Type 94 75 mm mountain gun
The Type 94 75 mm mountain gun was a mountain gun used as a general-purpose infantry support gun by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. It superseded the Type 41 75 mm mountain gun to become the standard pack artillery piece of Japanese infantry divisions, it was superior to the Type 41 in weight. The Type 94 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2594 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1934 in the Gregorian calendar. Combat experience with the Type 41 mountain gun during the invasion of Manchuria indicated to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff that the existing primary mountain gun lacked not only in firepower and accuracy, but was not as transportable under difficult terrain as had been hoped; the army technical bureau was assigned a project to develop a replacement in 1931. The first prototype was tested in 1932, the design released for production by September 1934 as the "Type 94". However, plans to re-equip all artillery regiments with the new weapon were continually postponed due to budgetary priorities.
The Type 94 75 mm mountain gun had a single-piece gun barrel with a sliding breechblock based on German Krupp designs, a long split-trail carriage with spade plates for stabilizers with a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism based on French Schneider designs. The crew was protected by a gun shield made of 1/8-inch thick armor plate, it had pintle traverse, an equalizing arrangement which gave it three-point suspension. Since it was trunnioned at the center of balance, it did not require equilibrators, it could be fired with trails open. The gun could be broken down into eleven pack loads within three to five minutes for transport by animals or men; the heaviest component weighed 210 pounds, the weapon was intended to be transported by six pack horses, or 18 men. The gun could be disassembled in from 3 to 5 minutes. At night, after the parts were rubbed with luminous bark, the same operations can be performed, although 5 to 10 minutes longer were required, it fired the same projectiles as other 75 mm pieces and had a cartridge case identical in length with that used in the Model 38.
This case was longer than that used in the Model 41 mountain gun. This was necessary because the propelling charge used in Model 94 ammunition was less than that used in the ammunition for Model 38, firing the latter ammunition from Model 94 would damage the gun. Lack of a howitzer trajectory and of varying charges increased the dead space for the Model 94 when it fired in mountainous terrain, the counterrecoil was said to be so slow when the piece was fired at elevations above 30° that, rather than fire above that elevation, the battery displaced forward. High-explosive M94 6 kg with 0.8 kg of TNT and M88 delay fuse. "A" 6.46 kg with picric acid and dinitro and M3 combination fuse "B" 6.6 kg with 0.66 kg of Picric acid and dinitro and M88 impact or delay fuse M90/97 6.18 kg with 0.42 kg of TNT and M88 impact or delay fuse M90 pointed HE 6.35 kg with TNT and M88 impact or delay fuse Armor-piercing M95 APHE 6.2 kg with 0.045 kg of picric acid and dinitro M95 small AP base fuse Shrapnel M90 shrapnel 7 kg with 0.1 kg of black powder with M5 combination fuse M38 shrapnel 6.83 kg with 0.1 kg of black powder with M3 combination fuse Chemical Star M90 illumination 5.65 kg with M5 combination fuse Incendiary M90 incendiary 6.93 kg with black powder and M5 combination fuse Smoke M90 smoke 5.73 kg with 0.1 kg of picric acid and dinitro with M88 impact fuse Type 94 75 mm mountain gun was used extensively in Manchukuo during the Pacification of Manchukuo, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
It was assigned to units in the Southern Expeditionary Army and was sited in defensive positions on islands throughout the Netherlands East Indies and the South Pacific Mandate. It was one of the most common weapons encountered by Allied forces towards the closing stages of the war. Chinese copies of the Type 94 were used by the North Koreans during the Korean War. Bishop, Chris The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8 Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2 McLean, Donald B. Japanese Artillery. Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3. Mayer, S. L; the Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan. The Military Press ISBN 0-517-42313-8 War Department Special Series No 25 Japanese Field Artillery October 1944 US Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, Louisiana State University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8071-2013-8 Taki's Imperial Japanese Army US Technical Manual E 30-480 75mm Type 94 mountain gun walkaround with extensive photos 75mm Type 94 mountain gun preserved in Vladivostok walkaround
Type 1 37 mm anti-tank gun
The Type 1 37 mm anti-tank gun was an anti-tank gun developed by the Imperial Japanese Army, used in combat during World War II. The Type 1 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2601 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1941 in the Gregorian calendar. After the Nomonhan Incident, the shortcomings of the Type 94 37 mm anti-tank gun had become obvious, the Imperial Japanese Army started the development of a new anti-tank gun to be more effective against the new Soviet tanks. However, as a new design would take time, as an interim measure, the existing Type 94 37 mm AT gun was modified with a longer barrel to provide for greater armor penetration; as the Type 1 37 mm AT Gun, it was introduced to combat units in 1941. 2300 units were produced. The Type 1 37 mm AT Gun was a Type 94 37 mm AT gun with a longer gun barrel; as with the Type 94, it had a low profile and was intended to be operated from a squat or prone position. The gun had a gun shield to protect the gunner, it used a semi-automatic breech block with a horizontal sliding wedge.
When the gun was fired the spent shell casing was automatically ejected and upon loading a fresh shell the breech block closed automatically. A hydrospring recoil mechanism was housed under barrel; the weapon had a split trail. Transport was by towing behind a truck or horse, via two steel disc wheels fitted with sponge rubber filled tires; the Type 1 37 mm AT Gun was available only in limited quantities, the additional barrel length provided for only an incremental improvement in performance over the more numerous Type 94 37 mm AT gun. It was marginally effective against the Allied M3 Stuart light tank in the Pacific War, but not against the M4 Sherman, soon fielded in large numbers by the Allies, it was fielded in a wide variety of areas, but most notably Southeast Asia, continued to be used with diminishing effectiveness until the end of World War II. A variant known as the Type 1 37 mm tank gun was used as the main armament of the Type 2 Ke-To, Type 2 Ka-Mi tanks; the tank gun had the following specifications: Calibre: 37 mm Barrel length: 1.699 m Elevation: -15 to +25 degrees AZ angle of fire: 20 degrees Muzzle velocity: 800 m/s Penetration: 25 mm at 1,000 m Bishop, Chris The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II.
Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8 Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2 Hara, Tomio. Japanese Combat Cars, Light Tanks, Tankettes. AFV Weapons Profile No. 54. Profile Publications Limited. McLean, Donald B. Japanese Artillery. Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3. Nakanishi, Ritta Japanese Infantry Arms in World War II, Dainipponkaiga Company 1991, ISBN 4-499-22690-2 US Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, Louisiana State University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8071-2013-8 War Department TM-E-30-480 Handbook on Japanese Military Forces September 1944 Taki's Imperial Japanese Army US Technical Manual E 30-480 Taki's Imperial Japanese Army Page - Akira Takizawa
Type 92 heavy machine gun
The Type 92 Heavy Machine Gun was a Japanese heavy machine gun, related to the Hotchkiss machine gun series. It entered service in 1932 and was the standard Japanese heavy machine gun used during World War II. Known for its reliability, it was used after the war by various forces in East Asia. Designed by Kijiro Nambu and built by Hino Motors and Hitachi, its total production was about 45,000 guns; the Type 92 was a scaled-up version of the Type 3 Heavy Machine Gun, with its calibre increased to 7.7 mm, like the Type 3 was air cooled, ammo strip-fed, based on the Hotchkiss M1914. It could use both a rimless and semi-rimmed 7.7x58mm Shiki round. A 7.7 mm round could be used if other ammunition supplies dwindled. Rounds fired from the gun traveled at about 730 m/s, the rate of fire was about 450 rpm, it was sometimes used as a light anti-aircraft gun during the Pacific War. It was nicknamed "the woodpecker" by Western Allied soldiers because of the characteristic sound it made when fired due to its low rate of fire, the "chicken neck" by Chinese soldiers due to its appearance.
The Type 92 had a practical range of 800 meters. The gun was intended to be fired on a tripod with a team of 3 men; the unusual tripod was designed with removable carry poles, so that the weapon could be transported assembled for quicker deployment. An unusual characteristic of this gun was the placement of its iron sights – canted to the right instead of center. A number of different sights were produced for the weapon, the Type 93 and Type 94 periscopic sights as well as the Type 96 telescopic sight. A ring-type anti-aircraft sight was produced. Major problems with this weapon included the short feed strips, which did not allow for as high a volume of fire as a belt-fed gun, the oiler, which enabled better extraction in clean conditions but could bring dirt inside the gun in the field; the gun has an internal oil pump, mechanically activated by the bolt. The oil pump dispenses a small amount of oil onto a brush, which lubricates each cartridge as it is fed into the gun, it was used extensively by the Imperial Japanese Collaborationist Chinese forces.
Captured weapons were used by Chinese National Revolutionary Army troops against the Japanese during World War II, the Korean People's Army against the United Nations forces during the Korean War, the Viet Minh against the CEFEO forces during the First Indochina War, the Indonesian Army against the Netherlands Forces during the Indonesian National Revolution. The Type 92 refers to the Japanese Imperial year 2592 – 1932 in the Gregorian calendar – in which the gun entered service. Indonesia Republic of China People's Republic of China Japan: Used by the IJA and various collaborationist forces. North Korea Philippines Taiwan Viet Minh and Viet Cong Daugherty III, Leo J. Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–1945. ISBN 1-86227-162-3. Nakanishi, Ritta. Japanese Infantry Arms in World War II. Dainipponkaiga. US Army technical manual TM-E 30–480 at hyperwar "Shooting the Japanese Type 92 HMG in Arizona". Rob Rhodes. 2009-04-22
Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. An Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters, an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, the Inspector General of Military Training. In the mid-19th century, Japan had no unified national army and the country was made up of feudal domains with the Tokugawa shogunate in overall control, which had ruled Japan since 1603; the bakufu army, although large force, was only one among others, bakufu efforts to control the nation depended upon the cooperation of its vassals' armies.
The opening of the country after two centuries of seclusion subsequently led to the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War in 1868. The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate. On 27 January 1868, tensions between the shogunate and imperial sides came to a head when Tokugawa Yoshinobu marched on Kyoto, accompanied by a 15,000-strong force consisting of troops, trained by French military advisers, they were opposed by 5,000 troops from the Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa domains. At the two road junctions of Toba and Fushimi just south of Kyoto, the two forces clashed. On the second day, an Imperial banner was given to the defending troops and a relative of the Emperor, Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was named nominal commander in chief, in effect making the pro-imperial forces an Imperial army; the bafuku forces retreated to Osaka, with the remaining forces ordered to retreat to Edo. Yoshinobu and his closest advisors left for Edo by ship; the encounter at Toba–Fushimi between the imperial and shogunate forces marked the beginning of the conflict.
With the court in Kyoto behind the Satsuma-Chōshū-Tosa coalition, other domains that were sympathetic to the cause—such as Tottori and Hizen —emerged to take a more active role in military operations. Western domains that had either supported the shogunate or remained neutral quickly announced their support of the restoration movement; the nascent Meiji state required a new military command for its operations against the shogunate. In 1868, the "Imperial Army" being just a loose amalgam of domain armies, the government created four military divisions: the Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, San'indō, Hokurikudō, each of, named for a major highway. Overseeing these four armies was a new high command, the Eastern Expeditionary High Command, whose nominal head was prince Arisugawa-no-miya, with two court nobles as senior staff officers; this connected the loose assembly of domain forces with the imperial court, the only national institution in a still unformed nation-state. The army continually emphasized its link with the imperial court: firstly.
To supply food and other supplies for the campaign, the imperial government established logistical relay stations along three major highways. These small depots held stockpiled material supplied by local pro-government domains, or confiscated from the bafuku and others opposing the imperial government. Local villagers were impressed as porters to move and deliver supplies between the depots and frontline units; the new army fought under makeshift arrangements, with unclear channels of command and control and no reliable recruiting base. Although fighting for the imperial cause, many of the units were loyal to their domains rather than the imperial court. In March 1869, the imperial government created various administrative offices, including a military branch; the imperial court told the domains to restrict the size of their local armies and to contribute to funding a national officers' training school in Kyoto. However, within a few months the government disbanded both the military branch and the imperial bodyguard: the former was ineffective while the latter lacked modern weaponry and equipment.
To replace them, two new organizations were created. One was the military affairs directorate, composed of two bureaus, one for the army and one for the navy; the directorate drafted an army from troop contributions from each domain proportional to each domain's annual rice production. This conscript army integrated samurai and commoners from various domains into its ranks; as the war continued, the military affairs directorate expected to raise troops from the wealthier domains and, in June, the organization of the army was fixed, where each domain was required to send ten men for each 10,000 koku of rice produced. However, this policy put the imperial government in direct competition with the domains for military recruitment, not rectified until April 1868, when the government banned the domains from enlisting troops; the quota system never worked as intended an
Type 88 75 mm AA gun
The Type 88 75 mm AA gun was an anti-aircraft gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. The Type 88 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2588 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1928 in the Gregorian calendar, it replaced the earlier Type 11 75 mm AA gun in front line combat service, at the time was equal in performances to any of its contemporaries in western armies and was considered capable of handling any targets the Japanese army was to encounter on the Asian mainland. Although it was soon overtaken by improvements in aircraft technology and was obsolete by 1941, it continued to be used on many fronts until the end of the war; the Type 88 75 mm AA gun was based on an exhaustive evaluation by the Army Technical Bureau of several existing overseas designs, amalgamating some of the best features from each design into a new, Japanese design. The Type 88's number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2588 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1928 in the Gregorian calendar.
The Type 88 was superior to Type 11 in range of fire. The Type 88 75 mm AA gun entered service between 1927 and 1928, was deployed to every anti-aircraft field artillery unit as protection against medium level aircraft attacks. Although it was difficult and expensive weapon for Japan to produce with its limited industrial infrastructure and production technology, it was produced in larger numbers than any other medium anti-aircraft weapon in the Japanese inventory. Over 2000 units completed by the time of the surrender of Japan. In the early phases of World War II, Allied military intelligence assumed that the Japanese Type 88 was a copy of the formidable German Flak 36/37 88 mm gun due to its name. However, there is no connection between the two weapons; the confusion arose from the Japanese Army's nomenclature system. “Type 88” corresponds to the year 2588 in the Japanese imperial year, not to the caliber of the weapon. The Type 88 75 mm AA gun had a single piece gun barrel with sliding breech, mounted on a central pedestal.
The firing platform was supported by five legs, each of which had adjustable screwed foot for leveling. For transport each of the legs could be folded, the barrel was partially retractable. Tactically employed in battle as a four-gun field battery, Japanese combat forces used the weapon during the invasion of Manchuria, Soviet-Japanese Border Wars and the Second Sino-Japanese War, they found the Type 88 gun's high velocity rounds were effective anti-tank weapon when fired horizontally. The weapon was the standard Japanese mobile antiaircraft artillery weapon and used against Allied forces more than any other artillery weapon. During both the Battle of Iwo Jima and the Battle of Okinawa it was used with armor-piercing rounds against American M4 Sherman tanks and as a coastal-defense gun. Against armor, it had the advantage of a 360 degree traverse, but it was not moved and so it was less effective when fired from ambush against tanks. Towards the end of the war many of the Type 88s were withdrawn from front line combat service and sent back to the home islands, to help reinforce Japan's homeland defenses against Allied air raids and to prepare for the threat of Allied invasion.
It was assigned to civil defense units in major Japanese cities, but its maximum effective vertical range of 7,250 metres meant it was ineffective against the USAAF B-29 Superfortress bombers, which could fly as high as 9,710 metres. Some guns were assigned to coastal defense batteries. A variant was experimentally fitted to a Ki-109 bomber in an attempt to shoot down the B-29 Superfortress bombers at high altitude. British QF 3 inch 20 cwt United States 3-inch M1918 gun Anti-aircraft Type 90 HE AA pointed: complete round: 8.94 kg, projectile: 6.52 kg with Type 89 AA fuse High explosive Type 90 HE pointed: complete round: 8.55 kg, projectile: 6.35 with Type 88 impact or Type 88 delay Armor-piercing Type 95 APHE: complete round: 6.2 kg Shrapnel Smoke Incendiary Illumination Type 96 AA gun prime mover Bishop, Chris The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8. Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2. McLean, Donald B.
Japanese Artillery. Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3. Mayer, S. L; the Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan. The Military Press, 1984. ISBN 0-517-42313-8 War Department Special Series No 25 Japanese Field Artillery October 1944 U. S. Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, Louisiana State University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8071-2013-8. War Department TM-E-30-480 Handbook on Japanese Military Forces September 1944 Taki's Imperial Japanese Army
Type 91 10 cm howitzer
The Type 91 10 cm howitzer was a 105 mm howitzer used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. The Type 91 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2591 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1931 in the Gregorian calendar; the Type 91 10 cm howitzer was an orthodox design howitzer, based on contemporary French Canon de 105 mle 1913 Schneider howitzers ordered during the late 1920s by the Japanese Army Technical Bureau for evaluation purposes. It was intended to supplement, supersede the obsolete Type 38 15 cm howitzer, in service since the end of the Russo-Japanese War. Over one thousand units were produced beginning in 1931. For a weapon of modern design the Model 91 105 mm howitzer is by U. S. standards an crude-looking piece. It is much smaller and lighter than the German and U. S. howitzers of the same caliber, weighing less than the standard 75 mm guns used in Europe in World War I. Despite its lightness and its appearance of not having been quite finished, it is capable of throwing a 35 lb shell nearly as far as can the heavier and far more formidable looking German 105 mm howitzer.
The Type 91 10 cm howitzer was a standard 105 mm artillery piece of light construction relative to range and weight of projector. It can be identified by its demountable spade plates, long cradle extending to muzzle end of tube, a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, Split trail, interrupted screw breech mechanism, it was designed to be towed by a team of six horses. The Type 91 fired a 15 kg standard high-explosive shell, up to 10,500 m and could fire chemical, armor-piercing, shrapnel shells. Japanese charge-system numbering is unusual, in that the numbering is reversed from American, German and Italian charge numbering systems: Charge 1: 11,772 yd Charge 2: 8,502 yd Charge 3: 6,322 yd Charge 4: 5,123 yd Early models of the Type 91 had wooden spoked wheels, but versions had steel wheels with pneumatic tires for towing behind a motorized transport at the cost of an extra 250 kilograms. Type 91 10 cm howitzer was used in large numbers in front line combat service from the time of the invasion of Manchuria through the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars, the Second Sino-Japanese War and in most fronts during the Pacific War.
The Type 91 was assigned to field artillery regiments together with 75 mm field guns. Weapons captured by the Chinese during the Second Sino-Japanese War, or abandoned in China at the time of the surrender of Japan, were placed into service by both the National Revolutionary Army of the Nationalist government and the People's Liberation Army of the Chinese communist government through the Chinese Civil War. Bishop, Chris The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8 Chamberlain and Gander, Terry. Light and Medium Field Artillery. Macdonald and Jane's. ISBN 0-356-08215-6 Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2 McLean, Donald B. Japanese Artillery. Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3. Mayer, S. L; the Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan. The Military Press ISBN 0-517-42313-8 War Department Special Series No 25 Japanese Field Artillery October 1944 US Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, Louisiana State University Press, 1994.
ISBN 0-8071-2013-8 Type 91 on Taki's Imperial Japanese Army page US Technical Manual E 30-480
Type 92 battalion gun
The Type 92 battalion gun was a light howitzer used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. The Type 92 designation was for the year the gun was accepted, 2592 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1932 in the Gregorian calendar; each infantry battalion included two Type 92 guns. The Type 92 battalion gun was designed in response to issues with the Type 11 37 mm infantry gun and the Type 11 70 mm infantry mortar. Both lacked sufficient firepower and range, infantry divisions did not like the fact that they had to carry two different types of weapons with different ammunition into combat; as a result, the army technical bureau developed a design which could be used either at low angle direct fire to take out fortified positions, machine gun nests and light armor, but could be used at high angle indirect support fire. The caliber of the new weapon was increased to 70 mm to address the issue of inadequate firepower; the new design was available to front line divisions by 1932.
Somewhat unusual in appearance, the Type 92 battalion gun had a short gun barrel with a split trail carriage. The barrel could be configured from a horizontal to near vertical position with a hand-crank, it had an interrupted drop breechblock mechanism. Lightweight and maneuverable, it was designed to be pulled by a single horse, although in practice teams of three horses were assigned; the wheel were wooden, but were changed to steel after troops complained that the noise from the squeaky wooden wheels was a threat. The Type 92 battalion gun was first used in combat during the Manchurian Incident, was subsequently in heavy use throughout the invasion of Manchuria, the Battle of Nomonhan and subsequent Second Sino-Japanese War, it accompanied units assigned to the Pacific front and was used with considerable effectiveness against Allied forces throughout the South Pacific Mandate and in Southeast Asia. Significant quantities of Type 92 guns were captured by Nationalist and Communist forces in China following the cessation of hostilities in 1945.
The People's Liberation Army, which manufactured ammunition for them, kept them in service in the 1950s. Type 92s were still used, although more than other guns, by the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Two guns are on display in a small park on Main Street in Lakeport, California; the southern gun serial number 399, has unperforated sheet metal wheels, while the wheels of the northern gun appear to have been restored with new material. Two guns are at the Marine Recruiting Depot Museum in California on display outdoors. Another is on display in front of VFW Post 7589 in Manassas, VA. One gun is on display in the Redcliffe branch of the RSL in Queensland, Australia reliably reported as coming from WW2 operations on the Kokoda Trail against the Japanese in Papua New Guinea. One other example is reported somewhere in Australia. War Department TM-E-30-480 Handbook on Japanese Military Forces September 1944 Bishop, Chris The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II.
Barnes & Nobel. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-1022-8 Chamberlain and Gander, Terry. Light and Medium Field Artillery. Macdonald and Jane's. ISBN 0-356-08215-6 Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2 McLean, Donald B. Japanese Artillery. Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3. US Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, Louisiana State University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8071-2013-8 US Technical Manual E 30-480 Type 92 Walkaround on Dishmodels.ru Taki's website