and scientism, believed that life is a mystery, his poems share similar themes but are more experimental, reflect his knowledge of classical antiquity. They were a great influence on Italian poets, who incorporated his melancholy themes into their own works, he wrote in both Latin.
His numerous poems in Latin gained many international awards. In 1897 Pascoli issued a detailed definition of his poetical stance, which he called poetica del fanciullino and which showed the influence of Sully and von Hartmann. Poetry, according to Pascoli, would be the unceasing capability to get stunned by the world, typical of childhood, secondarily connected to the expressive capabilities of the aged. In a refusal of both Classicism and Romanticism, Pascoli opposed both the renunciation of self-analysis and the abandonment of the self-centered point of view, in favour of a semi-irrational comfort which the poet gives himself through poetry. Pascoli's poetry shows interesting affinities with European symbolism if direct influences cannot be demonstrated. A wide use of analogy and synesthesia, a subtle musicality, a lexicon open both to foreign languages and to vernacular or onomatopeic voices are major signs of a literary research oriented towards modern poetical language. Part of Pascoli's work was translated into English by Lawrence Venuti, who in 2007 was awarded a Guggenh
Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize, awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole; the Swedish Academy decides. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October, it is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, it was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the world's most prestigious literature prize, the Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain studied and read.
The prize has "become seen as a political one – a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors... compar a poet from Indonesia translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon available only in French, another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...". As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin; the Academy has been alleged to be biased towards European, in particular Swedish, authors. Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as "ideal"; the Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate, it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned; these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates. By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee; the subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature.
No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed over the years. The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer. Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes; the judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life and up until 2018, not technically permitted to leave. On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign; the new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. The award is announced in October. Sometimes, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate.
A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money. The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation tha
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini was an Italian film director, poet and intellectual. Pasolini distinguished himself as an actor, novelist and political figure, he remains a controversial personality in Italy due to his blunt style and the focus of some of his works on taboo sexual matters, but he is an established major figure in European literature and cinematic arts. His murder prompted an outcry in Italy and its circumstances continue to be a matter of heated debate. Pasolini was born in traditionally one of the most politically leftist of Italian cities, he was the son of Carlo Alberto Pasolini, a lieutenant in the Italian army, Susanna Colussi, an elementary school teacher. His parents married in 1921, Pasolini was named after his paternal uncle, his family moved to Conegliano in 1923 and, two years to Belluno, where another son, was born. In 1926, Pasolini's father was arrested for gambling debts, his mother moved with the children to her family's house in Casarsa della Delizia, in the Friuli region.
That same year, his father Carlo Alberto, first detained and identified Anteo Zamboni as the would-be assassin of Benito Mussolini following his assassination attempt. Carlo Alberto was persuaded of the virtues of fascism. Pasolini began writing poems at the age of seven, inspired by the natural beauty of Casarsa. One of his early influences was the work of Arthur Rimbaud, his father was transferred to Idria in the Julian March in 1931. Pasolini found it difficult to adapt to all these dislocations, though he enlarged his poetry and literature readings and left behind the religious fervour of his early years. In the Reggio Emilia high school, he met Luciano Serra; the two met again in Bologna. Here he cultivated new passions, including football. With other friends, including Ermes Parini, Franco Farolfi, Elio Meli, he formed a group dedicated to literary discussions. In 1939 Pasolini graduated and entered the Literature College of the University of Bologna, discovering new themes such as philology and aesthetics of figurative arts.
He frequented the local cinema club. Pasolini always showed his friends a virile and strong exterior hiding his interior turmoil, he took part in the Fascist government's culture and sports competitions. In his poems of this period, Pasolini started to include fragments in Friulan, a minority language he did not speak but learned after he had begun to write poetry in it. "I learnt it as a sort of mystic act of love, a kind of félibrisme, like the Provençal poets."As an early adult, Pasolini identified as an atheist. In 1942, Pasolini published at his own expense a collection of poems in Friulan, Versi a Casarsa, which he had written at the age of eighteen; the work was noted and appreciated by such intellectuals and critics as Gianfranco Contini, Alfonso Gatto and Antonio Russi. His pictures had been well received. Pasolini was chief editor of a magazine called Il Setaccio, but he was fired after conflicts with the director, aligned with the Fascist regime. A trip to Germany helped him to perceive the "provincial" status of Italian culture in that period.
These experiences led Pasolini to revise his opinion about the cultural politics of Fascism and to switch to a Communist position. In 1942, the family took shelter in Casarsa, considered a more tranquil place to wait for the conclusion of the Second World War, a decision common among Italian military families. In the weeks before the 8 September armistice, Pasolini was drafted, he was captured and imprisoned by the German Wehrmacht, but escaped disguised as a peasant and found his way to Casarsa. Here he joined a group of other young enthusiasts of the Friulan language who wanted to give Casarsa Friulan a status equal to that of Udine, the official regional standard. From May 1944, they issued a magazine entitled Stroligùt di cà da l'aga. In the meantime Casarsa suffered Allied bombardments and forced enlistments by the Italian Social Republic, as well as partisan activity. Pasolini tried to remain apart from these events. Starting in October 1943, he, his mother and other colleagues taught students unable to reach the schools in Pordenone or Udine.
This educational workshop was considered illegal and broke up in February 1944. He had his first experience of gay love for one of his students, his brother Guido, aged 19, joined the Party of Action and their Osoppo-Friuli Brigade, taking to the bush near Slovenia. On 12 February 1945, Guido was killed in an ambush planted by Italian Garibaldine partisans serving in the lines of Tito's Yugoslavian guerrillas; this devastated his mother. Six days he and others founded the Friulan Language Academy. Meanwhile, on account of Guido's death, Pasolini's father Carlo Alberto returned to Italy from his detention period in November 1945, he settled in Casarsa. In November, Pasolini graduated from university after completing a final thesis about the work of Giovanni Pascoli, an Italian poet and classical scholar. In 1946 Pasolini published I Diarii, with the Academiuta. In October he traveled to Rome; the following May he began the so-called Quaderni Rossi, handwritten in old school exercise books with red covers.
He completed a drama in Il Cappellano. His poetry collection, I Pianti, was published by the Academiuta. On 30 October 1945, Pasolini joined the pro-devolution association Patrie
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Maria Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti
Maria Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti was an Italian poet and scholar. Her poetry dealt with contemporary issues, she became the first woman in Italy to vote. Bonacci Brunamonti published her first poetry aged 14, her motto was innovare serbando. Bonacci Brunamonti's poetry explored conflicts, such as the 1859 Perugia uprising, the Battle of Magenta and the Battle of Solferino; as a devout Catholic, she dedicated some of her works to Pope Pius IX. Her poetry used classical verse structures. Bonacci Brunamonti was forced to stop writing following a stroke in 1897. On 9 November 1860, she was permitted to vote in a plebiscite regarding the annexation of Marche and Umbria to Piedmont, due to her political poetry, she was the first woman in Italy to vote. Her father was a lawyer and professor of rhetoric. Born Maria Alinda Bonacci, she married Pietro Brunamonti in 1868. Bonacci Brunamonti was born in and died in Perugia, she lived there for much of her life frequently visiting her father's birthplace of Recanati.
Bonacci Brunamonti taught at the Sapienza University of Rome. She was a watercolor painter of plants. Antolini, Cornelia. Alinda Brunamonti e Vittoria Colonna: in memoria di Alinda Brunamonti. Croce, Benedetto. La letteratura della nuova Italia, vol. II. Curatolo, C.. Della vita e delle opere di Maria Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti. P. Fasano. Bonacci Brunamonti Maria Alinda, in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. XI, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. C. Pigorini Beri. Maria Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti. Reminiscenze, in Nuova Antologia, XLIV, pp. 473–84. P. Pimpinelli. Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti ovvero Una massaia in Parnaso, Città di Castello. L. M. Reale, Maria Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti, il dialetto, le tradizioni popolari e la Flora Umbra, in Contributi di Filologia dell'Italia Mediana, voll. XI and XII, pp. 195–236 e 127-167. C. Peducci. Maria Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti: i discorsi d'arte: un esempio del gusto fin de siècle. F. Ciacci, edited by G. D'Elia. L'archivio di Maria Alinda Bonacci Brunamonti. Inventario, Edizioni della Soprintendenza archivistica dell'Umbria e delle Marche
Helle Busacca was an Italian poet and writer. Born in a well-to-do family in San Piero Patti, Province of Messina, Helle Busacca lived for part of her youth in her birthplace, she moved to Bergamo and to Milan together with her parents. She graduated with a degree in classical letters at the Royal University of Milan. In the following years, she taught letters in various high schools, moving from city to city: Varese, Milan, Naples and Florence, where she died on January 15, 1996, her papers, which include correspondence and rough drafts of published works, as well as many unpublished manuscripts, are kept in a special collection at the State Archives of Florence. In December 2015, at a conference on the centenary of her birth, the Municipal Library of San Piero Patti was named for her. —Helle Busacca, from C'è chi nasce un mattino I realize that all my writings, whether prose or poetry, are writings of war, where someone, seeking lyric poetry would be wasting their time. Poetry is the culmination of the infinite layering that from the first bang has created us as we are: this is why, from time immemorial, we can "find ourselves" in it: where we don't find ourselves there is no poetry."
Busacca's papers, which include correspondence and rough drafts of published works, as well as many unpublished manuscripts, are kept in a special collection at the State Archives of Florence. Her work her poetry and story writing, shows a profound originality and incisiveness that departs from the intense testimony of a personal drama and from the consciousness of a tragic destiny; the author Busacca, nourished by a deep knowledge of classicism, forms a relationship with and is influenced by modern poetry of the most diverse origins and cultures, but with particular predilection for that of American background. In her works appear hints of the Beat Generation and Pound. Next to such influences, her work is marked by fluid variations of register that move from crude verbal violence to pinnacles of abstract and serene lyricism. A sorrowful but poetically fruitful note is the tragic memory of her brother Aldo's suicide, from which Busacca takes off to reach the sublime heights of a "message to the stars" and paradoxically, to the concrete contemporaneity of an "act of social faith."
In "I quanti suicidio", the poet invents a language of the spoken word, simple and immediate, meant for everyone to understand, as an indictment of the Italian system, the cowardice in her country that permitted the suicide of her brother, an unemployed scientist. The language she used, in its fiery directness and immediacy, was alienated from the experimental, skeptical, or symbolic language used in the poetry of her contemporaries. Giorgio Linguaglossa writes: The poetry of the trilogy has drawn the conclusions of this fact with maximum intensity: Busacca's zombie-word derives its own force from the intimate, unadorned colloquy-soliloquy between a deceased person and a speaking dead person. Cold and mournful, Helle Busacca's new poetry reveals the folly or the melancholy of the society of merchandise and the future computerized production of reality by being inalienably estranged from it. So if in the world of merchandise the hyperreality follows another hyperreality... in Busacca's poetry estrangement lays the foundation of her "spoken word": a sort of zombie from the cadaver of a dead person: the slaying of her brother "aldo.
Carlo Betocchi, Eugenio Montale, Raffaele Crovi, Giuseppe Zagarrio, Mario Grasso, Domenico Cara, Donato Valli, Gilda Musa, Bortolo Pento, Carlo Bo, Luciano Anceschi, Claudio Marabini, Oreste Macrì, Marco Marchi, Maurizio Cucchi, Gabriella Maleti, Mario Luzi, Alberico Sala, Sergio Solmi, Luigi Testaferrata, Vittorio Sereni, Marcello Venturi, Leonardo Sinisgalli, Giorgio Linguaglossa, among others, have written about her. Giuoco nella memoria. Ritmi. I quanti del suicidio. I quanti del karma. Niente poesia da Babele. Il libro del risucchio. Il libro delle ombre cinesi. Pene di amor perdute. Ottovolante, edited by Idolina Landolfi. Poesie scelte, edited by Daniela Monreale. Vento d'estate. Racconti di un mondo perduto. "I bestioni e gli eroi" and "L'America scoperta e riscoperta", in: Civiltà delle macchine, 1956. "Il mio strano amico Montale", in: L'Albero, 1986, vol. 39 Contrappunto. Controcorrente. "Una storia senza storia" De Rerum Natura. The Alessandra Contini Bonacossi Archive for Women's Memory and Writing has curated the collecting and storing of her papers at the State Archives of Florence.
Scritture femminili in Toscana: Voci per un autodizionario, edited by Ernestina Pellegrini. Mariella Bettarini, "Donne e poesia, prima parte" in: Poesia no. 119, July/August 1998. Daniela Monreale, "Vita e scrittura in una parola ribelle: La poesia di Helle Busacca" in: Le voci della Luna no. 20, March 2002. Ernestina Pellegrini, Introduction to Helle Busacca, Poesie scelte, edited by Daniela Monreale (Salerno: Edizion