Democratic Union Party (Syria)
The Democratic Union Party or PYD is a Kurdish democratic confederalist political party established on 20 September 2003 in northern Syria. It is a founding member of the National Coordination Body for Democratic Change, is described by the Carnegie Middle East Center as "one of the most important Kurdish opposition parties in Syria", it is the leading political party in the Democratic Federation of its regions. Chemical engineer Salih Muslim became its chairman in 2010, Asiyah Abdullah its co-chairwoman in June 2012. On its website, the PYD describes itself as believing in "social equality and the freedom of belief" as well as "pluralism and the freedom of political parties", it describes itself as "striving for a democratic solution that includes the recognition of cultural and political rights, develops and enhances their peaceful struggle to be able to govern themselves in a multicultural, democratic society." The PYD is a member of several organisations. The PYD has adopted Democratic Confederalism as one of its ideologies and have implemented ideas of Murray Bookchin and Abdullah Öcalan in Rojava, where hundreds of neighborhood-based communes have established across the three Rojava cantons.
Like the KCK umbrella in general, more so, the PYD is critical of any form of nationalism, including Kurdish nationalism. This policy stands in stark contrast to the Kurdish nationalist visions of the Kurdish National Council. While the Syrian Ba'ath government had always been oppressive towards its own Kurdish minority, former president Hafiz al-Assad supported Kurdish factions in neighboring Iraq and Turkey in order to exert pressure on regional rivals. In 1975, Assad offered the Iraqi Kurdish leader Jalal Talabani a safe haven in Damascus to found his new Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. From the 1980s, Assad supported the Kurdistan Workers' Party against his regional rival Turkey, until he bowed to pressure from Ankara and sought improved political and economic relations. In 1998, the Syrian government banned Kurdish political parties and organizations, including the PUK and PKK. Five years the PYD was founded by Syrian Kurds. At the same year, Salih Muslim left the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria, an affiliate of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq and joined the newly formed PYD.
According to the Carnegie Middle East Center, the PYD suffered years of violent repression at the hands of the Syrian regime. Turkish sources have claimed that the PYD was secretly founded in 2003 by PKK while other sources have described it as a common political party founded by Kurdish separatists. Though Syrian security forces had for several years been targeting members of Kurdish political parties and organizations who stayed in Syria, the PYD came under intensified persecution in the aftermath of the 2004 Qamishli riots across northern Syria. According to Human Rights Watch, the Syrian government saw the party as a particular threat due to its "ability to mobilise large crowds", suspected it of organising numerous demonstrations. Therefore, many PYD activists imprisoned in the aftermath of the uprising were not given the amnesty that Bashar al-Assad granted other Kurdish detainees as a goodwill gesture. On 2 November 2007, PYD activists organised large demonstrations in Qamishli and Kobanê, drawing hundreds of Kurds to protest Turkish threats to invade Iraqi Kurdistan, Syria’s support of Turkey’s decision.
Security forces—including a unit brought from Damascus—fired tear gas in an effort to disperse the crowds. When some protesters began to resist by throwing stones, the police opened fire with live ammunition, killing one and injuring at least two more. Dozens of Kurds were detained in the ensuing police crackdown. Most were soon released, but 15 activists—three of them party officials—remained imprisoned and were sent before a military court on various charges. From 2006 to 14 April 2009, at least two dozen PYD activists were formally tried before a special security court, some receiving sentences from five to seven years on charges of membership in a "secret organisation" and seeking "to cut off part of Syrian land to join it to another country". Many others were detained in severe conditions and without basic legal rights—some of those released reported being kept in extended solitary confinement and being subjected to physical and psychological torture. Syrian security forces often continued to harass activists and their families following their release.
While similar methods were employed against many Kurdish prisoners and activists in Syria, Human Rights Watch noted that the security forces tended to reserve their harshest treatments for PYD members. Stance in early stages of the conflict With the outbreak of antigovernment demonstrations across Syria in early 2011, the PYD joined the Kurdish Patriotic Movement in May, was a founding member of the National Coordination Body for Democratic Change in July and of the KCK-aligned People's Council of Western Kurdistan in December. Unlike most other Kurdish Syrian parties, it did not join the Kurdish National Council when it was formed in October 2011, but agreed on cooperation together with the KNC and as a result, the Kurdish Supreme Committee was founded. Although critical of the Syrian government, the PYD criticised the Syrian opposition, including the Syrian National Council, which it accused of acting in Turkey's interests; the SNC's unwillingness to support Kurdish autonomy led all but one o
Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist
The Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist is a Maoist insurgent organization in Turkey carrying out People's War against the Turkish Government. It was founded in 1972 with İbrahim Kaypakkaya as its first leader; the founders of the TKP/ML were the former members of the Revolutionary Workers and Peasants Party of Turkey that desired to carry out armed struggle. TKP/ML participates in the International Conference of Organizations; the TKP/ML is listed as a terrorist organization by Turkey. The armed wing of the party is named the Liberation Army of the Peasants of Turkey. Marxist-Leninist Youth Union of Turkey is the youth organization of TKP/ML. Following the military memorandum of 1971 the Turkish government cracked down on the communist movement in Turkey. Kaypakkaya and several of his colleagues were arrested; the party machinery was destroyed, while Kaypakkaya died in prison because of torture. The Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist re-organized between 1973 and 1978; the first party congress took place in 1978.
In 1981 the second congress was organized. The party split following the second congress, the splinter group taking up the name Bolshevik Party; this was neither the last split in the party. The Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist - Hareketi had split in during the re-organisation period. Other splits followed the second congress: Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist - Revolutionary Proletarian, Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist and Maoist Communist Party. On 17 May 1985, TKP/ML broadcast a propaganda message to millions of television viewers in Istanbul, replacing the soundtrack for the evening news. On 29 June 2010, two guerillas of the TIKKO were killed in the mountains of Tunceli by the Turkish state forces. On 2 February 2011, five guerillas of TIKKO in Tunceli died as a result of an avalanche. On 26 July 2013, the control building of a hydroelectric power plant regulator was bombed in the countryside of Tunceli Province by TIKKO militants. On 14 March 2014, TİKKO guerrillas attacked a police station in Tunceli.
TKP/ML declared. In 2016, the organization kidnapped Erkan Doğan, a civilian, found executed. In 2014, the organization sent a group of fighters to support the Kurds and other minorities in the fight against ISIS in Kobanî. Since the group has trained and supported the minorities in the fight against the extremist groups. On 25 March 2016, the organization's headquarters in Serêkaniyê were targeted by a motorcycle bomb causing slight injuries to two members and damage to the headquarters. On 14 August 2017, the organization's commander Nubar Ozanyan died in the fight against ISIS. Ozanyan had trained Kurdish, Armenian, Palestinian, Canadian, Sardinian and French internationalist fighters against ISIS and other Islamist groups. In 2018, ISIS terrorists tried to assassinate the members of the organization by mining the roads that were leading to the organization's headquarter. No casualties were reported. According to several sources, the organization has lost some of its most significant commanders in the fight against ISIS since 2014.
According to a study carried out by the Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of Directorate General for Security over a sample of files on people convicted of being a terrorist under Turkish law, including 826 militants from the organisation and the three other active left-wing organisations, 65% of the members were aged 14 to 25, 16.8% 25 to 30, while 17.5% were older than 30. University graduates made up 20.4% of the members, high-school graduates 33.5%, secondary-school graduates 14%, primary-school graduates 29.9% and illiterates 1.9%. The organisation is listed among the 12 active terrorist organisation in Turkey as of 2007 according to the Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of the Directorate General for Security of the Turkish police. İbrahim Kaypakkaya Barbara Kistler Ali Haydar Yıldız Nubar Ozanyan Maoist insurgency in Turkey List of illegal political parties in Turkey Communist Party of Turkey, for other groups using similar names Confederation of Workers from Turkey in Europe İşçi Köylü Kurtuluşu Partizan archive Twitter page
Kurdistan Communities Union
The Kurdistan Communities Union or KCK is a Kurdish political organization committed to implementing Abdullah Öcalan's ideology of Democratic Confederalism. The KCK serves as an umbrella group for all the Apoist political parties of Greater Kurdistan, including the PKK,|Democratic Union Party]]), PJAK, PÇDK; the term Apoist refers to followers of the ideology of Abdullah Öcalan. Although Abdullah Öcalan is the group's representative leader, due to his imprisonment the organization is led by an assembly called Kurdistan People's Congress, which serves as the group's legislature; the President of the Kongra-Gel is Zübeyir Aydar. The Assembly elects a 31-person Executive Council; the first Chairman of this Executive Council was Murat Karayılan, while Cemil Bayık was said to be the Executive Council's Vice-President. In the General Assembly of the PKK in July 2013, the KCK's executive leadership was restructured. In place of the old position of a single chairperson, a dual co-chair system was implemented, with one position reserved for a male and the other for a female.
Cemil Bayık and Bese Hozat took these new positions, while Karayılan was made commander-in-chief of the People's Defence Forces, the PKK's official armed wing. There are five main subdivisions of the KCK: the ideological front, the social front, the political front, the military front and the women's division. In addition to the PKK, political parties such as the PJAK active in Iran and the PYD active in Syria, as well as civil society organizations, the PKK's armed wing, the HPG and the YPG are included. In Iraq the party is called PÇDK - Partiya Çaresera Demokratik Kurdistan; as Article 21 of the KCK contract details, provincial-regional assemblies come into being in compliance with the geographical and ethno-cultural characteristics of the countries in which they operate. Within the scope of the KCK formation, Turkey has been divided into four province-regions; these are namely, Çukurova, Amed and the Aegean region. Urban assemblies are the formations. Organizations of towns and quarters are the bodies that carry out the actions it quarters.
When the structure of the KCK organization is analyzed in a general framework, the following structure is seen: You can find original text on wikisource:tr:KCK SözleşmesiThe philosophy of the KCK is described in the foreword to the agreement that the Kurdistan People's Congress accepted on 17 May 2005. It was written by the leader of the PKK, Abdullah Öcalan on 20 March 2005. Having described the need for a democratic confederalism Öcalan went on to say: The democratic confederalism of Kurdistan is not a State system, it is the democratic system of a people without a State... It takes its power from the people and adopts to reach self sufficiency in every field including economy; the democratic confederalism is the movement of the Kurdish people to found their own democracy and organize their own social system... The democratic confederalism is the expression of the democratic union of the Kurdish people that have been split into four parts and have spread all over the world... It develops the a democratic nation instead of the nationalist-statist nation based on strict borders.
Some have termed the ideology of the KCK "radical democracy". Murat Karayılan, the head of KCK explained in his book "Bir Savaşın Anatomisi" the principle of "democratic confederalism": The alternative is the independent self-declaration of the democratic confederal system; the society should be independent, the nation should be independent. Yet, the main purpose should be for independent nations to form a democratic nation community together and based on equality, within a confederal system... It is a system of partnering; the aim is a "union of equity and free will". The ideology of "democratic confederalism" draws on theories of libertarian municipalism, social ecology, Communalism developed by American anarchist and political philosopher Murray Bookchin, whose works Öcalan read and adapted for the Kurdish movement in the early 2000s while in prison. Öcalan has described himself as a student of Bookchin, the PKK hailed the American thinker as "one of the greatest social scientists of the 20th century" on the occasion of his death in 2006.
The idea of the KCK was proposed at the 5th Congress of the Kongra-Gel held in Qandil in May 2007, it replaced the KKK, in existence since 2005. KKK, standing for Koma Komalên Kurdistan, was established at the Kongra-Gel's 3rd Congress in Qandil with 236 delegates in May 2005, in accordance with Öcalan's "democratic confederalism" concept. At the 3rd Congress of Kongra-Gel, at which the KKK was established, the organizational chart identified a Kongra-Gel Presidency Council of five individuals, eleven Permanent Commissions, a Court of Justice of seven individuals, a KKK Executive Council Presidency of seven individuals. In this 3rd Congress, Zübeyir Aydar was made the Kongra-Gel President, Murat Karayılan was appointed
Kurdistan Free Life Party
The Kurdistan Free Life Party, or PJAK, is a militant leftist-nationalist, anti-Iranian government group. It has waged an intermittent armed struggle since 2004 against the Iranian government for self-determination for Kurds in Iranian Kurdistan; the PJAK is affiliated with the Kurdistan Workers' Party. In 2009, the US Treasury named the PJAK a terrorist group and a front for the PKK. Both groups are members of the Kurdistan Communities Union, or KCK, an umbrella group of Kurdish political and insurgent groups in Turkey, Iran and Iraq, its armed wing, the Eastern Kurdistan Units, or YRK, is estimated to have 3,000 members, who are from Iran, Iraq and the Kurdish diaspora. The group is considered a terrorist organisation by Iran and the United States. Members of the PKK founded the PJAK in 2004 as an Iranian equivalent to their leftist-nationalist insurgency against the Turkish government. ` The present leader of the organisation is Abdul Rahman Haji Ahmadi. According to the Washington Times, half the members of PJAK are women, many of them still in their teens.
The group recruits female guerrillas and states that its "cruelest and fiercest fighters" are women drawn to the movement's "radical feminism". PJAK is a member of the Kurdistan Communities Union or KCK, an alliance of outlawed Kurdish groups and divisions led by an elected Executive Council; the KCK is in charge of a number of decisions, releases press statements on behalf of its members. The PJAK has sub-divisions: Armed wing - Eastern Kurdistan Units Women's armed wing - Women's Defence Forces, led by Gulistan Dogan. Youth and student branchThe PKK is a member of KCK, according to the New York Times, the PJAK and PKK "appear to a large extent to be one and the same, share the same goal: fighting campaigns to win new autonomy and rights for Kurds; the only difference is that the PJAK fights in Iran, PKK fights in Turkey. They share leadership and allegiance to Abdullah Ocalan, the PKK leader imprisoned in Turkey."Like the present PKK goals in Turkey, PJAK leaders say their long-term goals are to establish an autonomous Iranian Kurdistan within the Iranian state.
The PJAK leadership claims that the group's goals are focused on replacing Iran's theocracy with a "democratic and federal government" with self-rule for Arabs, Azeris and all other ethnic minorities. The armed wing of the PJAK, the Eastern Kurdistan Units or YRK, has been engaged in an armed conflict with the Iranian authorities since 2004. Istanbul's Cihan News Agency claimed that over 120 members of the Iranian security forces were killed by PJAK during 2005. PJAK killed 24 members of Iranian security forces on 3 April 2006, in retaliation for the killing of 10 Kurds demonstrating in Maku by Iranian security forces. On April 10, 2006, seven PJAK members were arrested in Iran, on suspicion that they had killed three Iranian security force personnel. PJAK set off a bomb on 8 May 2006 in Kermanshah; as early as mid-2006, the Iranian security forces have confronted PJAK guerrillas in many different occasions along the border inside Iran. Since the United States news channel MSNBC claims that the Iranian military has begun bombardments of Kurdish villages in Iraq along the Iranian border while claiming that their primary targets have been PJAK militants.
A number of civilians have died. PJAK claims its guerrillas fight inside Iran, in August 2007, managed to destroy an Iranian military helicopter, conducting a forward operation of bombardment by Iranian forces. On 24 April 2009, PJAK rebels attacked a police station in Kermanshah province. According to Iranian government sources, 18 policemen and 8 rebels were killed in a fierce gun battle. Iran responded a week by attacking Kurdish villages in the border area of Panjwin inside Iraq using helicopter gunships. According to Iraqi border guards officials, the area attacked by Iran was not considered a stronghold of PJAK, that appeared to have been the target of the raid. According to the ICRC, more than 800 Iraqi Kurds have been forced from their homes by the recent cross-border violence. On 16 July 2011, the Iranian army launched a major offensive against PJAK compounds in the mountainous regions of northern Iraq. According to the Revolutionary Guards dozens of rebels have been killed. According to the state-run Islamic Republic News Agency on 26 July, PJAK militants were killed in clashes in several towns in West Azerbaijan province.
Kurdish media reported. PJAK spokesperson Sherzad Kemankar announced in an interview with the Iraqi Kurdish newspapers Hawlati and Awene that the Iranian forces attacked PJAK strongholds on July 16, however PJAK succeeded in pushing back the Iranian military to their original positions and 53 Iranian soldiers were killed in the battle while PJAK lost two fighters. Sherzad Kemankar pointed out that Iranian forces were carrying out a joint operation with Ansar al-Islam using heavy weaponry. Iranian media reported that General Abbas Asemi, one of the most senior Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps commanders in the holy city of Qom along with at least 5 other Revolutionary Guard soldiers were killed in clashes with Kurdish rebels near the Iraq border; the Iranian government blames the PJAK for sabotage attacks on gas pipelines and ambushing its troops, according to Reuters, aid agencies say shelling by the Revolutionary Guard has "killed some civilians and forced hundreds to flee their homes" in the area.
The Revolutionary Guard denies the charge. On 8 August 2011
Kurdistan Workers' Party
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK is a Kurdish far-left militant and political organization based in Turkey and Iraq. Since 1984 the PKK has been involved in an armed conflict with the Turkish state, with the initial aim of achieving an independent Kurdish state changing it to a demand for equal rights and Kurdish autonomy in Turkey; the group was founded in 1978 in the village of Fis by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan. The PKK's ideology was a fusion of revolutionary socialism and Kurdish nationalism, seeking the foundation of an independent Communist state in the region, to be known as Kurdistan; the initial reasons given by the PKK for this were the oppression of Kurds in Capitalism. By the use of Kurdish language, dress and names were banned in Kurdish-inhabited areas; the words "Kurds", "Kurdistan", or "Kurdish" were banned by the Turkish government temporarily. Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was prohibited in public and private life. Many who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were imprisoned.
The PKK was formed, as part of a growing discontent over the suppression of Turkey's ethnic Kurds, in an effort to establish linguistic and political rights for Turkey's ethnic Kurdish minority. Since the PKK's foundation, it has been involved in armed clashes with Turkish security forces; the full-scale insurgency, did not begin until 15 August 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 have died, most of whom were Turkish Kurdish civilians. Since PKK leader Öcalan's capture and imprisonment in 1999, he has moved on from Marxism–Leninism, leading the party to adopt his new political platform of democratic confederalism while ceasing its official calls for the establishment of a independent country. In May 2007, former members of the PKK helped form the Kurdistan Communities Union, an umbrella organisation of Kurds from Turkey, Iran and Syria. In 2013, the PKK declared a ceasefire agreement and began withdrawing its fighters to the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq as part of the solution process between the Turkish state and the Kurdish minority.
In July 2015, the PKK announced that a ceasefire was over and said that Ankara had welched on its promises regarding the Kurdish issue. In August 2015, the PKK announced that they would accept another ceasefire with Turkey only under US guarantees; the PKK is listed as a terrorist organization by several states and organizations, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union. However, the United Nations and countries such as Switzerland, India and Egypt, have not designated the PKK as a terrorist organization. In the early 1970s, the organization's core group was made up of students led by Abdullah Öcalan in Ankara. By the use of Kurdish language, dress and names were banned in Kurdish-inhabited areas. In an attempt to deny their existence, the Turkish government categorized Kurds as "Mountain Turks" until 1991; the words "Kurds", "Kurdistan", or "Kurdish" were banned by the Turkish government. Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was prohibited in public and private life.
Many who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were imprisoned. The PKK was formed, as part of a growing discontent over the suppression of Turkey's ethnic Kurds, in an effort to establish linguistic and political rights for Turkey's ethnic Kurdish minority; the group focused to the large oppressed Kurdish population in south-east Turkey. A meeting on 25 November 1978, in a tea house near Diyarbakır is considered the founding meeting. On 27 November 1978, the group adopted the name Kurdistan Workers' Party. Espousing a Marxist ideology, the group took part in violent conflicts with right-wing entities as a part of the political chaos in Turkey at the time; the group tried to assassinate the Kurdish tribal leader Mehmet Celal Bucak in 1979. According to the PKK sources, he was exploiting the peasants, collaborated with Turkey in oppressing the Kurds, it is believed. Turkish sources claimed that the 1980 Turkish coup d'état pushed the organization to another stage, with members being executed, doing jail time, being subject to capital punishment, or fleeing to Syria.
On 10 November 1980, it was claimed that the PKK bombed the Turkish Consulate in Strasbourg, France in a joint operation with the Armenian radical group ASALA, which they claimed as the beginning of a "fruitful collaboration." The PKK didn't take responsibility despite a numerous of accusations. Starting in 1984, the PKK transformed into a paramilitary group, using training camps in Turkey, Syria and France. At the same time, some of its members started to get training by the members of the Palestine Liberation Organization who themselves were trained by Soviet personnel in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley in Syrian-controlled camps. According to the U. S. government reports, the PKK received significant support by Syria, which allowed it to maintain headquarters in Damascus, as well as by Iran and Libya. It began to launch attacks and bombings against Turkish governmental installations, the military, various institutions of the state; the organization focused on attacks against Turkish military targets in Turkey, although civilian targets were hit.
The group started to gain publicity after committing political massacres. From the mid-1990s, the organization began to lose t
Peace and Democracy Party (Turkey)
The Peace and Democracy Party was a Kurdish political party in Turkey existing from 2008 to 2014. BDP succeeded the Democratic Society Party in 2008, following the closure of the latter party for its alleged connections with the Kurdistan Workers' Party; the BDP was co-chaired by Gültan Kışanak. One-third of its representatives were Alevi; the Deputy Chairs were İdris Baluken. After municipal elections on 30 March 2014, Berivan Elif Kilic became the co-mayor of Kocakoy, a farming town of 17,000 people in Turkey’s Kurdish region. Kilic shared the post of mayor with Affullah Kar, a former imam. Under BDP party rules, all top positions are split between a man and a woman, in an effort to promote women’s participation in politics; the party chairman has called for the PKK to disarm. The BDP has observer status in the Socialist International. BDP supported Turkey's membership in the European Union, same-sex marriages in Turkey, an anti-discrimination law to protect LGBT people and wants the Government of Turkey to recognize the Armenian Genocide.
Pro-minority rights and feminist Peoples' Democratic Party acted as the fraternal party to BDP. At the 2014 municipal elections, HDP ran parallel to BDP, with the BDP running in Turkey's Kurdish-dominated southeast while the HDP competed in the rest of the country except Mersin Province and Konya Province where BDP launched its own candidates. After the local elections, the two parties were re-organised in a joint structure. On 28 April 2014, the entire parliamentary caucus of BDP joined HDP, whereas BDP was assigned to representatives on the local administration level. At the 3rd Congress of the party on 11 July 2014, the name was changed to the Democratic Regions Party and a new structure restricting activities on the local/regional government level was adopted. Official website
Kurdish National Alliance in Syria
The Kurdish National Alliance in Syria is a Syrian Kurdish coalition formed by five Syrian Kurdish parties in the city of Amuda in the al-Hasakah Governorate of northeastern Syria in 13 February 2016. Four of the five parties in the coalition were members of the Kurdish National Council, but were expelled due to their cooperation with the Democratic Union Party; the Kurdish National Alliance in Syria was founded on 14 February 2016 after 2 days of negotiations between the constituent groups. It stated its goal as to "get rid of Kurdish fragmentation". 39 representatives were elected during the conference. In June 2016, the group condemned the Kurdish National Council's foreign relations office in Ankara's accusation of the People's Protection Units being a terrorist organization. In January 2017, the HNKS stated that it will support proposals of unity talks between the Movement for a Democratic Society and the KNC; the HNKS took part in the Northern Syria regional elections in December 2017, during which it was one of the two main electoral lists, opposing the PYD-led Democratic Nation List.
It ran with 99 candidates for the Jazira Region, with 124 candidates for the Euphrates Region, with 197 candidates in the Afrin Region. The HNKS won 40 seats in Jazira Region, 40 seats in Euphrates Region, 72 seats in Afrin Region. In early March 2018, during the Turkish military operation against the Afrin Region, Turkish-backed Sunni Islamist fighters captured the village of Sharran and burned a flag of the HNKS's Kurdish Democratic Unity Party in Syria in its vacant office; the Kurdish National Alliance supports Rojava and considers federalism in Syria as the most effective solution to the Syrian Civil War. It claims that its objective is to "stress the necessity of unifying the Kurdish ranks in the face of the current challenges". In addition, it listed 4 recommendations during its formation: Approving the national identity of the Kurdish people in Syria Listing the Kurdish language as an official language in the constitution of Syria Granting full women's rights in the process of the "development of society" Activating the role of intellectuals and independent social and national figures List of political parties in Rojava Facebook page of the Kurdish National Alliance in Syria Website of the HNKS's Kurdish Democratic Unity Party in Syria