The Wanpaoshan Incident was a minor dispute between Chinese and Korean farmers which occurred on 1 July 1931, before the Mukden Incident. Wanpaoshan was a small village some 18 miles north of Changchun, in Manchuria, in a low marshy area alongside the Itung River. A group of ethnic Koreans subleased a large tract of land from a local Chinese broker and prepared to irrigate by digging a ditch several kilometers long, extending from the Itung River across a tract of land not included in their lease and occupied by local Chinese farmers. After a considerable length of the ditch had been dug, the Chinese farmers protested to the Wanpaoshan local authorities, who dispatched police and ordered the Koreans to cease construction at once and leave the area; the Imperial Japanese Consul based at Changchun responded by sending Japanese consular police to protect the Koreans, both Japanese and Chinese authorities in Changchun agreed to a joint investigation. However, before the joint investigation could be launched, a party of 400 Chinese farmers whose lands were cut by the irrigation ditch, armed with agricultural implements and pikes, drove the Koreans away and filled in much of the ditch.
The Japanese consular police thereupon fired rifles to disperse the mob and to protect the Korean farmers but there were no casualties. The Chinese farmers withdrew, the Japanese police remained on the spot until the Koreans completed the ditch and a dam across the Itung River. Far more serious than the minor affair between farmers in Manchuria was the public reaction once sensationalized accounts of the conflict were published in Japanese and Korean newspapers. A series of anti-Chinese riots erupted throughout Korea, starting at Incheon on July 3 and spreading to other cities; the Chinese alleged that 146 people were killed, 546 wounded, considerable properties were destroyed. The worst of the rioting occurred in Pyongyang on July 5; the Chinese further alleged that Japanese authorities in Korea did not take adequate steps to protect the lives and property of Chinese residents, blamed the authorities for allowing inflammatory accounts to be published. The Japanese countered that the riots were a spontaneous outburst, suppressed as soon as possible and offered compensation for the families of the dead.
In response to the anti-Chinese rioting by Koreans, anti-Korean riots by Chinese erupted all over China and the hatred of Koreans by the Chinese increased dramatically. It has been reported by the New York Times that in Jilin alone, Chinese rioters massacred 10,000 Koreans in retaliation and burnt or looted Korean houses all over the province. Another anti-Korean riot in Supingkai resulted in the deaths of another 300 Koreans; the public backlash from the riots led to a Chinese boycott of Japanese-made products from May 1931. Negotiations continued between the Chinese authories to resolve the situation; the Chinese maintained that the Koreans had no right to reside and lease land outside of Gando District, per the terms of the Gando Convention. The Japanese, on the other hand, insisted that Koreans, as Japanese subjects, had the same rights of residing and leasing land throughout South Manchuria as other Japanese, they held that the Koreans had undertaken their project in good faith and blamed any irregularities on the Chinese broker who arranged the lease.
The Japanese withdrew their consular police from Wanpaoshan, but the Koreans remained. A complete solution of the Wanpaoshan affair had not been reached by September 1931. Wang, Ching-Chun. Manchuria at the Crossroads. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 168, American Policy in the Pacific, pp. 64-77 Invasion & Occupation of Manchuria
A euphemism is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes to downplay. Euphemisms may be used to mask profanity or refer to taboo topics such as disability, excretion, or death in a polite way. Euphemism comes from the Greek word euphemia which refers to the use of'words of good omen'. Eupheme is a reference to the female Greek spirit of words of positivity, etc.. The term euphemism. Reasons for using euphemisms vary by intent. Euphemisms are used to avoid directly addressing subjects that might be deemed negative or embarrassing. Euphemisms are used to downplay the gravity of large-scale injustices, war crimes, or other events that warrant a pattern of avoidance in official statements or documents. For instance, one reason for the comparative scarcity of written evidence documenting the exterminations at Auschwitz, relative to their sheer number, is "directives for the extermination process obscured in bureaucratic euphemisms".
The act of labeling a term as a euphemism can in itself be controversial, as in the following two examples: Affirmative action, meaning a preference for minorities or the disadvantaged in employment or academic admissions. This term is sometimes said to be a euphemism for reverse discrimination, or in the UK positive discrimination, which suggests an intentional bias that might be prohibited, or otherwise unpalatable. Enhanced interrogation is sometimes said to be a euphemism for torture. For example, columnist David Brooks called the use of this term for practices at Abu Ghraib, Guantánamo, elsewhere an effort to "dull the moral sensibility". Phonetic euphemism is used diminishing their intensity. Modifications include: Shortening or "clipping" the term, such as Jeez and what the— Mispronunciations, such as frak, what the fudge, what the truck, oh my gosh, darn, oh shoot, be-yotch, etc; this is referred to as a minced oath. Using first letters as replacements, such as SOB, what the eff, S my D, POS, BS.
Sometimes, the word "word" is added after it, such as S-word, B-word, etc.. The letter can be phonetically respelled. For example, the word piss was shortened to pee in this way. Ambiguous statements Understatements Metaphors Comparisons Metonymy Euphemism may be used as a rhetorical strategy, in which case its goal is to change the valence of a description from positive to negative; the use of a term with a softer connotation, though it shares the same meaning. For instance, screwed up is a euphemism for fucked up. There is some disagreement over whether certain terms are not euphemisms. For example, sometimes the phrase visually impaired is labeled as a politically correct euphemism for blind or a blind person. However, visual impairment can be a broader term, for example, people who have partial sight in one eye, those with uncorrectable mild to moderate poor vision, or those who wear glasses, groups that would be excluded by the word blind. Expressions or words from a foreign language may be imported for use as a replacement for an offensive word.
For example, the French word enceinte was sometimes used instead of the English word pregnant. This practice of word substitution became so frequent that the expression "pardon my French" was adopted in attempts to excuse the use of profanity. Euphemisms may be formed in a number of ways. Periphrasis, or circumlocution, is one of the most common: to "speak around" a given word, implying it without saying it. Over time, circumlocutions become recognized as established euphemisms for particular words or ideas. To alter the pronunciation or spelling of a taboo word to form a euphemism is known as taboo deformation, or a minced oath. In American English, words that are unacceptable on television, such as fuck, may be represented by deformations such as freak in children's cartoons. Feck is a minced oath popularised by the sitcom Father Ted; some examples of rhyming slang may serve the same purpose: to call a person a berk sounds less offensive than to call a person a cunt, though berk is short for Berkeley Hunt, which rhymes with cunt.
Bureaucracies spawn euphemisms intentionally, as doublespeak expressions. For example, in the past, the US military used the term "sunshine units" for contamination by radioactive isotopes. An effective death sentence in the Soviet Union during the Great Purge used the clause "imprisonment without right to correspondence": the person sentenced never had a chance to correspond with anyone because soon after imprisonment they w
Chongqing romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of China's four municipalities under the direct administration of central government, the only such municipality in China located far away from the coast. Chongqing was a municipality during the Republic of China administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War; the current municipality was recreated on 14 March 1997 to help develop the central and western parts of China. The Chongqing administrative municipality has a population of over 30 million, spread over an area the size of Austria; the city of Chongqing made of 9 urban districts has a much smaller population of 8,518,000 as of 2016 estimation. According to the 2010 census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality, the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, containing 26 districts, eight counties, four autonomous counties; the official abbreviation of the city, "Yu", was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997.
This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River. Chongqing has culture. Being one of China's National Central Cities, it serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin, it is a major manufacturing transportation hub. Tradition associates Chongqing with the State of Ba; this new capital was first named Jiangzhou. Jiangzhou subsequently remained under Qin Shi Huang's rule during the Qin dynasty, the successor of the Qin State, under the control of Han dynasty emperors. Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the Northern and Southern dynasties to Chu Prefecture in 581 AD to Yu Prefecture, in 1102 during Northern Song to Gong Prefecture; the name Yu however survives to this day as an abbreviation for Chongqing, the city centre where the old town stood is called Yuzhong. It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song dynasty described his crowning as king and Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration".
In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement. In 1362, Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebel leader, established the Daxia Kingdom at Chongqing for a short time. In 1621, another short-lived kingdom of Daliang was established by She Chongming with Chongqing as its capital. In 1644, after the fall of the Ming dynasty to a rebel army, together with the rest of Sichuan, was captured by Zhang Xianzhong, said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan and depopulated the province, in part by causing many people to flee to safety elsewhere; the Manchus conquered the province, during the Qing dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of the Qing emperor. In 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing; the following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners. The French, German, US and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing in 1896–1904. During and after the Second Sino-Japanese War, from Nov 1937 to May 1946, it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital.
After Britain, the United States, other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941, one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia, Joseph Stilwell, was based in the city. The city was visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Commander of SEAC, itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China worked with Stilwell; the Japanese Air Force bombed it. Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II, Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city. On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress decided to merge the Sub-provincial city with the neighbouring Fuling and Qianjiang prefectures that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996.
The resulting single division became Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties. The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project, its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997. On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the four National Central/Core cities, the other three are Beijing and Tianjin. On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, the third State-level new areas at the time of its establishment. In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime and corruption. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-en
The Nakamura Incident refers to the extrajudicial killing of Imperial Japanese Army Captain Shintarō Nakamura and three others, on 27 June 1931 by Chinese soldiers in Manchuria. Captain Nakamura, a regular Japanese Army officer, was on an official mission under orders of the Kwantung Army detachment in the South Manchurian Railway Zone. Early in June, Captain Nakamura obtained a "huchao" from the Chinese authorities in Mukden, which allowed him and his party rights of free passage through Manchuria, with the exception of the militarily-sensitive border area between Taonan and Solun. At Harbin, Nakamura obtained a second "huchao" which, according to the Japanese Consul General, gave the desired permission to travel in the Taonan-Solun area. Captain Nakamura was accompanied by Nobutarō Isugi, a retired Japanese army sergeant, a Mongolian and a Russian interpreter. Nakamura was travelling incognito, in civilian dress, represented himself as an "agricultural expert"; the party of four left Pokotu on the Chinese Eastern Railway about the middle of June, their immediate destination being Taonan.
Nakamura made stops along the Chinese Eastern Railway, at Manchuli, Tsitsihar and Hailar taking notes. On 27 June 1931, the members of the party were arrested by troops loyal to Manchurian warlord Zhang Xueliang under the command of Kuan Yuheng, Commander of the Third Regiment of the Chinese Reclamation Army in Manchuria, outside Taonan, in a place called Suokungfu. According to the Chinese, Nakamura was armed and carried patent medicines, which included narcotic drugs for non-medical purposes, he and his assistants were taken to Solun, where they were summarily executed on July 1 and their bodies cremated to conceal evidence of the deed. The execution may have been ordered because the Chinese had discovered that Nakamura's mission was one of espionage to find water sources and places for encampment for future Japanese military operations in northwest Manchuria. Details of the incident became known to the Japanese public on 17 July 1931. With the news coming soon after the Wanpaoshan Incident, public opinion was further inflamed, increasing anti-Chinese sentiment in Japan.
The Japanese military was quick to capitalize on this upsurge in public opinion to demand a stronger foreign policy against China. Some influential and outspoken officers, including Kanji Ishiwara, demanded that the incident be used as a casus belli to enable the Japanese Army to resolve Japan's position in Manchuria. Chinese authorities agreed to investigate the case, diplomatic progress appeared to be made until the Manchurian Incident that year. Nakamura was posthumously awarded the Order of the Golden Kite. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093130-2. Calvocoressi, Peter; the Penguin History of the Second World War. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-028502-4. Wilson, Sandra; the Manchurian Crisis and Japanese Society, 1931-33. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25056-0. Young, Louise. Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21934-1. Nakamura Incident at ibiblio.org
The Kyūjō incident was an attempted military coup d'état in the Empire of Japan at the end of the Second World War. It happened on the night of 14–15 August 1945, just before the announcement of Japan's surrender to the Allies; the coup was attempted by the Staff Office of the Ministry of War of Japan and many from the Imperial Guard to stop the move to surrender. The officers killed Lieutenant General Takeshi Mori of the First Imperial Guards Division and attempted to counterfeit an order to the effect of occupying the Tokyo Imperial Palace, they attempted to place the Emperor under house arrest, using the 2nd Brigade Imperial Guard Infantry. They failed to persuade the Eastern District Army and the high command of the Imperial Japanese Army to move forward with the action. Due to their failure to convince the remaining army to oust the Imperial House of Japan, they committed suicide; as a result, the communiqué of the intent for a Japanese surrender continued as planned. On July 26, the Potsdam Conference issued a declaration on the terms for the surrender of Japan.
When the Potsdam Declaration was received in Japan over shortwave, the Minister for Foreign Affairs Shigenori Tōgō brought a copy to the Emperor of Japan, Hirohito. After going over the declaration point by point, the emperor asked Tōgō if those terms "were the most reasonable to be expected in the circumstances". Tōgō said; the emperor said, "I agree. In principle they are acceptable." In late July, the other ministers were not ready to accept the declaration. On August 9, 1945, the Japanese government, responding to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, to the declaration of war by the Soviet Union and to the effective loss of the Pacific and Asian-mainland territories, decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration. On the same day the Supreme Council for the Direction of War opened before the Japanese Imperial court. In the Council the Prime Minister Kantarō Suzuki, the Navy Minister Mitsumasa Yonai, the Minister for Foreign Affairs Shigenori Tōgō suggested to Hirohito, that the Japanese should accept the Potsdam Declaration and unconditionally surrender.
After the closure of the air-raid shelter session, Suzuki mustered the Supreme Council for the Direction of War again, now as an Imperial Conference, which Emperor Hirohito attended. From midnight of August 10, the conference convened in an underground bomb shelter. Hirohito agreed with the opinion of Tōgō. Subsequently, the Japanese envoy to Switzerland and Sweden communicated the decision to the Allies; the War Ministry knew the decision of the conference and stirred up a fierce reaction from many officers who intended continued resistance. At 9 o'clock, in the session held at the Ministry of War, the staff officers complained to the Minister Korechika Anami, not all of them heeded Anami's explanations. After midnight on 12 August a San Francisco radio station relayed the reply from the Allies, there was a suggestion that the Allies had decided that the authority of the sovereignty of the Japanese government and the Emperor would be subordinated to the headquarters of the Allies, against the requisition for the protection of the Kokutai from the Imperial Japanese government, a military occupational system, applied to the fallen German Reich.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs interpreted this sentence as restricting sovereignty, but the Japanese Army interpreted it more as enslavement. From 3 o'clock the attendees of the imperial families council agreed to the surrender of Japan, yet the cabinet council, supposed to be held at the same time did not concur; the Supreme Council for the Direction of War tangled with the problem of protection for the Kokutai. After these proceedings, some Army officers for protection of the Kokutai decided that a coup d'état was needed. At this time, the core group of these officers had prepared some troops in Tokyo. Late on the night of August 12, 1945, Major Kenji Hatanaka, along with Lieutenant Colonels Masataka Ida, Masahiko Takeshita, Inaba Masao, Colonel Okikatsu Arao, the Chief of the Military Affairs Section, spoke to War Minister Korechika Anami, asked him to do whatever he could to prevent acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration. General Anami refused to say; as much as they needed his support and the other rebels decided they had no choice but to continue planning and to attempt a coup d'état on their own.
Hatanaka spent much of August 13 and the morning of August 14 gathering allies, seeking support from the higher-ups in the Ministry, refining his plot. Shortly after the Imperial Conference on the night of August 13–14 at which the surrender was decided, Anami had two conversations in which he expressed opposition to the surrender, he asked Yoshijirō Umezu if "the war should be continued at the risk of launching a coup d'état", to which Umezu concluded, "There is nothing we can do now but to comply with the Emperor's decision." Anami confronted a Colonel Saburo Hayashi in a washroom and asked about "the possibility of attacking a large American convoy rumored to be outside of Tokyo." Hayashi dashed Anami's suggestion by reaffirming the Imperial decision while noting the presence of the convoy was only a rumor. His brother-in-law Lieutenant Colonel Masahiko Takeshita confronted Anami first suggesting Anami resign, which would topple the government suggesting he support the coup. To the first, Anami noted that the fall of the government would not st
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Tianjin romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the nine national central cities of the People's Republic of China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper, it is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China. In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China; the walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major gateway to Beijing.
During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; as of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan. Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven"; the origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn...".
Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is; the most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor. The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point; the opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. During the Qing dynasty Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731, it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu before becoming a relay station under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili. In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, of being engaged in the opium trade.
They imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade; the treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan and Russia, by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools and hospitals; these nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church, in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children.
On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, forced to pay compensation for the incident. In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms; the move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan. The academy was to serve Anhui Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military and science subjects were taught at the academy; the instructors were Germa