Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia. According to the 2015 census, it is Indonesia's fourth most populous city after Jakarta and Bekasi with over 2.5 million inhabitants. At the meantime, Greater Bandung is the country's third largest metropolitan area with over 8 million inhabitants. Located 768 metres above sea level 140 kilometres southeast of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities; the city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topography provides a natural defense system, the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung; the Dutch colonials first established tea plantations around the mountains in the eighteenth century, a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the colonial capital Batavia. The Dutch inhabitants of Bandung demanded the establishment of a municipality, granted in 1906, Bandung developed into a resort city for plantation owners.
Luxurious hotels, cafés, European boutiques were opened, hence the city was nicknamed Parijs van Java. After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the city experienced rapid development and urbanization, transforming Bandung from an idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people/km2 metropolitan area, a living space for over 8.5 million people. New skyscrapers, high-rise buildings and gardens have been constructed. Natural resources have been exploited by conversion of protected upland area into highland villas and real estate. Although the city has encountered many problems, Bandung still attracts large numbers of tourists, weekend sightseers, migrants from other parts of Indonesia; the city has won a regional environmental sustainability award for having the cleanest air among other major cities in ASEAN countries in 2017. The city has become known as a Smart City, leveraging technology to improve government services, including social media, that alert the authorities to issues such as floods or traffic jams.
The first Asian-African Conference known as the Bandung Conference was hosted in Bandung by President Sukarno in 1955. Redevelopment of the international airport was completed in 2016. To improve infrastructure, the construction of a Jakarta-Bandung High Speed Rail and Bandung Metro Kapsul, a type of indigenous Automated People Mover will begin in 2018; the new Bandung Kertajati International Airport opened in June 2018 with a 2,500 meter long runway and only one flight per day to Surabaya. Bandung, the capital of West Java province, located about 180 kilometres southeast of Jakarta, is the third largest city in Indonesia, its elevation is 768 metres above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2,400 metres high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. The 400 km2 flat of central Bandung plain is situated in the middle of 2,340.88 square kilometres wide of the Bandung Basin. The basin's main river is the Citarum; the Bandung Basin is an important source of water for potable water and fisheries, with its 6,147 million m3 of groundwater being a major reservoir for the city.
The northern section of Bandung is hillier than other parts of the city, the distinguished truncated flat-peak shape of the Tangkuban Perahu volcano can be seen from the city to the north. Long-term volcanic activity has created fertile andisol soil in the north, suitable for intensive rice, tea and coffee plantations. In the south and east, alluvial soils deposited by the Cikapundung river predominate. Geological data shows that the Bandung Basin is located on an ancient volcano, known as Mount Sunda, erected up to 3,000–4,000 metres during the Pleistocene age. Two large-scale eruptions took place; the lake drained away. The official name of the city during the colonial Dutch East Indies period was Bandoeng; the earliest reference to the area dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Homo erectus species had long lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company established plantations in the Bandung area.
In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia, Cianjur, Bandung and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe including the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H. W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India. Daendels built a road, stretching 1,000 km from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung. In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg, the present-day location of Jalan Asia-Afrika. Under Daendels' orders
Makassar is the capital of the Indonesian province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth largest urban centre after Jakarta, Surabaya and Medan. From 1971 to 1999, the city was named after one of Ujung Pandang; the city is located on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi. The city's area is 199.3 square kilometres and it had a population of around 1.6 million in 2013. Its built-up area has 1,976,168 inhabitants covering 15 districts, its official metropolitan area, known as Mamminasata, with 17 additional districts, covers an area of 2,548 square kilometres and had a population of around 2.4 million according to 2010 Census. The trade in spices figured prominently in the history of Sulawesi, which involved frequent struggles between rival native and foreign powers for control of the lucrative trade during the pre-colonial and colonial period, when spices from the region were in high demand in the West. Much of South Sulawesi's early history was written in old texts that can be traced back to the 13th and 14th centuries.
Makassar is mentioned in the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese eulogy composed in 14th century during the reign of Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk. In the text, Makassar is mentioned as an island under Majapahit dominance, alongside Butun and Banggawi; the 9th King of Gowa Tumaparisi Kallonna is described in the royal chronicle as the first Gowa ruler to ally with the nearby trade-oriented polity of Tallo, a partnership which endured throughout Makassar's apogee as an independent kingdom. The centre of the dual kingdom was at Sombaopu, near the mouth of the Jeneberang River about 10 km south of the present city centre, where an international port and a fortress were developed. First Malay traders Portuguese from at least the 1540s, began to make this port their base for trading to the Spice Islands', further east; the growth of Dutch maritime power over the spice trade after 1600 made Makassar more vital as an alternative port open to all traders, as well as a source of rice to trade with rice-deficient Maluku.
The Dutch East India Company sought a monopoly of Malukan nutmeg and cloves, came close to succeeding at the expense of English and Muslims from the 1620s. The Makassar kings maintained a policy of free trade, insisting on the right of any visitor to do business in the city, rejecting the attempts of the Dutch to establish a monopoly. Makassar depended on the Muslim Malay and Catholic Portuguese Portuguese sailors communities as its two crucial economic assets; however the English East India Company established a post there in 1613, the Danish Company arrived in 1618, Chinese and Indian traders were all important. When the Dutch conquered Portuguese Melaka in 1641, Makassar became the largest Portuguese base in Southeast Asia; the Portuguese population had been in the hundreds, but rose to several thousand, served by churches of the Franciscans and Jesuits as well as the regular clergy. By the 16th century, Makassar had become Sulawesi's major port and centre of the powerful Gowa and Tallo sultanates which between them had a series of 11 fortresses and strongholds and a fortified sea wall that extended along the coast.
Portuguese rulers called the city Macáçar. Makassar was ably led in the first half of the 17th century, when it resisted Dutch pressure to close down its trade to Maluku, made allies rather than enemies of the neighbouring Bugis states. Karaeng Matoaya was ruler of Tallo from 1593, as well as Chancellor or Chief Minister of the partner kingdom of Gowa, he managed the succession to the Gowa throne in 1593 of the 7-year-old boy known as Sultan Alaud-din, guided him through the acceptance of Islam in 1603, numerous modernizations in military and civil governance, cordial relations with the foreign traders. John Jourdain called Makassar in his day "the kindest people in all the Indias to strangers". Matoaya's eldest son succeeded him on the throne of Tallo, but as Chancellor he had evidently groomed his brilliant second son, Karaeng Pattingalloang, who exercised that position from 1639 until his death. Pattingalloang must have been educated by Portuguese, since as an adult he spoke Portuguese "as fluently as people from Lisbon itself", avidly read all the books that came his way in Portuguese, Spanish or Latin.
French Jesuit Alexandre de Rhodes described his passion for mathematics and astronomy, on which he pestered the priest endlessly, while one of his Dutch adversaries conceded he was "a man of great knowledge and understanding." After Pattingalloang's death in 1654, a new king of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin, rejected the alliance with Tallo by declaring he would be his own Chancellor. Conflicts within the kingdom escalated, the Bugis rebelled under the leadership of Bone, the Dutch VOC seized its long-awaited chance to conquer Makassar with the help of the Bugis, their first conquest in 1667 was the northern Makassar fort of Ujung Pandang, while in 1669 they conquered and destroyed Sombaopu in one of the greatest battles of 17th century Indonesia. The VOC moved the city centre northward, around the Ujung Pandang fort they rebuilt and renamed Fort Rotterdam. From this base they managed to destroy the strongholds of the Sultan of Gowa, forced to live on the outskirts of Makassar. Following the Java War, Prince Diponegoro was exiled to Fort Rotterdam until his death in 1855.
After the arrival
Palawan the Province of Palawan is an archipelagic province of the Philippines, located in the region of MIMAROPA. It is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction, its capital is the city of Puerto Princesa, but the city is governed independently from the province as a urbanized city. The islands of Palawan stretch between Borneo in the southwest, it lies between the Sulu Sea. The province is named after its largest island, Palawan Island, measuring 450 kilometres long, 50 kilometres wide; the early history of Palawan was determined by a team of researchers led by Dr. Robert B. Fox, they found evidence in the Tabon Caves. They found human bone fragments, from an individual known as Tabon Man, in the municipality of Quezon, as well as tools and other artifacts. Although the origin of the cave dwellers is not yet established, anthropologists believe they came from Borneo; the Tabon Caves are now known as the Cradle of Philippine Civilization The Palawano and Tagbanwa, are believed to be direct descendants of Palawan's earliest settlers.
They developed an informal form of government, an alphabet, a system of trading with seafaring merchants. Surviving ancient tribal artwork include reliefs of elephants and fish found at Tabon Caves. 5,000 years ago, a culturally distinct period characterised by jar burials is evident. This era lasted till AD 500. Over 1500 jars and a mural depicting a burial procession were found. A more recent wave of migrants arrived between AD 220 and 263; this was during a period known as the Three Kingdoms. "Little, dark people" living in Anwei province in South China were driven South by Han People. Some settled in Thailand, others went farther south to Indonesia, Borneo, they were known as Negritos from whom Palawan's Batak tribe descended. Palawan, along with the rest of Philippines, was part of greater India and indosphere as evident by the discovery of a gold ornamental pendant from the Tabon caves in the island of Palawan, it is an image of Garuda, the eagle bird, the mount of Hindu deity Vishnu. The discovery of sophisticated Hindu imagery and gold artifacts in Tabon caves has been linked to those found from Óc Eo archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province of Vietnam in the Mekong River Delta.
These archaeological evidence suggests an active trade of many specialized goods and gold between India and Philippines and coastal regions of Vietnam and China. Between 8th to 12th centuries, Philippines was part of Hindu-Buddhist Srivijaya kingdowm, which in turn was a vassal of the Indian Hindu kingdom of Chola dynasty. Several places in Malaysia and Indonesia were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty; the Chola invasion furthered the expansion of Tamil merchant associations such as the Manigramam and Ainnurruvar into Southeast Asia. The Chola invasion led to the fall of the Sailendra Dynasty of Srivijaya and the Chola invasion coincides with return voyage of the great Buddhist scholar Atiśa from Sumatra to India and Tibet in 1025; the expedition of Rajendra Chola I is mentioned in the corrupted form as Raja Chulan in the medieval Malay chronicle Sejarah Melaya, Malay princes have names ending with Cholan or Chulan, such as Raja Chulan of Perak. With the Maharaja Sangrama Vijayottunggavarman imprisoned and most of its cities destroyed, the leaderless Srivijaya mandala entered a period of chaos and confusion.
The invasion marked the end of the Sailendra dynasty. According to the 15th-century Malay annals Sejarah Melayu, Rajendra Chola I after the successful naval raid in 1025 married Onang Kiu, the daughter of Vijayottunggavarman. In AD 982, ancient Chinese traders visited the islands. A Chinese author referred to these islands as Kla-ma-yan, Palau-ye, Paki-nung. Pottery and other artifacts recovered from caves and waters of Palawan attest to trade relations that existed between Chinese and Malay merchants. In the 12th century, Malay immigrants arrived. Most of their settlements were ruled by Malay chieftains; these people grew rice, coconuts, sweet potatoes and bananas. They raised swine and chickens. Most of their economic activities were fishing and hunting by the use of bamboo traps and blowguns; the local people had a dialect consisting of 18 syllables. They were followed by the Indonesians of the Majapahit Empire in the 13th century, they brought with them Buddhism and Hinduism. Surviving Buddhist images and sculptures are in and near Tabon Cave.
Because of Palawan's proximity to Borneo, southern portions of the island were under the control of the Sultanate of Brunei for more than two centuries, Islam was introduced. During the same period, trade relations flourished, intermarriages among the natives and the Chinese, Japanese and Hindu; the inter-mixing of blood resulted to a distinct breed of Palaweños, both in physical stature and features. After Ferdinand Magellan's death, remnants of his fleet landed in Palawan where the bounty of the land saved them from starvation. Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler named the place "Land of Promise."The northern Calamianes Islands were the first to come under Spanish authority, were declared a province separate from the Palawan mainland. In the early 17th century, Spanish friars sent out missions in Cuyo, Agutaya and Cagayancillo but they met resistance from Moro communities. Before the 18th century, Spain bega
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was an imperialist concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations from 1930 to 1945 by the Empire of Japan. It extended across the Asia-Pacific and promoted the cultural and economic unity of East Asians, Southeast Asians, South Asians and Oceanians, it declared the intention to create a self-sufficient "bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers". It was announced in a radio address entitled "The International Situation and Japan's Position" by Foreign Minister Hachirō Arita on 29 June 1940; the intent and practical implementation of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere varied depending on the group and government department involved. Policy theorists who conceived it, as well as the vast majority of the Japanese population at large saw it for its pan-Asian ideals of freedom and independence from Western colonial oppression. In practice, however, it was corrupted by militarists and nationalists, who saw an effective policy vehicle through which to strengthen Japan's position and advance its dominance within Asia.
The latter approach was reflected in a policy document released by Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare, An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus, which laid out the central position of Japan within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, promoted the idea of Japanese superiority over other Asians. Similar to the term "Third Reich", a military exploitation of a non-military term proposed by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, the phrase "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" was proposed by Kiyoshi Miki, a Kyoto School analytic philosopher, opposed to militarism. An earlier, influential concept was the geographically smaller version called New Order in East Asia, announced by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe on 22 December 1938 and was limited to Northeast Asia only; the original concept was an idealistic wish to "free" Asia from European colonial powers, but soon, nationalists saw it as a way to gain resources to keep Japan a modern power, militarists saw the same resources as raw materials for war.
Many Japanese nationalists were drawn to it as an ideal. Many of them remained convinced, throughout the war, that the Sphere was idealistic, offering slogans in a newspaper competition, praising the sphere for constructive efforts and peace. Konoe planned the Sphere in 1940 in an attempt to create a Great East Asia, comprising Japan, Manchukuo and parts of Southeast Asia, that would, according to imperial propaganda, establish a new international order seeking "co-prosperity" for Asian countries which would share prosperity and peace, free from Western colonialism and domination. Military goals of this expansion included naval operations in the Indian Ocean and the isolation of Australia; this would enable the principle of hakkō ichiu. This was one of a number of slogans and concepts used in the justification of Japanese aggression in East Asia in the 1930s through the end of World War II; the term "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" is remembered as a front for the Japanese control of occupied countries during World War II, in which puppet governments manipulated local populations and economies for the benefit of Imperial Japan.
To combat the protectionist dollar and sterling zones, Japanese economic planners called for a "yen bloc". Japan's experiment with such financial imperialism encompassed both official and semi-official colonies. In the period between 1895 and 1937, monetary specialists in Tokyo directed and managed programs of coordinated monetary reforms in Taiwan, Korea and the peripheral Japanese-controlled islands in the Pacific; these reforms aimed to foster a network of linked economic relationships. These efforts foundered in the eventual debacle of the Greater East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; the concept of a unified East Asia took form based on an Imperial Japanese Army concept that originated with General Hachirō Arita, an army ideologist who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1936 to 1940. The Japanese Army said the new Japanese empire was an Asian equivalent of the Monroe Doctrine with the Roosevelt Corollary; the regions of Asia, it was argued, were as essential to Japan as Latin America was to the United States.
The Japanese Foreign Minister Yōsuke Matsuoka formally announced the idea of the Co-Prosperity Sphere on 1 August 1940, in a press interview, but it had existed in other forms for many years. Leaders in Japan had long had an interest in the idea; the outbreak of World War II fighting in Europe had given the Japanese an opportunity to demand the withdrawal of support from China in the name of "Asia for Asiatics", with the European powers unable to retaliate. Many of the other nations within the boundaries of the sphere were under colonial rule and elements of their population were sympathetic to Japan, occupied by Japan in the early phases of the war and reformed under puppet governments, or under Japan's control at the outset; these factors helped make the formation of the sphere, while lacking any real authority or joint power, come together without much difficulty. As part of its war drive, Japanese propaganda included phrases like "Asia for the Asiatics!" and talked about the perceived need to liberate Asian countries from imperialist powers.
The failure to win the Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1941 was blamed on British and American exploitation of Southeast Asian colonies though the Chinese received far more assistance from the Soviet Union. In some cases local
Ambarawa is a town located between the city of Semarang and Salatiga in Central Java, Indonesia. Administratively, it is bordered by the subdistricts of Banyubiru to the south, Jambu to the east, Bandungan to the north, Bawen to the east. During colonial times, Ambarawa was an important railway hub connecting through regions in Java as far as Yogyakarta and Magelang; the Semarang-Ambarawa-Magelang line was operational until 1977. It is the site of the Indonesian Railway Museum, which features a section of rack railway between Ambarawa to Bedono on the former Ambarawa-Magelang mainline; the 19th-century Fort Willem I penitentiary complex and military barrack is located in Ambarawa. Ambarawa was the site of Japanese internment camps where up to 15,000 Europeans had been held during the Japanese occupation during World War II. Following Japanese surrender and the subsequent proclamation of Indonesian independence, fighting broke out in and around Ambarawa on 20 November 1945 between British troops evacuating European internees and Indonesian Republicans.
Kampoeng Rawa Indonesian Railway Museum Fort Willem I Tuner, Peter. Java. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. Pp. 306–307. ISBN 0-86442-314-4. McMillan, Richard; the British Occupation of Indonesia 1945-1946. Melbourne: Routledge. Pp. 306–307. ISBN 0-415-35551-6. Http://dppad.jatengprov.go.id/up3ad-kab-semarang/
Raid at Cabanatuan
The Raid at Cabanatuan known as The Great Raid, was a rescue of Allied prisoners of war and civilians from a Japanese camp near Cabanatuan City, in the Philippines. On January 30, 1945, during World War II, United States Army Rangers, Alamo Scouts and Filipino guerrillas liberated more than 500 from the POW camp. After the surrender of tens of thousands of American troops during the Battle of Bataan, many were sent to the Cabanatuan prison camp after the Bataan Death March; the Japanese shifted most of the prisoners to other areas, leaving just over 500 American and other Allied POWs and civilians in the prison. Facing brutal conditions including disease and malnourishment, the prisoners feared they would be executed by their captors before the arrival of General Douglas MacArthur and his American forces returning to Luzon. In late January 1945, a plan was developed by Sixth Army leaders and Filipino guerrillas to send a small force to rescue the prisoners. A group of over 100 Rangers and Scouts and 200 guerrillas traveled 30 miles behind Japanese lines to reach the camp.
In a nighttime raid, under the cover of darkness and with distraction by a P-61 Black Widow night fighter, the group surprised the Japanese forces in and around the camp. Hundreds of Japanese troops were killed in the 30-minute coordinated attack; the Rangers and guerrillas escorted the POWs back to American lines. The rescue allowed the prisoners to tell of the death march and prison camp atrocities, which sparked a rush of resolve for the war against Japan; the rescuers were awarded commendations by MacArthur, were recognized by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. A memorial now sits on the site of the former camp, the events of the raid have been depicted in several films. After the United States was attacked at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 by Japanese forces, it entered World War II to join the Allied forces in their fight against the Axis powers. American forces led by General Douglas MacArthur stationed in the Philippines as a deterrent against a Japanese invasion of the islands, were attacked by the Japanese hours after Pearl Harbor.
On March 12, 1942, General MacArthur and a few select officers, on the orders of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, left the American forces, promising to return with reinforcements; the 72,000 soldiers of the United States Army Forces in the Far East, fighting with outdated weapons, lacking supplies, stricken with disease and malnourishment surrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942. The Japanese had planned for only 10,000–25,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war. Although they had organized two hospitals, ample food, guards for this estimate, they were overwhelmed with over 72,000 prisoners. By the end of the 60-mile march, only 52,000 prisoners reached Camp O'Donnell, with an estimated 20,000 having died from illness, torture, or murder. With the closure of Camp O'Donnell most of the imprisoned soldiers were transferred to the Cabanatuan prison camp to join the POWs from the Battle of Corregidor. In 1944, when the United States landed on the Philippines to recapture it, orders had been sent out by the Japanese high command to kill the POWs in order to avoid them being rescued by liberating forces.
One method of the execution was to round the prisoners up in one location, pour gasoline over them, burn them alive. After hearing the accounts of the survivors from the massacre at the Puerto Princesa Prison Camp, the liberating forces feared that the safety of the POWs being held in the country was in jeopardy, decided to launch a series of rescue operations to save the surviving POWs on the islands; the Cabanatuan prison camp was named after the nearby city of 50,000 people. The camp had first been used as an American Department of Agriculture station and a training camp for the Filipino army; when the Japanese invaded the Philippines, they used the camp to house American POWs. It was designated for holding sick detainees. Occupying about 100 acres, the rectangular-shaped camp was 800 yards deep by 600 yards across, divided by a road that ran through its center. One side of the camp housed Japanese guards, while the other included bamboo barracks for the prisoners as well as a section for a hospital.
Nicknamed the "Zero Ward" because zero was the probability of getting out of it alive, the hospital housed the sickliest prisoners as they waited to die from diseases such as dysentery and malaria. Eight-foot high barbed wire fences surrounded the camp, in addition to multiple pillbox bunkers and four-story guard towers. At its peak, the camp held 8,000 American soldiers, making it the largest POW camp in the Philippines; this number dropped as able-bodied soldiers were shipped to other areas in the Philippines, Japanese-occupied Taiwan, Manchukuo to work in slave labor camps. As Japan had not yet ratified the Geneva Convention, the POWs were transported out of the camp and forced to work in factories to build Japanese weaponry, unload ships, repair airfields; the imprisoned soldiers received two meals a day of steamed rice accompanied by fruit, soup, or meat. To supplement their diet, prisoners were able to smuggle food and supplies hidden in their underwear into the camp during Japanese-approved trips to Cabanatuan.
To prevent extra food, jewelr
Pontianak is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, founded by Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie as a capital of Sultanate of Kadriyah on 23 October 1771 / 14 Rajab 1185 AH. Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie developed Pontianak as a trading port on the island of Borneo, occupying an area of 107.82 km² in the delta of the Kapuas River. It is located on the equator, hence it is known as Kota Khatulistiwa; the city center is less than 3 kilometres south of the equator. Pontianak is the 26th largest city in Indonesia in terms of population, as well as the fifth largest city on the island of Borneo in terms of population after Samarinda, Banjarmasin and Balikpapan; the city was founded as a small Malay fishing village at the bank of the Kapuas River. It became the seat of the Pontianak Sultanate for several centuries. Pontianak was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies after an agreement between the Pontianak Sultanate and the Dutch Government. During the colonial era, Pontianak was the seat of the Residentie Westerafdeeling van Borneo, one of the residencies of the Dutch East Indies.
When the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies, Pontianak became the site of the Pontianak massacre, in which many Malay aristocrats and sultans as well as people from other ethnic groups were massacred by the Imperial Japanese Army. After the Japanese surrendered, Pontianak became part of the Republic of Indonesia and was designated as the capital city of the province of West Kalimantan. Pontianak is a multicultural city, as different ethnic groups such as the Dayak and Chinese live in the city; this has created a unique culture. Different languages are spoken in Pontianak, such as Pontianak Malay, Dayak language and different dialects of Chinese. Pontianak is connected by air to other cities of Indonesia as well as some cities in Malaysia such as Kuala Lumpur and Kuching. Well paved roads connect Pontianak to other towns such as Ketapang and Singkawang as well as other provinces; as Pontianak lies on the Trans Kalimantan Highway, it is possible to travel to East Malaysia and Brunei by land using the Trans Kalimantan Highway.
Several bus routes operate from Pontianak to Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei. The city was the capital of the independent Sultanate of Pontianak and was founded on 23 October 1771 around an old trading station on the Borneo coast, it is built on swampy ground, subjected to regular flooding by the river, requiring buildings to be constructed on piles to keep them off the ground. Pontianak name refers to a story about ghosts, he built a mosque and a palace on the location of the ghosts' nest, settled. The mosque and the palace became the first buildings in Pontianak City. To this day, Pontianak people shoot made up cannons from logs every Ramadan and holiday events to pay tribute to the Sultan. Pontianak in the Chinese language is known as pinyin: Kūndiān. While in the local Hakka Chinese, Pontianak is known as Khuntîen; the history of the city of Pontianak written by a Dutch historian, V. J. Verth in his book Borneos Afdeling Wester, whose content is different from the version of the stories circulating in the community today.
According to him, the Dutch started to go to Pontianak in 1773 from Batavia. Verth wrote that Syarif Abdurrahman, son of Sharif Hussein bin Ahmed cleric Alqadrie, leaving the Kingdom of Mempawah and began to wander. In the region of Banjarmasin, he married the sister of the Sultan of Banjar, Sunan Nata Nature and sworn in as the Prince, he was successful in commerce and accumulate enough capital to arm ships and boats and he started to take the fight against Dutch colonialism. With the help of Sultan Sand, Syarif Abdurrahman successfully hijacked Dutch ship near Bangka British and French ships in the port of Pasir. Abdurrahman became a rich man and tried to establish a settlement on an island in the Kapuas River, he found branching Landak River and to develop the area into a prosperous trading center. This is the region, now called Pontianak, he established the Sultanate of Pontianak with himself as the first sultan. The Sultanate imported Chinese laborers in the 18th century to work in tin mines.
A number of mining companies enjoyed some political autonomy, As the Dutch were expanding its power on Borneo, in 1777, the Chinese declared the formation of the Lanfang Republic, led by Luo Fangbo to oppose the Dutch attempt to colonize West Kalimantan, including Pontianak. The settlers subsequently elected Luo as their inaugural president. Luo implemented many democratic principles, including the idea that all matters of state must involve the consultation of the republic's citizenry, he created a comprehensive set of executive and judicial agencies. The Republic did not have a standing military, but had a defense ministry that administered a national militia based on conscription. During peacetime, the populace engaged in farming, production and mining. Lanfang's administrative divisions included three tiers with the people electing leaders for all levels. Lanfang was allied with Sultan Abdurrahman of the Pontianak Sultanate. Lanfang was declared a tributary state of the Chinese Qing Empire.
In 1778, Dutch colonialists from Batavia entered Pontianak, led by Willem Ardinpola. Netherlands when it occupies an area opposite the imperial palace now known as the Tanah Seribu or