Hickman County, Kentucky
Hickman County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,902, the county was formed in 1821. It is the least densely populated county in the state and is a prohibition or dry county, founded in 1821, Hickman County was the seventy-first in order of formation. It was named for Captain Paschal Hickman of the 1st Rifle Regiment, a resident of Franklin County, Hickman was wounded and captured at the Battle of Frenchtown in January 1813 and was killed by Indians in the Massacre of the River Raisin. Columbus, in the northwest of the county on the Mississippi River, was the county seat. A log structure built in 1823 served as the courthouse, in 1830, the county seat was moved to the more centrally located Clinton. Early in the American Civil War, the Confederate Army established Fort de Russey on the strategically located bluffs across the river from Belmont, gen. Ulysses S. Grant attacked Belmont in November 1861 his first battle of the war, but was defeated by Confederate troops from Columbus.
The site of the Battle of Belmont is now a state park, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 253 square miles, of which 242 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. The elevation in the county ranges from 276 feet to 510 feet above sea level, the countys western border with Missouri is formed by the Mississippi River, although some portions are landlocked to Missouri west of the Mississippi. The population density was 22 per square mile, there were 2,436 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88. 35% White,9. 90% Black or African American,0. 29% Native American,0. 06% Asian,0. 17% from other races,1. 03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27. 60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was out with 22. 10% under the age of 18,6. 90% from 18 to 24,26. 70% from 25 to 44,25. 90% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 91.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.90 males, the median income for a household in the county was $31,615, and the median income for a family was $37,049. Males had an income of $28,438 versus $18,506 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,279, about 14. 20% of families and 17. 40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27. 70% of those under age 18 and 13. 80% of those age 65 or over. Clinton Columbus Robert Burns Smith, third Governor of Montana Murphys Pond Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Hickman County, Kentucky
Johnson County, Kentucky
Johnson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,356, the county was formed in 1843 and named for Richard Mentor Johnson, War of 1812 general, United States Representative and Vice President of the United States. Johnson County was formed on February 24,1843 by the Kentucky General Assembly from land given by Floyd, Lawrence, at that time, its county seat of Paintsville had already been a chartered city for nine years. Homes had been built in Paintsville as early as the 1810s, many of the families at the beginning of Johnson Countys formation were of Scottish, English, or German descent. Also, a fact lost to most historians is the population of French Huguenots who were confused as English because they fled via England en route to the United States. Many of these settlers migrated from North Carolina, for about its first twenty-five years, Johnson County and Paintsville struggled along. Mail and supplies reached Johnson County from the Bluegrass region by horseback, years later, stage coaches began to connect eastern Kentucky and Johnson County to the bluegrass region and the rest of civilization.
As Johnson County and its county seat had begun to thrive, like other border areas, brothers fought against brothers, tearing families apart. Johnson County was not only part of a state during the Civil War. Sometime between 1860 and 1862, the county enacted an ordinance that neither the Union or Confederate flags were to be flown within the county. This was repealed quickly after Colonel James Garfields Union brigade marched through Paintsville on its way to defeat the Confederate cavalry at the Battle of Middle Creek in Floyd County. Following the Civil War, Thomas Jefferson Mayo moved to Paintsville to fulfill a role as a gifted and talented teacher, Mayo, an important figure in the development of eastern Kentucky. The county citizenry is divided on their loyalty to his memory, some would say he was a benefactor who assisted in the development of Paintsville, and as a result, Johnson County. That he helped develop banks, streets, public utilities, others would say he was directly responsible for the huge influence coal companies had over the countys vast coal resources and the reason the region remains so economically depressed to this day.
Coal was important for Johnson County and the rest of eastern Kentucky even before the Civil War, financing was slow to return to the coal industry in eastern Kentucky and this inhibited development in Johnson County. The people were suspicious of outsiders and Mayo, a teacher, was a known quantity. Carpetbaggers from the North became a sight in the area. In some cases, for a new shotgun, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway first opened its Paintsville depot on September 1,1904, following 25 years of work connecting it to Lawrence County
My Old Kentucky Home State Park
My Old Kentucky Home State Park is a state park located in Bardstown, Kentucky. The parks centerpiece is Federal Hill, a farm owned by United States Senator John Rowan in 1795, during the Rowan familys occupation, the mansion became a meeting place for local politicians and hosted several visiting dignitaries. The farm is best known for its association with American composer Stephen Fosters anti-slavery ballad My Old Kentucky Home, Fosters song by the same name was made the state song of Kentucky in 1928. The Federal Hill mansion was featured on a U. S. postage stamp in 1992, Federal Hill, commonly known as My Old Kentucky Home, is a historic mansion that was planned and commissioned by Judge John Rowan and his wife Ann Lytle. The mansions original surrounding 1,200 acres were known as Federal Hill. The rear portion of the mansion was constructed in 1795, additional space from 1799 to 1802, with Rowan in residence, Federal Hill was a local power center in the realms of legal and social events.
Prominent visitors to the home included Marquis de Lafayette, Stephen Foster, Andrew Jackson, Judge Rowan occupied a Louisville residence during the majority of his years and was rarely in residence at Federal Hill near the end of his life. In 1839, the house suffered damage to the third story. Carpenter Alexander Moore was hired to repair the damage, as he had worked on the design elements, John Rowan, Jr. occupied Federal Hill after the death of his father. When John, Jr. died in 1855, his widow, Rebecca Carnes Rowan, the house passed to their daughter, Madge Frost. The imagery of Federal Hill and Harriet Beecher Stowes anti-slavery novel Uncle Toms Cabin are cited as the inspiration for Stephen Fosters anti-slavery ballad known as My Old Kentucky Home, according to Morrison Foster, Stephen Fosters brother, Stephen was an occasional visitor to Federal Hill. Stephens sister Charlotte visited Federal Hill and courted Atkinson Hill Rowan who unsuccessfully proposed to Charlotte, in 1922, the My Old Kentucky Home Commission purchased Federal Hill from Madge Rowan Frost, the last heir of Federal Hill farm.
The Commission renovated the property and gave the farm to the Commonwealth of Kentucky for use as a state park, Federal Hill is made primarily of brick fired on-site and laid in the Flemish bond pattern. The mansion possesses a foundation crafted of limestone native to the surrounding countryside, the windowsills and mantels were finely carved by a free black craftsman. The mansion is designed in the Federal Style, Federal Hill has three floors traversed by a staircase located within a central hallway on each floor and an English basement. The first floors main rooms are a room, parlor. The second floor consists of three bedrooms similarly spaced to the rooms below, auxiliary farm buildings associated with the mansion include the original springhouse. To the rear of the home the oldest section of residence can be seen, the ell consists of four rooms as well as the kitchen and smokehouse
Barren River Lake State Resort Park
Barren River Lake State Resort Park is a 1, 053-acre park located in Barren County and extending into parts of Allen County and Monroe County. Barren River Lake, its feature, is an artificial lake created with the building of a 146-foot-high dam by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers begun in 1960. It covers approximately 10,000 acres and has 141 miles of shoreline, the park was dedicated in 1965. Fishing is an attraction at this park. The largest hybrid striped bass ever taken in Kentucky was caught in Barren River Lake in 1991, the lake contains several other species of fish, including crappie, smallmouth bass, white bass, and big channel catfish. The lake includes a marina to support boating and water skiing, numerous trails provide hiking and biking opportunities. The most popular hiking trail is the 1-mile Lewis Hill Trail which is known as the Connell Nature Trail. Guided horseback rides are available seasonally, the park features an eighteen-hole golf course. The Trashmasters cleanup day is a popular event that helps keep the park clean.
Also, each June, the park plays host to Glasgows Highland Games, Barren River Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Glasgow Highland Games
Taylorsville Lake State Park
Taylorsville Lake State Park is a park encompassing 1,200 acres in Spencer County, roughly midway between Louisville and Lexington. Taylorsville Lake, its feature, extends into parts of Anderson County. Taylorsville Lake gains its name from the town, named for President Zachary Taylors father, Richard Taylor. The lake was created when the United States Army Corps of Engineers chose to dam the Salt River, thereby creating the lake, the dam, which measures a height of 163 feet and a length of 1,280 feet, cost $28.8 million to build. The resulting lake is 3,050 acres in area, has 75 miles of shoreline. There is both an office, maintained by the state of Kentucky, and a visitors center maintained by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The visitors center is pyramid-shaped with a metal roof, and contains displays of the local trees, boating. Fishing is the attraction, as Taylorsville Lake is the most heavily stocked lake in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, it is known for its bluegill. This is facilitated by a rule that bass must be 15 inches long, at minimum, to be caught and kept, crappie must be 9 inches, bluegill are not sport fish.
Camping was not available at the park until 1998, Taylorsville Lake State Park Kentucky Department of Parks
John James Audubon State Park
John James Audubon State Park is located on U. S. Route 41 in Henderson, just south of the Ohio River. Its inspiration is John James Audubon, the ornithologist, naturalist, in 1934, the Wolf Hills area in Henderson was selected for a new state park. Susan Towles, a Henderson librarian, supplied the necessary research, in September 1934, a Civilian Conservation Corps base Camp Cromwell was established off US41 near John James Audubon State Park. Over the next four years the CCC drained swamps, build two lakes and developed trails and roads, progress on the park was not always smooth. There were long delays caused by lack of funds and disagreements over the parks focus, the Wilderness Lake was completed in the spring of 1938 but the work continued slowly on the Tea House and gardens, the recreational lake, the roads and the cottages. The Tea House was completed in June 1940 and served three meals daily until December 1941, in the spring of 1941, the cottages were completed and the recreational lake was excavated and filled.
That completed the work under the federal New Deal programs, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7,1941, Kentucky and the nation prepared for war. Camp Cromwell was converted into a Naval Cadet Aviation Training School during the war, after WWII, attention returned to John James Audubon State Park. Beginning in 1948 and lasting until 1955, a program of restoration and construction was carried out, some of the projects completed were new museum lighting installation, picnic area and beach, parking, lake dam and shelter construction. From 1960 to 1969 another $500,000 was invested in the park construction of a camping area. Additional land was acquired bringing the park to nearly 700 acres, New picnic shelters and employee housing were constructed. The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988, in 1990 the state General Assembly allocated $2.5 million for a thorough renovation of the museum and the additional 9, 500-square-foot nature center to promote the study of nature.
In the spring of 1992, the largest renovation in the museums 54-year history began, the museum design is French heritage. The style permitted the inclusion of small niches in the tower for nesting birds. Alice Tyler, widow of J. J. Audubons great-grandson and it was her wish that the large personal collection of Audubon material in her possession be placed on loan in the new Audubon Museum. Mrs. Tyler shipped her collection to Henderson in the spring of 1938, the Tyler collection was purchased in 1994 through numerous donations made to the Friends of Audubon, as well as contributions from the Preston Foundation and the Kentucky State Parks. Today, the museum proudly displays one of the worlds largest collections of original Audubon art that made the wildlife artist a legend, but it is the personal artifacts and memorabilia that portray the often difficult life of Audubon - more starving artist than artistic success. The museums four exhibit halls chronicle Audubons life, including his 1810–1819 residence in Henderson, Kentucky.5 miles of forest hiking trails, tennis courts, four picnic shelters, a variety of year-round, interpretive programs are conducted under the direction of a full-time naturalist and museum educator
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 30th-most populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being the states second-largest city of Lexington, Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County. Louisville was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark and is named after King Louis XVI of France, making Louisville one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site. It was the city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Services worldwide air hub, since 2003, Louisvilles borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County because of a city-county merger. The official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, the citys total consolidated population as of the 2014 census estimate was 760,026.
However, the total of 612,780 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources. As of 2014, the MSA had a population of 1,269,702, the history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, and has been influenced by the areas geography and location. The rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, the first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him, two years later, in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville. The city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The citys early growth was influenced by the fact river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had swelled to 7,000, the city grew rapidly in its formative years. Louisville was a shipping port and slaves worked in a variety of associated trades. The city was often a point of escape for slaves to the north, during the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky firmly in the Union. It was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns, by the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park is a park located near Mount Olivet, Kentucky in Robertson and Nicholas counties. The park encompasses 148 acres and features a monument commemorating the August 19,1782 Battle of Blue Licks, the battle was regarded as the final battle of the American Revolutionary War. The earliest accounts of Blue Licks describe it as a place where animals gathered to lick the salt deposits flowing from the springs in the area. The Reverend James Smith provides this account in his 1795–97 diary, As you approach the Licks, at the distance of 4 or 5 miles from it, you begin to perceive the change. Here immense herds of buffalo used formerly to meet and with their fighting, scraping etc. have worn away the ground to what it is at present, in 1782, British Captain William Caldwell led a force of Indians against the small Kentucky settlement of Bryans Station. Caldwell met stiff resistance, and after two days, retreated toward the Ohio River, in the battle that followed,60 of the 176 men who followed McGary were killed, Boones son Israel among them.
Reinforcements under George Rogers Clark eventually arrived and drove Caldwells forces from Kentucky for good, by the mid-19th century, the Blue Licks area had become a health resort, due in large part to the nearby saltwater springs that had been used for salt making since the 1770s. The mineral water found in the springs was rumored to cure everything from asthma to gout, by 1896, the areas last spring had gone dry. Efforts to locate another spring unearthed several geological and historical artifacts, a more extensive excavation of the area was conducted in 1945. However, a team from Morehead State University is to search the battlefield using modern equipment to explore for artifacts relating to the battlefields, enough success in this endeavor could mean the return of the battlefield to the Register. The park is located along the Licking River, and offers canoeing and fishing, the Licking River Trail offers a one-mile hike along the riverbank. Overnight stays are accommodated at the 32-room lodge or the 51-site campground, the park features a 15-acre nature preserve containing a cedar glade.
This glade was previously maintained as an area by the large numbers of herbivores, such as bison, elk. Today much of the glade has transitioned into forest, but the remnant areas are being maintained by controlled burns and these remnants are home to the federally endangered Shorts goldenrod and the state threatened Great Plains Ladies-tresses. The Pioneer Museum is the major attraction. It houses a variety of artifacts, from a tooth found during an excavation of the site to relics from the American Civil War. Exhibits focus on the natural and cultural history, including prehistoric animals and fossils, area Native Americans and 18th century pioneers. The museum was dedicated in 1931, saw renovations completed in 2007, the Battle of Blue Licks celebration is held annually in mid-August and features a re-enactment of the Battle of Blue Licks