Brett Michael Kavanaugh is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and as a staff lawyer for various offices of the federal government. Kavanaugh graduated from Yale University. After graduating from Yale Law School, he began his career as a law clerk and a postgraduate fellow working under Judge Ken Starr. After Starr left the D. C. Circuit to take the position as head of the Office of Independent Counsel, Kavanaugh followed and assisted him with various investigations concerning President Bill Clinton, including the drafting of the Starr Report, which urged Clinton's impeachment. After the 2000 U. S. presidential election, he joined the administration as White House Staff Secretary and was a central figure in its efforts to identify and confirm judicial nominees. Kavanaugh was nominated to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit by President Bush in 2003.
His confirmation hearings were contentious. He was confirmed to the D. C. Circuit in May 2006 after a series of negotiations between Democratic and Republican U. S. Senators. A Washington Post analysis found he had the most or second-most conservative voting record on the D. C. Court in every policy area between 2003 and 2018. President Trump nominated Kavanaugh to the U. S. Supreme Court on July 9, 2018, to fill the position vacated by retiring Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy; when Kavanaugh's name was on the short list of Supreme Court nominees and before his nomination, Palo Alto University Professor of Psychology Christine Blasey Ford contacted a Washington Post tip line with accusations that Kavanaugh had sexually assaulted her in the early 1980s while the two were in high school. Two other women accused Kavanaugh of sexual misconduct. Kavanaugh denied all three accusations; the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee held a supplemental hearing over Ford's allegations, after which it voted to advance the confirmation to a full Senate vote.
After delaying the vote for an additional FBI investigation, the Senate confirmed Kavanaugh's nomination by a vote of 50–48 on October 6, 2018. Kavanaugh was born on February 12, 1965, in Washington, D. C. the son of Martha Gamble and Everett Edward Kavanaugh Jr. His father was an attorney and served as the president of the Cosmetic and Fragrance Association for two decades, his mother was a history teacher at Woodson and McKinley high schools in Washington in the 1960s and 1970s. She earned a J. D. degree from Washington College of Law in 1978 and served as a Maryland Circuit Court judge from 1995 to 2001 in Montgomery County. Kavanaugh is of Irish Catholic descent on both sides with his paternal great-grandfather arriving in the late 1800s from Roscommon in Ireland, his maternal Irish lineage goes back to his great-great-grandparents settling in New Jersey. Kavanaugh was raised in Maryland; as a teenager, he attended Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit boys college prep school, where he was two years ahead of future U.
S. Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch, he was a wide receiver and cornerback on the football team. Kavanaugh was friends with classmate Mark Judge, he graduated in 1983. After prep school, Kavanaugh attended Yale University. Several of Kavanaugh's Yale classmates remembered him as a "serious but not showy student" who loved sports basketball, he unsuccessfully tried out for the Yale Bulldogs men's basketball team and played for two years on the junior varsity team. He wrote articles about basketball and other sports for the Yale Daily News, was a member of the fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon, he graduated from Yale in 1987 with a Bachelor of Arts cum laude in history. In October 2018, it was reported that Kavanaugh and Chris Dudley were in a bar fight in September 1985 after Kavanaugh threw ice at a man who looked like Ali Campbell of UB40. Kavanaugh attended Yale Law School, where he lived in a group house with future judge James E. Boasberg, played basketball with professor George L. Priest, was a notes editor for the Yale Law Journal.
He graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1990. Kavanaugh first worked as a law clerk for Judge Walter King Stapleton of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. During Kavanaugh's clerkship, Stapleton wrote the majority opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, in which the Third Circuit upheld many of Pennsylvania's abortion restrictions. George Priest recommended Kavanaugh to Ninth Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski, regarded as a feeder judge. After clerking for Kozinski, Kavanaugh next interviewed for a clerkship with Chief Justice William Rehnquist on the U. S. Supreme Court, but was not offered a clerkship. Kavanaugh was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1990 and the District of Columbia Bar in 1992. In 1992, Kavanaugh earned a one-year fellowship with the Solicitor General of the United States, Ken Starr, he clerked for Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy from 1993–1994, working alongside fellow high school alumnus Neil Gorsuch and with future-Judge Gary Feinerman. After his Supreme Court clerkship, Kavanaugh again worked for Ken Starr until 1997 as an Associate Counsel in the Office of the Independent Counsel with colleagues Rod Rosenstein and Alex Azar.
In that capacity, he reopened an investigation into the 1993 gunshot death of Vincent Foster. After three years, the invest
Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, who served from her appointment in 1981 by President Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006. She was the first woman to serve on the Court. Prior to O'Connor's tenure on the Court, she was a judge and an elected official in Arizona serving as the first female Majority Leader of a state senate as the Republican leader in the Arizona Senate. Upon her nomination to the Court, O'Connor was confirmed unanimously by the Senate. On July 1, 2005, she announced her intention to retire effective upon the confirmation of a successor. Samuel Alito was nominated to take her seat in October 2005, joined the Court on January 31, 2006; as a moderate Republican, O'Connor tended to approach each case narrowly without arguing for sweeping precedents. She most sided with the Court's conservative bloc, she wrote concurring opinions that limited the reach of the majority holding. Her majority opinions in landmark cases include Hamdi v. Rumsfeld.
She wrote in part the per curiam majority opinion in Bush v. Gore, was one of three co-authors of the lead opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey. Several publications have named her among the most powerful women in the world. On August 12, 2009, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor of the United States, by President Barack Obama. Sandra Day was born in El Paso, the daughter of Harry Alfred Day, a rancher, Ada Mae, she grew up on a 198,000-acre cattle ranch near Arizona. The ranch was nine miles from the nearest paved road; the family home did not have running electricity until Sandra was seven years old. She hunted from a young age, she began driving as soon as she could see over the dashboard and had to learn to change flat automobile tires herself. Sandra had two younger siblings, a sister and a brother eight and ten years her junior, her sister was Ann Day. She wrote a book with her brother, H. Alan Day, Lazy B: Growing up on a Cattle Ranch in the American West, about her childhood experiences on the ranch.
For most of her early schooling, O'Connor lived in El Paso with her maternal grandmother, attended school at the Radford School for Girls, a private school. The family cattle ranch was too far from schools, although O'Connor was able to return to the ranch for holidays and the summer. O'Connor spent her eighth-grade year riding a bus 32 miles to school, she graduated sixth in her class at Austin High School in El Paso in 1946. Sandra Day attended Stanford University, where she received her B. A. in Economics in 1950. She continued at the Stanford Law School for her law degree in 1952. There, she served on the Stanford Law Review with its presiding editor-in-chief, future Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist, the class valedictorian and whom she dated during law school, she has stated that she graduated third in her law school class, though Stanford's official position is that the law school did not rank students in 1952. On December 20, 1952, six months after graduating from law school, she married John Jay O'Connor III, whom she had met at Stanford Law School.
Upon graduation from law school, while her classmate Rehnquist went on to clerk for the Supreme Court, O'Connor had difficulty finding a paying job as an attorney because of her gender. O'Connor found employment as a deputy county attorney in San Mateo, after she offered to work for no salary and without an office, sharing space with a secretary, she worked with San Mateo County district attorney Louis Dematteis and deputy district attorney Keith Sorensen. When her husband was drafted, O'Connor decided to pick up and go with him to work in Germany as a civilian attorney for the Army's Quartermaster Corps, they remained there for three years before returning to the states where they settled in Maricopa County, Arizona, to begin their family. They had three sons: Scott and Jay. Following Brian's birth, O'Connor took a five-year hiatus from the practice of law, she volunteered in various political organizations, such as the Maricopa County Young Republicans, served on the presidential campaign for Arizona Senator Barry M. Goldwater in 1964.
O'Connor served as assistant Attorney General of Arizona from 1965 to 1969. In 1969, the governor of Arizona appointed O'Connor to fill a vacancy in the Arizona Senate, she won the election for the seat the following year. By 1973, she became the first woman to serve as Arizona's or any state's Majority Leader, she developed a reputation as a moderate. After serving two full terms, O'Connor decided to leave the Senate. In 1974, O'Connor was elected to the Maricopa County Superior Court serving from 1975 to 1979 when she was elevated to the Arizona State Court of Appeals, she served on the Court of Appeals-Division One until 1981 when she was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Ronald Reagan. On July 7, 1981, Reagan – who had pledged during his 1980 presidential campaign to appoint the first woman to the Court – announced he would nominate O'Connor as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court to replace the retiring Potter Stewart. O'Connor received notification from President Reagan of her nomination on the day prior to the announcement and did not know that she was a finalist for the position.
Reagan wrote in his diary on July 6, 1981: "Called Judge O'Connor and told her she was my nominee for supreme court. The flak is starting and from my own supporters. Right to Life people say. Sh
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Oliver Ellsworth was an American lawyer, judge and diplomat. He was a framer of the United States Constitution, a United States Senator from Connecticut, the third Chief Justice of the United States. Additionally, Ellsworth received 11 electoral votes in the 1796 presidential election. Born in Windsor, Ellsworth attended the College of New Jersey where he helped found the American Whig–Cliosophic Society. In 1777, he became the state attorney for Hartford County and was selected as a delegate to the Continental Congress, serving during the American Revolutionary War, he served as a state judge during the 1780s and was selected as a delegate to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, which produced the United States Constitution. While at the convention, Ellsworth played a role in fashioning the Connecticut Compromise between the more populous states and the less populous states, he served on the Committee of Detail, which prepared the first draft of the Constitution, but he left the convention before signing the document.
His influence helped ensure that Connecticut ratified the Constitution, he was elected as one of Connecticut's inaugural pair of Senators, serving from 1789 to 1796. He was the chief author of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which shaped the federal judiciary of the United States and established the Supreme Court's power to overturn state supreme court decisions that were contrary to the United States Constitution. Ellsworth aligned with the Federalist Party, he led the Senate passage of Hamiltonian proposals such as the Funding Act of 1790 and the Bank Bill of 1791. He advocated in favor of the United States Bill of Rights and the Jay Treaty. In 1796, after the Senate rejected the nomination of John Rutledge to serve as Chief Justice, President George Washington nominated Ellsworth to the position. Ellsworth was unanimously confirmed by the Senate, served until 1800, when he resigned due to poor health. Few cases came before the Ellsworth Court, he is chiefly remembered for his discouragement of the previous practice of seriatim opinion writing.
He served as an envoy to France from 1799 to 1800, signing the Convention of 1800 to settle the hostilities of the Quasi-War. He was succeeded as chief justice by John Marshall, he subsequently served on the Connecticut Governor's Council until his death in 1807. Ellsworth was born in Connecticut, to Capt. David and Jemima Ellsworth, he transferred to the College of New Jersey at the end of his second year. Along with William Paterson and Luther Martin he founded the "Well Meaning Club," which became the Cliosophic Society—now part of Whig-Clio, the nation's oldest college debating club, he received his A. B. degree in 1766, Phi Beta Kappa after 2 years. Soon afterward, Ellsworth turned to the law. After four years of study, he was admitted to the bar in 1771 and became a successful lawyer and politician. In 1772, Ellsworth married Abigail Wolcott, the daughter of Abigail Abbot and William Wolcott, nephew of Connecticut colonial governor Roger Wolcott, granddaughter of Abiah Hawley and William Wolcott of East Windsor, Connecticut.
They had nine children including the twins William Wolcott Ellsworth, who married Noah Webster's daughter, served in Congress and became the governor of Connecticut. Oliver Ellsworth was the grandfather of Henry L. Ellsworth's son Henry W. Ellsworth. From a slow start, Ellsworth built up a prosperous law practice. In 1777, he became Connecticut's state attorney for Hartford County; that same year, he was chosen as one of Connecticut's representatives in the Continental Congress. He served on various committees until 1783, including the Marine Committee, the Board of Treasury, the Committee of Appeals. Ellsworth was active in his state's efforts during the Revolution, having served as a member of the Committee of the Pay Table that supervised Connecticut's war expenditures. In 1777 he joined the Committee of Appeals, which can be described as a forerunner of the Federal Supreme Court. While serving on it, he participated in the Olmstead case that first brought state and federal authority into conflict.
In 1779, he assumed greater duties as a member of the Council of Safety, with the governor, controlled all military measures for the state. His first judicial service was on the Supreme Court of Errors when it was established in 1785, but he soon shifted to the Connecticut Superior Court and spent four years on its bench. Ellsworth participated in the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia as a delegate from Connecticut along with Roger Sherman and William Samuel Johnson. More than half of the 55 delegates were lawyers, eight of whom, including both Ellsworth and Sherman, had previous experience as judges conversant with legal discourse. Ellsworth took an active part in the proceedings beginning on June 20, when he proposed the use of the name the United States to identify the government under the authority of the Constitution; the words "United States" had been used in the Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation as well as Thomas Paine's The American Crisis. It was Ellsworth's proposal to retain the earlier wording to sustain the emphasis on a federation rather than a single national entity.
Three weeks earlier, on May 30, 1787, Edmund Randolph of Virginia had moved to create a "national government" consisting of a supreme legislative, an executive and a ju
Appointment and confirmation to the Supreme Court of the United States
The appointment and confirmation of Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States involves several steps set forth by the United States Constitution, which have been further refined and developed by decades of tradition. Candidates are nominated by the President of the United States and must face a series of hearings in which both the nominee and other witnesses make statements and answer questions before the Senate Judiciary Committee, which can vote to send the nomination to the full United States Senate. Confirmation by the Senate allows the President to formally appoint the candidate to the court. Senate cloture rules required a two-thirds affirmative vote to advance nominations to a vote. In November 2013, the then-Democratic Senate majority eliminated the filibuster for executive branch nominees and judicial nominees except for Supreme Court nominees by invoking the so-called nuclear option. In April 2017, the Republican Senate majority applied the nuclear option to Supreme Court nominations as well, enabling the nominations of Trump nominees Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to proceed to a vote.
Article Two of the United States Constitution requires the President of the United States to nominate Supreme Court Justices and, with Senate confirmation, requires Justices to be appointed. This was for the division of power between the President and Senate by the founders, who wrote: he shall nominate, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint... Judges of the supreme Court... Upon the election of a new President, incoming White House staff prepare profiles of possible candidates for the Supreme Court, considering not only judges but politicians and other individuals whom they consider appropriate for the role. Besides considering national figures whose views are well-known, they consider others who are less recognized, they go through published rulings, articles and other background material to get an idea of candidates' values and views on constitutional issues. Age, race, gender and likelihood of confirmation are factored into considerations. Once a Supreme Court vacancy opens, the President discusses the candidates with advisors.
Senators call the President with suggestions. In turn, the White House lobbies key senators for their votes. After a first choice is decided, the candidate is contacted and called on by the President to serve on the highest court. Staffers send a vetting form for the candidate to fill out, they visit the candidate to go over tax payments to domestic help. A formal FBI background check is conducted. Candidates whom the President has never met are interviewed by White House officials before being sent to the White House to be interviewed in person by the President. After making a final decision, the President calls the candidate, told to prepare a statement for an appearance in front of the national press for the President's formal announcement; the nominee meets with senators and prepares for confirmation hearings. Most Presidents nominate individuals. In many cases, however, a Justice's decisions may be contrary to what the nominating President anticipated. A famous instance was Chief Justice Earl Warren.
Eisenhower called the appointment "the biggest damn fool mistake I made". Another Justice whose decisions ran contrary to what was believed to be his ideology was David Souter, nominated to the high court in 1990 by President George H. W. Bush. Many pundits and politicians at the time expected Souter to be a conservative; because the Constitution does not set any qualifications for service as a Justice, the President may nominate any individual to serve on the Court. However, that person must receive the confirmation of the Senate. In modern times, the confirmation process has attracted considerable attention from special-interest groups, many of which lobby senators to confirm or to reject a nominee, depending on whether the nominee's track record aligns with the group's views; the Senate Judiciary Committee conducts hearings, questioning nominees to determine their suitability. By convention, nominees avoid revealing too much about their views on potential cases that may come before the Court.
At the close of confirmation hearings, the Committee votes on whether the nomination should go to the full Senate with a positive, negative or neutral report. The Committee's practice of interviewing nominees is recent, beginning with Harlan Fiske Stone in 1925; some western senators were concerned with his links to Wall Street and expressed their opposition when Stone was nominated. Stone proposed what was the novelty of appearing before the Judiciary Committee to answer questions; the second nominee to appear before the Committee was Felix Frankfurter, who only addressed what he considered to be slanderous allegations against him. The modern practice of the Committee questioning nominees on their judicial views began with the nomination of John Marshall Harlan II in 1955. Once the Committee reports out the nomination, the whole Senate considers it. A simple majority vote is required to reject a nominee. Prior to 2017, a successfu
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th president of the United States and the tenth chief justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, a position in which he served until a month before his death. Taft was born in Cincinnati in 1857, his father, Alphonso Taft, was a U. S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Taft attended Yale and, like his father, was a member of Bones. After becoming a lawyer, he was appointed a judge while still in his twenties, he continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor.
Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important. With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908 and defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency that November. In the White House, he focused on East Asia more than European affairs and intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments. Taft sought reductions to trade tariffs a major source of governmental income, but the resulting bill was influenced by special interests, his administration was filled with conflict between the conservative wing of the Republican Party, with which Taft sympathized, the progressive wing, toward which Roosevelt moved more and more. Controversies over conservation and antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912.
Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election and he took only Utah and Vermont in Wilson's victory. After leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft as an office he had long sought. Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues and under him there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930. After his death the next month, he was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is listed near the middle in historians' rankings of U. S. presidents. William Howard Taft was born September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Alphonso Taft and Louise Torrey; the Taft family was not wealthy. Alphonso served as a judge, ambassador and in the cabinet, as War Secretary and Attorney General under Ulysses S. Grant.
William Taft was a hard worker. He attended Woodward High School in Cincinnati. At Yale College, which he entered in 1874, the heavyset, jovial Taft was popular, was an intramural heavyweight wrestling champion. One classmate described him succeeding through hard work rather than being the smartest, as having integrity. In 1878, Taft graduated, second in his class out of 121, he attended Cincinnati Law School, graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1880. While in law school, he worked on The Cincinnati Commercial newspaper, edited by Murat Halstead. Taft was assigned to cover the local courts, spent time reading law in his father's office. Shortly before graduating from law school, Taft went to the state capital of Columbus to take the bar examination and passed. After admission to the Ohio bar, Taft devoted himself to his job at the Commercial full-time. Halstead was willing to take him on permanently at an increased salary if he would give up the law, but Taft declined. In October 1880, Taft was appointed assistant prosecutor for Hamilton County, took office the following January.
Taft served for a year as assistant prosecutor. He resigned in January 1882 after President Chester A. Arthur appointed him Collector of Internal Revenue for Ohio's First District, an area centered on Cincinnati. Taft refused to dismiss competent employees who were politically out of favor, resigned effective in March 1883, writing to Arthur that he wished to begin private practice in Cincinnati. In 1884, Taft campaigned for the Republican candidate for president, Maine Senator James G. Blaine, who lost to New York Governor Grover Cleveland. In 1887, Taft aged 29, was appointed to a vacancy on the Superior Court of Cincinnati by Governor Joseph B. Foraker; the appointment was good for just over a year, after which he would have to face the voters, in April 1888, he sought election for the first of three times in his lifetime, the other two being for the presidency. He was elected to a full five-year term; some two dozen of Taft's opinions as a state judge survive, the most significant being Moores & Co. v. Bricklayers' Union No. 1 if only because it was used against him when he ran for president in 1908.
The case involved bricklayers who refused to work for any firm that de
Supreme Court Police
The Supreme Court of the United States Police is a small U. S. federal law enforcement agency headquartered in the District of Columbia, whose mission is to ensure the integrity of the constitutional mission of the U. S. Supreme Court by protecting the Supreme Court building, the Justices, employees and visitors. In accordance with 28 U. S. C. § 672, the Supreme Court Police falls under the jurisdiction of the Marshal of the United States Supreme Court, appointed by the Supreme Court. The Marshal and the Supreme Court Police are authorized by 40 U. S. C. § 6121 to police the Supreme Court Building and protect the Justices, employees of the Court, visitors to the Court. Established in 1935, the Supreme Court security force was tasked to provide protection for the new Supreme Court building; the Court had resided in the United States Capitol, the original force of 33 officers were selected from the ranks of the United States Capitol Police. In October 2018 Security Today reported. Legislation authorized the Police to carry firearms in 1982.
The Supreme Court Police are responsible for protecting the Chief Justice, Associate Justices, building occupants, the Court's historic building and grounds. Additional responsibilities include courtroom security, dignitary protection, emergency response, providing assistance to building visitors. Units of the Supreme Court Police include: Uniformed Services Protective Services Threat Assessment Unit Background Investigation Unit Honor Guard Key Response Squad HazMat/Bomb Response Canine UnitSupreme Court officers are trained at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Georgia, they may retire at the age of 50 with 20 years of qualifying service, or at any age with 25 years of service. They are awarded "enhanced retirement benefits". In 2016 the starting salary for a newly hired member of the Supreme Court Police was $60,000 a year, when the national average for police officers, regardless of seniority, was $53,000; when Justice David Souter was mugged, while jogging, in 2004, commentators questioned why his protective detail hadn't been present.
Members of the Police explained that Justices prefer to rely on their relative anonymity for protection. When Supreme Court Justices leave the Washington area the Supreme Court Police contract with the US Marshal Service to provide security, but only if the Justices request that protection. Bailiff New York State Court Officers Court Security Officers List of United States federal law enforcement agencies