India–Japan relations have traditionally been strong. The people of India and Japan have engaged in cultural exchanges as a result of Buddhism, which spread indirectly from India to Japan, via China and Korea; the people of India and Japan are guided by common cultural traditions including the heritage of Buddhism and share a strong commitment to the ideals of democracy, tolerance and open societies. India and Japan, two of the largest and oldest democracies in Asia, having a high degree of congruence of political and strategic interests, view each other as partners that have responsibility for, are capable of, responding to global and regional challenges. India is the largest recipient of Japanese official development assistance; as of 2013, bilateral trade between India and Japan stood at US$16.31 billion and is expected to reach US$50 billion by fiscal year 2019-20. The British occupiers of India and Japan were enemies during World War II, but political relations between the two nations have remained warm since India's independence.
Japanese companies, such as Yamaha, Sony and Honda have manufacturing facilities in India. With the growth of the Indian economy, India is a big market for Japanese firms. Japanese firms were some of the first firms to invest in India; the most prominent Japanese company to have an investment in India is automobiles multinational Suzuki, in partnership with Indian automobiles company Maruti Suzuki, the largest car manufacturer in the Indian market, a subsidiary of the Japanese company. In December 2006, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to Japan culminated in the signing of the "Joint Statement Towards Japan-India Strategic and Global Partnership". Japan has helped finance many infrastructure projects in India, most notably the Delhi Metro system. Indian applicants were welcomed in 2006 to the JET Programme, with one slot available in 2006 and increasing to 41 slots in 2007. In 2007, the Japanese Self-Defence Forces and the Indian Navy took part in a joint naval exercise Malabar 2007 in the Indian Ocean, which involved the naval forces of Australia and the United States.
2007 was declared "India-Japan Friendship Year."According to a 2013 BBC World Service Poll, 42% Japanese think India's international impact is positive, with 4% considering it negative. The friendship between Japan and India is referred as "Japanese-Indian Brotherhood". In my opinion, if all our rich and educated men once go and see Japan, their eyes will be opened. Though Hinduism is a little-practiced religion in Japan, it has still had a significant, but indirect role in the formation of Japanese culture; this is because many Buddhist beliefs and traditions spread to Japan from China via Korean peninsula in the 6th Century. One indication of this is the Japanese "Seven Gods of Fortune", of which four originated as Hindu deities: Benzaitensama, Bishamon and Kichijōten. Along with Benzaitennyo/Sarasvati and Kisshoutennyo/Laxmi and completing the nipponization of the three Hindu Tridevi goddesses, the Hindu goddess Mahakali is nipponized as the Japanese goddess Daikokutennyo, though she is only counted among Japan's Seven Luck Deities when she is regarded as the feminine manifestation of her male counterpart Daikokuten.
Benzaiten arrived in Japan during the 6th through 8th centuries via the Chinese translations of the Sutra of Golden Light, which has a section devoted to her. She is mentioned in the Lotus Sutra. In Japan, the lokapālas take the Buddhist form of the Four Heavenly Kings; the Sutra of Golden Light became one of the most important sutras in Japan because of its fundamental message, which teaches that the Four Heavenly Kings protect the ruler who governs his country in the proper manner. The Hindu god of death, Yama, is known in his Buddhist form as Enma. Garuda, the mount of Vishnu, is known as an enormous, fire-breathing creature in Japan, it has the face or beak of an eagle. Tennin originated from the apsaras; the Hindu Ganesha is displayed more than Buddha in a temple in Tokyo. Other examples of Hindu influence on Japan include the belief of "six schools" or "six doctrines" as well as use of Yoga and pagodas. Many of the facets of Hindu culture which have influenced Japan have influenced Chinese culture.
People have written books on the worship of Hindu gods in Japan. Today, it is claimed Japan encourages a deeper study of Hindu gods. Buddhism has been practiced in Japan since its official introduction in 552 CE according to the Nihon Shoki from Baekje, Korea by Buddhist monks. Although some Chinese sources place the first spreading of the religion earlier during the Kofun period. Buddhism has had a major influence on the development of Japanese society and remains an influential aspect of the culture to this day. Cultural exchanges between India and Japan began early in the 6th century with the introduction of Buddhism to Japan from India; the Indian monk Bodhisena arrived in Japan in 736 to spread Buddhism and performed eye-opening of the Great Buddha built in Tōdai-ji, would remain in Japan until his death in 760. Buddhism and the intrinsically linked Indian culture had a great impact on Japanese culture, still felt today, resulted in a natural sense of amiability between the two nations; as a result of the link of Buddhism between India and Japan and scholars embarked on voyages between the two nations.
Ancient records from the now-destroyed library at Nalanda University in
Ecuador–Japan relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Ecuador and Japan. Both nations are members of the Forum of East Asia–Latin America Cooperation. In the early part of the twentieth century, unlike other South American nations few Japanese people immigrated to Ecuador though the Japanese government at the time did promote it; the first official contact between Ecuador and Japan took place on 26 August 1918 in Washington, D. C. when both nations signed a Treaty of Friendship and Navigation which established diplomatic relations between both nations. That same year, Ecuador opened a consulate in Yokohama. In 1934, Japan opened a diplomatic legation in Ecuador. A few years Ecuador appointed author Jorge Carrera Andrade as consul to Japan. During World War II, Ecuador remained neutral, after the Attack on Pearl Harbor Ecuador changed its position to reflect that of other Latin American nations and severed diplomatic relations with the Axis powers in January 1942. Furthermore, following other Latin American countries lead, Ecuador deported several Japanese migrants and Ecuadorians of Japanese descent to the United States where they were placed in internment camps.
Diplomatic relations between Ecuador and Japan were re-established in 1954. In 1961, both nations upgraded their resident diplomatic legations to embassies. In 1979, the Japanese Association in Quito and the Japanese International School were established in Ecuador. In 1990, the Japan International Cooperation Agency established a presence in Ecuador. Since the re-establishment of diplomatic relations between both nations, there have been several high-level visits between leaders of both nations. In September 2018, Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno paid an official visit to Japan and met with Emperor Akihito and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe; the visit comes after both nations have signed several bilateral agreements and to celebrate 100 years of diplomatic relations between both nations. Presidential visits from Ecuador to Japan President Gustavo Noboa President Rafael Correa President Lenín Moreno High-level visits from Japan to Ecuador Foreign Vice-Minister Shigeo Uetake Foreign Vice-Minister Katsuhito Asano Foreign Vice-Minister Ryuji Yamane Foreign Minister Tarō Kōno Both nations have signed a few bilateral agreements, such as a Treaty of Friendship and Navigation.
In 2017, trade between Ecuador to Japan totaled $800 million USD. Ecuador's main exports to Japan include: cacao, bananas and minerals. Japan's main exports to Ecuador include: parts. Between 2011–2015 Japan invested over $1.3 million USD in Ecuador. Ecuador has an embassy in Tokyo. Japan has an embassy in Quito
The Bhutan–Japan relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Bhutan and Japan. Diplomatic relations were established on March 28, 1986. Japan has a non-resident embassy to Bhutan in India. Japan is planning to open a resident embassy in Thimpu by April 2014. One of the factors for opening a resident embassy in Bhutan is to counter China's influence in the region; as of 2017, the ambassador to Bhutan is still resident at Embassy of Japan in India. Bhutanese monarch, Druk Gyalpo Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck and his wife Queen Jetsun Pema made a state visit to Japan from November 15–20 in 2011; as for Japanese imperial family's visit to Bhutan, the first one was in March 1987 by Crown Prince Naruhito, the second one was in March 1997 by Prince and Princess Akishino, the third one is in June 2017 by Princess Mako. Bhutan received aid from Japan regarding its disaster relief against glacial lake outburst floods. Director of the Department of Hydro-Met Services in Bhutan’s Ministry of Economic Affairs, Karma Tsering, said that Bhutan is receiving assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency in developing a cheaper and more efficient early warning system to minimize losses and damages from sudden glacial lake outburst floods.
The Japanese government is coming up with a glacier lake inventory and has been conducting geological studies in the Himalayas. The Japanese agency plans to complete its project in Bhutan by 2016. Japan has a growing market for Bhutan's tourism. In early 2012, Phuntsho Gyeltshen, the officiating media focal person of the Tourism Council of Bhutan noted that the number of Japanese tourists who visited increased and Japan is close to becoming the number one market of Bhutan's tourism; the official noted that the drastic increase of Japanese tourists to Bhutan happened after King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck and Queen Jetsun Pema made a visit to the country. In 2011, 7,000 Japanese visited Bhutan. Japan was the second biggest market for Bhutan's tourism
Chile–Japan relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Chile and Japan. Both nations are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Forum of East Asia–Latin America Cooperation and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Early knowledge of Chile and Japan would have been through Spanish merchants who traded via the Manila Galleon from Acapulco and Manila, Philippines as well as through Spanish missionaries. In Manila, the Spanish traded with Japanese merchants and brought their products to Spanish America (as Chile at the time was part of the Spanish Empire. In 1818, Chile declared its independence from Spain. In 1860, a Japanese ship arrived to the Chilean port of Valparaíso. In October 1868, Japan entered the Meiji period and began fostering diplomatic relations with several nations, after decades of isolation. In 1890, Chile opened a consulate in the Japanese port-city of Yokohama. In 1894, Chile sold Japan a naval ship called Esmeralda III. Japan re-batized the ship as the Izumi.
In September 1897, Chile and Japan established diplomatic relations with the signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Navigation. That same year, Chile opened a diplomatic legation in Tokyo and two years the first Chilean ambassador arrived to Japan and presented his credentials to the Meiji Emperor. In 1909, Japan opened a diplomatic legation in Santiago. In January 1943, Chile severed diplomatic relations with the Axis powers during World War II and at the time only declared war on Germany and Italy. In April 1945, Chile declared war on Japan, although it began imprisoning Japanese nationals in 1943. Like most Latin-American nations, Chile did not physically participate in the war. Diplomatic relations between Chile and Japan were re-established in 1952. In 1959, Nobusuke Kishi, became the first Japanese Prime Minister to visit Chile. After the restoration of democracy in Chile, Patricio Aylwin became the first Chilean President to visit Japan in 1992. Since the initial visits, there have been numerous high-level visits between both nations.
Chile and Japan are both initial signatories of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, an agreement that they worked with ten other Pacific Rim nations. Since the United States withdrew from the agreement in January 2017, Chile and Japan have worked with the remaining nine countries and signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership in March 2018 in Santiago. In September 2017, both nations celebrated 120 years of diplomatic relations. To initiate the celebrations, Japanese Prince Akishino paid a 10 day visit to Chile. Presidential visits from Chile to Japan President Patricio Aylwin President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle President Ricardo Lagos President Michelle Bachelet President Sebastián Piñera Royal and Prime Ministerial visits from Japan to Chile Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi Prince Hitachi Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Prime Minister Shinzō Abe Prince Akishino Both nations have signed several bilateral agreements such as a Treaty of Friendship and Navigation.
In 2006, Chile and Japan signed a free trade agreement which entered into force in November 2007. In 2017, trade between Chile and Japan totaled $8.3 billion USD. Chilean exports to Japan include: copper and copper ore, woodchips and molybdenum. Japanese exports to Chile include: autos and auto parts, tires and mining equipment. Japanese direct investment in 2016 to Childe totaled $237 million USD. Several well known multinational Japanese companies such as Honda, Sony and Toyota operate in Chile. Chile has an embassy in Tokyo. Japan has an embassy in Santiago. Japanese Chileans
Japan–Mexico relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Japan and Mexico. Both nations are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, G-20 major economies, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the United Nations. Under Spanish colonial rule, Mexico known as New Spain, controlled the trade routes between Manila, capital of the Philippines and the Mexican port of Acapulco. Through this trade route, Spanish galleons sailed from Acapulco to the Philippines and traded with neighboring countries/territories within the vicinity; some of those territories were the islands of Japan. In Manila, Japanese trading boats would arrive and bring goods and food to trade with the New Spanish government. From Manila, Spanish vessels would transport the goods back to Acapulco, traverse the Mexican terrain until they reached the port of Veracruz and from there transport the goods onto another Spanish vessel to Spain. In the mid-1500, Spanish Jesuits, many of them born in New Spain, began to arrive to Japan to preach Christianity.
In 1597, general Toyotomi Hideyoshi, accredited with uniting the islands of Japan. Several Jesuits did not leave and they were executed in Nagasaki. In 1609, a Spanish galleon called San Francisco capsized near Ōtaki, Chiba while making its way from Manila to Acapulco. 370 castaways were rescued by Japanese fisherman. Among those rescued was the New Spanish governor of the Philippines. In Japan, de Vivero was able to travel to Tokyo and met with high level dignitaries and establish direct commercial relations between Japan and the Spanish empire via the Philippines. After spending some time travelling throughout the Japanese islands, de Vivero returned to Acapulco with a new ship built in Japan called the San Buenaventura and with some Japanese men on board. Once in Acapulco, de Vivero brought his mission to Mexico City and met with the Spanish viceroy, Luis de Velazco and communicated to him his report. In March 1611, the Spanish viceroy Veleazco sent a mission directly from Acapulco to Japan thanking the Japanese government for assisting his governor de Vivero and reimbursed them for the ship San Buenaventura, giving them gifts in homage, one of them being a clock made in Madrid and it was to be the first clock that people of Japan had seen before.
In October 1613, the first Japanese diplomatic mission was sent to New Spain by Masamune Date, a regional strongman. This diplomatic mission was to be known as the Keichō embassy and it was the second diplomatic mission to travel to Europe after the first historic mission known as the Tenshō embassy. Date had built a new exploration ship called the Date Maru or San Juan Bautista, to take the diplomatic party to the Americas; the ambassador, Hasekura Tsunenaga traveled from Japan to Acapulco and met with the Spanish viceroy Diego Fernández de Córdoba. In Mexico City, Hasekura met with several colonial leaders and offered the New Spanish government free commerce between the New Spanish territories and Japan and asked for a group of Christian missionaries to return to Japan; the diplomatic mission offered to expel both English and Dutch citizens from the country because both nations were considered at the time to be enemies of the Spanish king. In June 1614, Hasekura left New Spain via Veracruz and continued on his journey to Spain to meet with the Spanish king leaving behind a small delegation.
In Spain, Hasekura changed his name to Francisco Felipe Faxicura. Two years in February 1617, Hasekura/Faxicura returned from Spain to Veracruz and traveled to Mexico City. Upon arrival to Mexico City, Hasekura was surprised to see that most members of his delegation that he had left behind, had married and integrated into the local community. In 1618, Hasekura and his diplomatic mission returned to Japan. On arrival, they were confronted with the fact the country had changed since their departure in 1613 and that anything related to Christianity had been banned. Hasekura and his delegation had to renounce their adopted religion. Since Hasekura's diplomatic mission to New Spain, Japan entered a time of isolation and refused to trade with foreign nations. After the Meiji Restoration, in which the Empire of Japan reestablished diplomatic relations with various governments of the world, in Mexico arose interest to initiate official relations with the Empire of Japan; the expedition from Mexico to Japan in 1874, led by the Mexican scientist Francisco Díaz Covarrubias, was the reason why formal attempts were made between representatives of the governments of both countries to have diplomatic relations.
At the end of Diaz Covarrubias' report, such action was recommended. In 1874, a Mexican scientific delegation headed by Francisco Díaz Covarrubias arrived in Japan to witness the transit of the planet Venus through a solar disc. Although the scientific delegation did not have much success, this mission did allow for formal diplomatic relations to begin between the two nations. In 1888 Foreign Ministers Matías Romero and Munemitsu Mutsu signed a Treaty of Amity and Navigation. Japan had at that time signed diplomatic treaties with several countries that it considered to be advantageous. Therefore, there was an initial reluctance to have a new agreement with Mexico. After several negotiations between diplomats of both countries it was agreed that the new treaty would be signed in terms of equality for the two nations; the Treaty of Amity and Navigation was signed on 30 November 18
Japan–Peru relations refers to the current and historical relations between Japan and Peru. Both nations are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Forum of East Asia–Latin America Cooperation. Early knowledge of Japan and Peru would have been through Spanish merchants who traded via the Manila Galleon from Acapulco and Manila, Philippines as well as through Spanish missionaries. In Manila, the Spanish brought their products to Spanish America. In 1821, Peru declared its independence from Spain and in October 1868, Japan entered the Meiji period and began fostering diplomatic relations with several nations, after decades of isolation. Prior to establishing formal diplomatic relations. On the way to Peru, the ship encountered a severe storm which caused some damage to the ship and called on the Japanese port of Yokohama for repairs. At port, one Chinese laborer jumped to shore. Once on shore, the laborer complained about severe mistreatment and asked for protection and the rescue of his fellow laborers on board.
After a second laborer escaped from the ship, Japanese authorities boarded the ship and discovered that the Chinese nationals were being confined against their will under inhumane conditions. Many had been kidnapped, most had no idea of the location of their final destination; the Japanese courts charged the captain, Ricardo Herrera, of the María Luz with wrongdoing and in violation of international law and set free the Chinese nationals. A year in 1873, Japan and Peru formally established diplomatic relations by signing a Treaty of Friendship and Navigation. In 1899, 790 Japanese migrants, aboard the Sakuramaru arrived to Peru. Most of the migrants came to the country to work on the various plantations. By 1936, 23,000 Japanese migrants immigrated to Peru. During World War II, Peruvians sacked and burned more than 600 Japanese homes and businesses in Lima, killing 10 Japanese and injuring dozens. In January 1942, Peru broke diplomatic relations with Japan over the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Soon afterwards, Peru deported over 1,700 Japanese Peruvians to the United States where they were placed in internment camps after growing pressure from the U.
S. to secure Latin America from "dangerous enemy aliens." After the war, Peru re-established diplomatic relations with Japan and in 1959, Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi paid an official visit to Peru. In 1961, Peruvian President Manuel Prado Ugarteche became the first Peruvian and Latin-American head of state to visit Japan. In July 1990, Alberto Fujimori became the first Peruvian President of Japanese origin; some months after President Fujimori's election, several Japanese and Peruvians of Japanese origin were assaulted, kidnapped or killed by Peru's two main guerrilla groups, the Shining Path and the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. In 1992, President Fujimori paid a visit to Japan. On 17 December 1996, 14 members of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement stormed the Japanese Ambassador's residence in Lima as they were celebrating Japanese Emperor Akihito's 63rd birthday, took hostage more than 400 diplomatic and military officials; the insurgents believed. When they discovered that he was not present, they demanded from the Peruvian government the release of 300 jailed comrades.
The incident became known as the Japanese embassy hostage crisis and lasted until 22 April 1997 when Peruvian commandos entered the residence and killed all 14 insurgents. During the siege, supreme court judge Carlos Giusti died in the operation and two soldiers were killed. Japanese Prime Minister, Ryutaro Hashimoto, thanked Peru for the release of the hostagesIn November 2000, President Fujimori flew to Brunei to attend the 12th APEC summit. After the summit, he flew to Japan and faxed his resignation of the Presidency as a corruption scandal was collapsing his government. In Japan, Fujimori was granted Japanese citizenship based on his origins; the Peruvian government, under President Alejandro Toledo requested Japan to extradite Fujimori to face 20 criminal charges, Japan refused to extradite one of its citizens, which harmed relations between both nations. In 2006, Fujimori flew to Mexico and Chile where he was arrested, he was trying to return to Peru to run for President. In the 1990s Japan changed their immigration law and allowed the return of "Dekasegi" to return to Japan and receive permanent residency.
60,000 Peruvians of Japanese descent left the country for Japan, making them the second largest Latin American community in Japan. In 2013, Japan and Peru celebrated 140 years of diplomatic relations. Royal and Prime Ministerial visit from Japan to Peru Prince Mikasa Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi Crown Prince Akihito Prime Minister Zenkō Suzuki Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto Prime Minister Tarō Asō Prince Hitachi Prince Aksihino Prime Minister Shinzō Abe Presidential visits from Peru to Japan President Manuel Prado Ugarteche President Alberto Fujimori President Alan García President Ollanta Humala Japan and Peru have signed several bilateral agreements/treaties such as a Trade and Financial Agreement.
Japan–South Africa relations
Japan–South Africa relations refers to the current and historical bilateral relationship between Japan and South Africa. The genesis of trade relations between Japan and the future South Africa date to 1643 when Jan van Riebeeck first arrived at Dejima in Nagasaki harbor. Reebeck accompanied Jan van Elseracq, the representative of the Dutch East Indies Company in Japan. Seven years in 1650, Riebeck proposed selling hides of South African wild animals to Japan. In 1898, Furuya Komahei was the first Japanese businessman to open a shop in South Africa; the Cape Town store was called Mikado Shōten. It stayed open until 1942, when it was confiscated by the government. In 1904, Iwasaki Kanzō's small businesses in Durban were assisted by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. Japan opened a consulate in Cape Town in 1918. Japan began trading with South Africa for natural resources since the 1960s, despite international sanctions in response to South Africa's apartheid; as a result, Japanese in South Africa were granted the honorary white status, much to the complaint of South African opposition party politicians and the press which questioned why the Japanese were granted special privileges.
In addition, Japan's support and passive posture toward the white minority rule bought criticism from nations of Black Africa. In 1983, Tanzanian Ambassador to Japan, Ahmed Hassan Diria, pointed out that profits generated from Japanese tourists visiting South Africa helped strengthen apartheid. Since 1994, greater co-operation between Japan and South Africa has been limited by domestic bureaucratic and institutional conflicts within both countries. Japan-South Africa Relations at MOFA.go.jp Embassy of Japan in South Africa The South African Embassy in Japan