The Mitsubishi Ki-30 was a Japanese light bomber of World War II. It was a single-engine, mid-wing, cantilever monoplane of stressed-skin construction with a fixed tailwheel undercarriage and a long transparent cockpit canopy; the type had significance in being the first Japanese aircraft to be powered by a modern two-row radial engine. During the war, it was known by the Allies by the name Ann; the Ki-30 was developed in response to a May 1936 Imperial Japanese Army specification to replace the Kawasaki Ki-3 light bomber with a indigenously designed and built aircraft. Mitsubishi and Kawasaki were requested to build two prototypes each by December 1936; the specification called for a top speed of 400 km/h at 3,000 m. The first Mitsubishi prototype flew on 28 February 1937 powered by a Mitsubishi Ha-6 radial. Designed with a retractable main landing gear, wind tunnel tests indicated that the gain in speed was minimal due to the landing gear's extra weight and complexity and a fixed arrangement with "spatted" main wheels was chosen instead.
The wing was mounted at a point above the line of the aircraft's belly in order enclose the bomb bay within the fuselage. The pilot sat just above the leading edge of the wing, the rear-gunner/radio-operator just behind the wing trailing edge, in a long "greenhouse" canopy which gave both crewmen excellent all-around vision; the Ha-6 engine drove a three-blade variable-pitch propeller. A second prototype, fitted with the more powerful Nakajima Ha-5 engine, was completed the same month. Although two months behind schedule and overweight, both prototypes met or exceeded every other requirement; the second prototype's top speed of 423 km/h at 4,000 m led the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force to place an order for 16 service trials machines. These were delivered in January 1938 and the result of the trials was that the Army ordered the Ki-30 into production in March under the designation Army Type 97 Light bomber. Mitsubishi built 618 production machines through April 1940, the 1st Army Air Arsenal built 68 more by the time production ceased in September 1941.
Including prototypes, a total of 704 Ki-30s were built. The Ki-30s were first used in combat in Second Sino-Japanese War from spring 1938, it proved to be reliable in rough field operations, effective while operating with fighter escort. This success continued in the early stages of the Pacific War, the Ki-30s participated extensively in operations in the Philippines. However, once unescorted Ki-30s met Allied fighters, losses mounted and the type was soon withdrawn to second-line duties. By the end of 1942, most Ki-30s were relegated to a training role. Many aircraft were expended in kamikaze attacks towards the end of the war. From late 1940, the Ki-30 was in service with the Royal Thai Air Force, saw combat in January 1941 against the French in French Indochina in the French-Thai War. 24 aircraft were delivered, were nicknamed Nagoya by the crews. Additional Ki-30s were transferred from Japan in 1942. Japan ThailandRoyal Thai Air Force People's Republic of ChinaChinese Communist Air Force – Operated three captured Ki-30s used as trainers until the early 1950s.
IndonesiaIndonesian Air Force Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 2, pilot and observer/bomb aimer Length: 10.35 m Wingspan: 14.55 m Height: 3.65 m Wing area: 30.58 m² Empty weight: 2,230 kg Loaded weight: 3,320 kg Powerplant: 1 × Nakajima Ha5-kai 14-cylinder double-row air-cooled radial engine, 708 kW Performance Never exceed speed: 442 km/h Maximum speed: 423 km/h Cruise speed: 380 km/h Range: 1,700 km Service ceiling: 8,570 m Rate of climb: 8.33 m/s Wing loading: 108.6 kg/m² Armament 2× 7.7 mm Type 89 machine guns 400 kg bombload Aircraft of comparable role and era Kawasaki Ki-32 Mitsubishi Ki-51 Heinkel He 70 Fairey Battle A-35 Vengeance PZL.23 Karaś Sukhoi Su-2 Related lists List of aircraft of World War II List of military aircraft of Japan Notes Bibliography Ki-30 on www.warbirdsresourcegroup.org A photograph of Ki-30 in Royal Thai Air Force service
The Kawanishi E7K was a Japanese 1930s three-seat reconnaissance floatplane. It was allocated the reporting name Alf by the Allies of World War II. In 1932 the Imperial Japanese Navy requested the Kawanishi Aircraft Company to produce a replacement for the company's Kawanishi E5K; the resulting design, designated the Kawanishi E7K1, was an equal span biplane powered by a 462 kW Hiro Type 91 W-12 liquid-cooled inline engine. The first aircraft flew on 6 February 1933 and was handed over to the navy for trials three months later, it was flown in competition with the Aichi AB-6, designed to meet the same 7-Shi requirement. The E7K1 was ordered into production as the Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane and entered service in early 1935, it was hindered by the unreliability of the Hiro engine. Production E7K1s were fitted with a more powerful version of the Hiro 91, but this did not improve the reliability. In 1938 Kawanishi developed an improved E7K2 with a Mitsubishi Zuisei 11 radial engine, it first flew in August 1938 and was ordered by the Navy as the Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane Model 2.
The earlier E7K1 was renamed to Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane Model 1. The type was used extensively by the Japanese Navy from 1938 until the beginning of the Pacific War, when E7K1 were relegated to second-line duties; the E7K2 continued in front-line service until 1943 and both versions were used in Kamikaze operations in the closing stages of the war. E7K1 Production version with a Hiro Type 91 520 hp water-cooled W-12 engine, 183 built E7K2 Re-engined version with a Mitsubishi Zuisei 11 radial engine, about 350 built JapanImperial Japanese Navy Air Service Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 3 Length: 10.50 m Wingspan: 14.00 m Height: 4.85 m Wing area: 43.60 m² Empty weight: 2100 kg Loaded weight: 3300 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mitsubishi MK2 Zuisei-11 14 cylinder radial engine, 649 kW Performance Maximum speed: 275 km/h Cruise speed: 100 kt at 1000 m Service ceiling: 7,060 m Wing loading: 75.7 kg/m² Armament Guns: 1× fixed Type 97 and 2× trainable 7.7mm Type 92 machine guns, one dorsal, one ventral Bombs: 120 kg of bombs Aircraft of comparable role and era Aichi AB-6 Related lists List of aircraft of World War II List of military aircraft of Japan List of seaplanes and flying boats Notes Bibliography
The Nakajima Ki-34 was a Japanese light transport of World War II. It was a low-wing monoplane. During the Pacific War, the Allies assigned the type the reporting name Thora; the Ki-34 was designed as a civil transport. Nakajima Aircraft Company, which had the license-production rights to the Douglas DC-2, began design work in 1935 on a smaller twin engine airliner for routes which did not have the capacity to justify use of the larger DC-2; the initial design was designated AT-1, after numerous design iterations, flew as a prototype designated AT-2 on 12 September 1936. The design was all metal, except for the flight control surfaces; the wings used a multi-cell cantilever design. The prototype was fitted with 432 kW Nakajima Kotobuki 2-1 radial engines with fixed pitch wooden propellers, which were replaced in production models with Kotobuki-41 529 kW nine-cylinder radial engines, with variable pitch metal propellers. A total of 32 AT-2s were produced for Imperial Japanese Airways and Manchukuo National Airways, operating on scheduled routes between Tokyo and Hsinking and Tianjin, within Manchukuo.
These aircraft remained in operational service until the surrender of Japan in August 1945. With a high demand for increased military transport capability after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army adapted the AT-2 design for military use by fitting with more powerful Nakajima Ha-1b radial engines and re-designating the aircraft as the Army Type 97 Transport and Ki-34; the initial 19 aircraft were produced by Nakajima Aircraft, another 299 aircraft were subsequently produced by the Army-affiliated Tachikawa Hikoki K. K.. The final airframe was delivered in 1942. In operational service, the Ki-34 was used as a utility aircraft for liaison and communications duties, for paratrooper training and Special Forces operations. At a date, some aircraft were transferred to the Imperial Japanese Navy, where they were known as the Navy Type AT-2 Transport or Nakajima L1N1. Several were transferred to the air force of the Japanese puppet state of China-Nanjing in 1942.
China-NanjingNanjing air force JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Force Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service JapanImperial Japanese Airways ManchukuoManchukuo National Airways MongoliaMongolian People's Army Aviation-Captured and operated more than 12 aircraft since in late September 1945 Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War.
The Aichi E16A Zuiun was a two-seat reconnaissance seaplane operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The Aichi E16A originated from a 1939 specification for a replacement for the Aichi E13A, which at that time had yet to be accepted by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. Disagreements about the requirements in the 14-Shi specification prevented most manufacturers from submitting designs, but in 1941 a new 16-Shi specification was drafted by the IJNAS around the Aichi AM-22 design, made by Aichi engineers Kishiro Matsuo and Yasuhiro Ozawa; the first AM-22, which first got the experimental designation Navy Experimental 16-Shi Reconnaissance Seaplane and the short designation E16A1, was completed by May 1942 and was a conventional, low-wing monoplane equipped with two floats and had the unusual feature of being equipped with dive brakes, located in the front legs of the float struts, to allow it to operate in a secondary role as a dive bomber. E16A1 Experimental Type 16 reconnaissance seaplane Initial named Experimental Type 14 two-seat reconnaissance seaplane.
3 prototypes produced. Mounted 1,300 hp Mitsubishi MK8A Kinsei 51 engine, 2 × forward-firing 7.7 mm Type 97 machine guns, 1 × rearward-firing 7.7 mm Type 92 machine gun. E16A1 Zuiun Model 11 General production model. Mounted 1,300 hp Mitsubishi MK8N Kinsei 54 engine, 2 × forward-firing 20 mm Type 99-2 cannons, 1 × rearward-firing 13 mm Type 2 machine gun. E16A2 Provisional name Zuiun Model 12 Initial named Zuiun Model 22. Single prototype with a 1,560 hp Mitsubishi MK8P Kinsei 62 radial engine. One plane converted from E16A1, incomplete. JapanImperial Japanese Navy Air Service Naval vessel Battleship Ise, supplied from 634th Kōkūtai. Battleship Hyūga, supplied from 634th Kōkūtai. Air unit Kitaura Kōkutai Yokosuka Kōkutai 634th Kōkutai 801st Kōkutai 301st Reconnaissance Hikōtai 302nd Reconnaissance Hikōtai Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 10.83 m Wingspan: 12.81 m Height: 4.79 m Wing area: 28 m² Empty weight: 2,945 kg Loaded weight: 4,553 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mitsubishi Kinsei 54 14-cylinder, air-cooled, twin-row radial engine, 970 kw Performance Maximum speed: 439 km/h Range: 2,420 km Service ceiling: 10,000 m Rate of climb: 10 m/s Wing loading: 139.3 kg/m² Power/mass: 0.21 kW/kg Armament 2 fixed forward-firing 20 mm Type 99-2 cannons in wings 1 flexible rearward-firing 13 mm Type 2 machine gun for observer 250 kg of bombs Aircraft of comparable role and era Aichi E13A Arado Ar 196 Curtiss SC Seahawk Vought OS2U Kingfisher Related lists List of aircraft of Japan during World War II List of aircraft of the Japanese Navy List of aircraft of World War II List of military aircraft of Japan List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft Notes Bibliography Bunrindō Kōku-Fan Illustrated Special, Japanese Military Aircraft Illustrated Vol. 3 "Recinnaissance/Flying-boat/Trainer/Transport", January 1983 Famous Airplanes of the World No. 47 "Imperial Japanese Navy Reconnaissance Seaplane", July 1994
The Aichi E13A was a long-range reconnaissance seaplane used by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1941 to 1945. Numerically the most important floatplane of the IJN, it could carry a crew of three and a bombload of 250 kg; the Navy designation was "Navy Type Zero Reconnaissance Seaplane". In China, it operated from seaplane cruisers, it was used as a scout for the Attack on Pearl Harbor, was encountered in combat by the United States Navy during the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway. It was in service throughout the conflict, for coastal patrols, strikes against navigation, officer transports, castaway rescues, other missions, along with some kamikaze missions in the last days of war. Eight examples were operated by the French Navy Air Force during the First Indochina War from 1945-1947, while others were believed to be operated by the Naval Air Arm of the Royal Thai Navy before the war. One example captured by New Zealand forces was flown by RNZAF personnel in theatre, but sank and was not repaired after a float leaked.
E13A1 Prototypes and first production model designated Model 11. E13A1-K Trainer version with dual controls E13A1a Redesigned floats, improved radio equipment E13A1a-S Night-flying conversion E13A1b As E13A1a, with Air-Surface radar E13A1b-S Night-flying conversion of above E13A1c Anti-surface vessel version equipped with two downward-firing belly-mounted 20 mm Type 99 Mark II cannons in addition to bombs or depth charges Constructed by Aichi Tokei Denki KK:133 Constructed by Watanabe:1,237 Constructed by Dai-Juichi Kaigun Kokusho: 48 FranceFrench Navy Aeronavale French Air Force - Captured Japanese aircraft. JapanImperial Japanese Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service ThailandRoyal Thai Navy People's Republic of ChinaPeople's Liberation Army Air Force - surplus or derelict Japanese aircraft Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 3 Length: 11.31 m Wingspan: 14.50 m Height: 4.70 m Wing area: 36.0 m² Empty weight: 2,642 kg Loaded weight: 3,640 kg Max.
Takeoff weight: 4,000 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mitsubishi MK8 Kinsei 43 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radial engine, 810 kW Performance Maximum speed: 375 km/h Range: 2,100 km Service ceiling: 8,700 m Rate of climb: 8.2 m/s Wing loading: 101.1 kg/m² Armament Guns: 1× flexible, rearward-firing 7.7 mm Type 92 machine gun for observerSome aircraft fitted 2× 20mm Type 99-2 cannons in a downwards firing position in the belly Bombs: 250 kg of bombs The wrecks of a number of sunken aircraft are recorded. The wreckage of one aircraft is located on-land at an abandoned seaplane base at Lenger Island, off Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia. One E13A was raised from where it sank and is displayed at the Kakamigahara Aerospace Museum, Gifu, Japan. However, it is in poor condition, lacking its engine, tail floats and one wing. Aircraft of comparable role and era Arado Ar 196 Aichi E16A Curtiss SOC Seagull Kawanishi E15K Northrop N-3PB Vought OS2U Kingfisher Yokosuka E14Y Related lists List of aircraft of World War II Notes Bibliography AirToAirCombat.com: Aichi E13A Jake
The Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu was a two-seat, twin-engine fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. The army gave it the designation "Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter". In response to the rapid emergence in Europe of twin-engine heavy fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 110, the army ordered development of a twin-engine, two-seat fighter in 1937, assigned the proposal by Kawasaki Shipbuilding the designation of Ki-38; this only went as far as a mock up, but by December of that year, the army ordered a working prototype as the Ki-45, which first flew in January 1939. Results from the test flights, did not meet the army's expectations; the Ha-20 Otsu engine was underpowered and failure-prone, while the airframe suffered from nacelle stall. The Ki-45 did not enter service, but the army, insistent on having a working twin-engine fighter, ordered Kawasaki to continue development. Kawasaki responded by replacing the engines with the proven Nakajima Ha-25. Flight tests were promising. In October 1940, the army ordered continued improvements such as switching to 805 kW Mitsubishi Ha-102 engines.
This craft, designated Ki-45 Kai, was complete in September 1941 and was adopted for use by the army in February 1942 as the "Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter". The prototype of a single-seat fighter variant, the Ki-45 II, was built; the Ki-45 was used as a long-range bomber escort. The 84th Independent Flight Wing used them in June 1942 in attacks on Guilin, where they encountered, but were no match for, Curtiss P-40s flown by the Flying Tigers. In September of the same year, they met P-40s over Hanoi with similar results, it became clear that the Ki-45 could not hold its own against single-engine fighters in aerial combat. It was subsequently deployed in several theaters in the roles of interception and fleet defense, its greatest strength turned out to be as an anti-bomber interceptor, as was the case with the Bf 110 in Europe. In New Guinea, the IJAAF used the aircraft in an anti-ship role, where the Ki-45 was armed with one 37 mm and two 20 mm cannons and could carry two 250 kg bombs on hard points under the wings.
1,675 Ki-45s of all versions were produced during the war. The first production type was armed with two 12.7 mm Ho-103 machine gun in the nose, a single Type 97 20 mm cannon in the belly offset to the right, a trainable 7.92 mm machine gun in the rear cabin. While the firepower was devastating, manual reloading meant that only two rounds could be fired on each gunnery pass; the next type restored the 20 mm cannon, this time placed an automatic 37 mm gun in the nose. A addition in the "Tei" type were twin obliquely-firing 20 mm Ho-5 cannons behind the cockpit, propulsive exhaust stacks. Soon after entering service, the Ki-45 was assigned to home defense, several were dispatched against the Doolittle raid, though they did not see action; the craft's heavy armament proved to be effective against the B-29 Superfortress raids which started in June 1944. However, its performance was insufficient to counter B-29s flying at 10,000 m. Modifications such as reduction of fuel and ordnance were attempted to raise performance, to little avail, in the end aircraft were used in aerial ramming attacks.
They were used in kamikaze attacks, such as the attack on USS Dickerson on 2 April 1945 off Okinawa. The commanding officer and 54 crew were killed when a Toryu clipped the stacks from astern, rammed the bridge. A second Toryu hit the foredeck; the ensuing fires demolished the ship, after the surviving crew was rescued by fellow fast transports, destroyer escort Bunch and destroyer-transport Herbert, the ship was towed out to sea and scuttled. In 1945, the forward and upward-firing guns showed some results with the commencement of night time bombing raids, but the lack of radar was a considerable handicap. By the spring of 1945, the advent of American carrier-based fighters and Iwo Jima-based P-51s and P-47s escorting B-29s over the skies of Japan brought the Ki-45's career to an end; the next version, the Kawasaki Ki-45 KAId, was developed as a night fighter, which were supposed to be equipped with centimetric radar in the nose. The aircraft took part in night defense of the Home Islands and equipped four sentais from the autumn of 1944 to the war's end.
They obtained notable successes, one Ki-45 sentai claimed 150 victories, including eight USAAF B-29 Superfortresses in their first combat. The Ki-45 was to be replaced in the ground-attack role by the Ki-102, but was not wholly supplanted by the war's end. Three Ki-45s fell into communist Chinese hands after World War II. Unlike most captured Japanese aircraft, which were employed in the training role, the three Ki-45s were assigned to the 1st Squadron of the Combat Flying Group in March 1949 and were used in combat missions; these aircraft were retired in the early 1950s. There is sometimes a confusion in the different subtypes; the information below is based on Japanese work, not on usual'western' data. The NASM claims that the Ki-45 on display is a Hei type whereas Japanese press would read it is a Tei type nightfighter version with dorsal armament. Ki-45 Prototype aircraft KI-45 Type 1 Modified operative models Ki-45 KAI Prototype aircraft Ki-45 KAI Pre-series aircraft Ki-45 KAIa Toryu: Two-seat fighter Type 2 of Army (M
The Mitsubishi Ki-57 was a Japanese passenger transport aircraft, developed from the Ki-21 bomber, during the early 1940s. See below for synonyms. In 1938, when the Ki-21 heavy bomber began to enter service with the Imperial Japanese Army, its capability attracted the attention of the Imperial Japanese Airways. In consequence a civil version was developed and this similar to the Ki-21-I and retaining its powerplant of two 708 kW Nakajima Ha-5 KAI radial engines, differed by having the same wings transferred from a mid to low-wing configuration and the incorporation of a new fuselage to provide accommodation for up to 11 passengers; this transport version appealed the navy, following the flight of a prototype in August 1940 and subsequent testing, the type was ordered into production for both civil and military use. This initial production Ki-57-I had the civil and military designations of MC-20-I and Army Type 100 Transport Model 1, respectively. A total of 100 production Ki-57-Is had been built by early 1942, small numbers of them were transferred for use by the Japanese navy in a transport role becoming redesignated L4M1.
After the last of the Ki-57s had been delivered production was switched to an improved Ki-57-II, which introduced more powerful 805 kW Mitsubishi Ha-l02 14-cylinder radial engines installed in redesigned nacelles and, at the same time, incorporated a number of detail refinements and minor equipment changes. Civil and military designations of this version were the MC-20-II and Army Type 100 Transport Model 2, respectively. Only 406 were built before production ended in January 1945. Both versions were covered by the Allied reporting name "Topsy". Ki-57-I Army Type 100 Transport Model 1: Powered by two 708 kW Nakajima Ha-5 KAI radial engines and a redesigned fuselage to accommodate 11 passengers. About 100 aircraft of this type were built including the civil version. MC-20-I: Same as above but built for civil use with Imperial Japanese Airways. Ki-57-II Army Type 100 Transport Model 2:Powered by two 805 kW Mitsubishi Ha-l02 14-cylinder radial engines installed in redesigned nacelles. Minor equipment and detail refinements were incorporated.
306 aircraft of this type were produced before the end of production in January 1945. MC-20-II: Same as above but built for civil use with Imperial Japanese Airways. L4M1: A small number of Ki-57-Is were transferred for test by the Japanese navy as transports and were redesignated L4M1. Military operators JapanImperial Japanese Army Air Force Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service ManchukuoManchukuo Imperial Air ForceCivil operators JapanImperial Japanese Airways Asahi Shimbun Osaka Mainichi Shimbun Tyuka Koku Kaisya ManchukuoManchukuo National Airways Reorganized National Government of ChinaOne MC-20 used as presidential transport Second Philippine RepublicOne MC-20 used as presidential transport ChinaThe last Ki-57 was used as a trainer and retired in 1952. JapanImperial Japanese Airways NetherlandsCaptured aircraft, used by the KNIL. On December 20, 1940, an Imperial Japanese Airways MC-20-I crashed into Tokyo Bay off Chiba during CAB's test flight, killing all 13 on board including 8 CAB inspectors.
On June 21, 1941, a Manchurian Air Transport MC-20 crashed into the Sea of Japan, killing all 18 on board. Data from Japanese AIrcraft of the Pacific WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 4 Capacity: 11 passengers Length: 16.10 m Wingspan: 22.60 m Height: 4.86 m Wing area: 70.08 m2 Empty weight: 5,585 kg Loaded weight: 8,173 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 9,120 kg Powerplant: 2 × Mitsubishi Ha-102 Zuisei 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, 805 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 470 km/h at 5,800 m Range: 3,000 km Service ceiling: 8,000 m Wing loading: 116.6 kg/m2 Climb to 5,000 m: 15 min 45 s Related development Mitsubishi Ki-21 Related lists List of aircraft of Japan during World War II List of aircraft of the Japanese Navy List of aircraft of World War II List of military aircraft of Japan Notes Bibliography Classic Airplane Museum MC-20 Japanese JCAL MC-20 Japanese