The Mario franchise is a media franchise and produced by video game company Nintendo, starring the fictional Italian character Mario. It is a video game franchise, with the franchise's other forms of media including several television series and a feature film, it was created by game designer Shigeru Miyamoto with the arcade game Donkey Kong, released on July 9, 1981. The games have been developed by a variety of developers including Nintendo, Hudson Soft, AlphaDream. Most Mario games have either been released for the arcade or Nintendo video game consoles and handhelds dating from the Nintendo Entertainment System to the current generation of video game consoles; the main series in the franchise is the Super Mario platform series, which follows Mario's adventures in the fictional world of the Mushroom Kingdom. These games rely on Mario's jumping ability to allow him to progress through levels; the franchise has spawned more than 200 games of various genres and series, including Super Mario, Mario Kart, Mario Party, Mario Tennis, Mario Golf.
By 2011, the core Super Mario video games had grossed an estimated US$12 billion in sales. More than 500 million copies of Mario games have been sold, making it the best-selling video game franchise of all time, it is the 5th highest-grossing media franchise of all time, with an estimated revenue above $27 billion as of 2018. After the commercial failure of Radar Scope, Nintendo's company president referred to Shigeru Miyamoto to create an arcade game to save the company. Miyamoto came up with the idea of a game in which the playable character has to make his way through an obstacle course consisting of sloped platforms and rolling barrels. Miyamoto named the game Donkey Kong, its main protagonist "Jumpman". Donkey Kong is an early example of the platform genre. In addition to presenting the goal of saving Pauline, the game gives the player a score. Points are awarded for finishing screens; the game was successful. "Jumpman" was called "Mario" in certain promotional materials for the game's release overseas.
Jumpman's name was internationally and permanently changed to Mario. The success of the game spawned several ports, a sequel, Donkey Kong Jr., Mario's only appearance as an antagonist. Donkey Kong 3 did not feature Mario; the Mario branding was used for the first time in a arcade game, Mario Bros. which introduced Mario's brother, Luigi. The objective of Mario Bros. is to defeat all of the enemies in each phase. Each phase is a series of platforms with four pipes at each corner of the screen, an object called a "POW" block in the center; the mechanics of Mario Bros. involve only jumping. Unlike future Mario titles, players can not jump on enemies. Both sides of every phase feature a mechanism that allows the player to go off-screen to the left and appear on the right, vice versa; the game has since reappeared in various forms, including as a minigame in Super Mario Bros. 3 and the Super Mario Advance series, reimagined as Mario Clash. Nintendo has released several Donkey Kong LCD video games for the Game & Watch console.
Eleven were released between 1982 and 1994. Nintendo licensed the release of six LCD games for Nelsonic's Game Watch line between 1989 and 1994. Many remakes of Game & Watch games have changed the protagonist from a generic Mr. Game & Watch character to Mario. Mario became the star of his own side scrolling platform game 1985, titled Super Mario Bros., the pack-in game included with the Nintendo Entertainment System console. It was later sold in a package with Duck Hunt. In Japan, a game titled Super Mario Bros. 2 was released in 1986, but a different game with the same name was released internationally in 1988, followed by Super Mario Bros. 3 that same year. The Japanese version would subsequently be released in the United States in 1993 under the title Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels as part of the Super Mario All-Stars title for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, a console that features iterations of the game known as Super Mario World. While Super Mario Land and two sequels were the Game Boy installments in the series, the Game Boy Advance did not receive any original entries, only remakes.
Super Mario 64 debuted as the launch title for the Nintendo 64 console in 1996. Super Mario Sunshine was the series' entry for the GameCube, Super Mario Galaxy and its sequel continued the franchise for the Wii. Super Mario 3D Land was the series' flagship title for Nintendo 3DS; the Wii U saw the release of Super Mario 3D World. Super Mario Odyssey would be the first original game in the series to be released on the Nintendo Switch, was released in 2017. In 2006, a retro throwback sub-series called New Super Mario Bros. was inaugurated on the Nintendo DS, featuring the mechanics of the Super Mario Bros. games. It continued on the Wii as New Super Mario Bros. Wii, on the 3DS as New Super Mario Bros. 2 and on the Wii U as New Super Mario Bros. U and New Super Luigi U; this gameplay is further offered by the level creator game Super Mario Maker, released on Wii U in 2015. In 2016, the team behind New Super Mario Bros. released Super Mario Run that became Nintendo's first real smartphone game and one of the few instances a Mario game was developed for non-Nintendo hardware.
Dr. Mario (s
Video game remake
A video game remake is a video game adapted from an earlier title for the purpose of modernizing a game for newer hardware and contemporary audiences. A remake of such game software shares the same title, fundamental gameplay concepts, core story elements of the original game. Remakes are made by the original developer or copyright holder, sometimes by the fan community. If created by the community, video game remakes are sometimes called fan game and can be seen as part of the retrogaming phenomenon. A remake offers a newer interpretation of an older work, characterized by changed assets. A remake maintains the same story and fundamental gameplay ideas of the original work; the intent of a remake is to take an older game that has become outdated and update it for a new platform and audience. A remake may include expanded stories to conform to the conventions of contemporary games or titles in the same series in order to make a game marketable to a new audience. For example, Sierra's 1991 remake of Space Quest, the developers used the engine, point-and-click interface, graphical style of Space Quest IV: Roger Wilco and The Time Rippers, replacing the dated graphics and text parser interface of the original.
However, elements that had not become dated, like the narrative and sets, were preserved. Another example is Black Mesa, a Half-Life 2 mod that improves in-game textures and models, facial animations, while taking place in the events of the original Half-Life game. Games that use an existing brand but are conceptually different from the original, such as Battlezone and Defender or Tomb Raider and Tomb Raider are regarded as reboots rather than remakes. A port is a conversion of a game to a new platform that relies on existing work and assets. A port may include various enhancements like improved performance and sometimes additional content, but differs from a remake in that it still relies on the original assets and engine of the source game. A port that contains a great deal of remade assets may sometimes be considered a remastering or a partial remake, although video game publishers are not always clear on the distinction. In the early history of video games, remakes were regarded as "conversions" and associated with nostalgia.
Due to limited and highly divergent hardware, games appearing on multiple platforms had to be remade. These conversions included considerable changes to the graphics and gameplay, could be regarded retroactively as remakes, but are distinguished from remakes by intent. A conversion is created with the primary goal of tailoring a game to a specific piece of hardware contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous with the original release. An early example was Gun Fight, Midway's 1975 reprogrammed version of Taito's arcade game Western Gun, with the main difference being the use of a microprocessor in the reprogrammed version, which allowed improved graphics and smoother animation than the discrete logic of the original. In 1980, Atari released the first licensed home console game conversion of an arcade title, Taito's 1978 hit Space Invaders, for the Atari 2600; the game became the first "killer app" for a video game console by quadrupling the system's sales. Since it became a common trend to port arcade games to home systems since the second console generation, though at the time they were more limited than the original arcade games due to the technical limitations of home consoles.
In 1985, Sega released a pair of arcade remakes of older home video games. Pitfall II: Lost Caverns was a remake of both the original Pitfall! and its sequel with new level layouts and colorful, detailed graphics. That same year, Sega adapted the 1982 computer game Choplifter for the arcades, taking the fundamental gameplay of the original and expanding it, adding new environments and gameplay elements; this version was successful, adapted to the Master System and Famicom. Both of these games were distinguished from most earlier conversions in that they took major liberties with the source material, attempting to modernize both the gameplay as well as the graphics; some of the earliest remakes to be recognized as such were attempts to modernize games to the standards of games in the series. Some were on the same platforms as the original, for example Ultima I: The First Age of Darkness, a 1986 remake of the original that appeared on multiple platforms, including the Apple II, the same platform the source game originated on.
Other early remakes of this type include Sierra's early-1990s releases of King's Quest, Space Quest and Leisure Suit Larry. These games used the technology and interface of the most recent games in Sierra's series, original assets in a different style; the intent was not to bring the game to a new platform, but to modernize older games which had in various ways become dated. With the birth of the retrogaming phenomenon, remakes became a way for companies to revive nostalgic brands. Galaga'88 and Super Space Invaders'91 were both attempts to revitalize aging arcade franchises with modernized graphics and new gameplay elements, while preserving many signature aspects of the original games; the 16-bit generation of console games was marked by enhanced graphics compared to the previous generation, but relatively similar gameplay, which led to an increased interest in remakes of games from the previous generation. Super Mario All-Stars remade the entire NES Mario series, was met with great commercial success.
Remake compilations of the Ninja Gaiden and Mega Man se
Nintendo Research & Development 1
Nintendo Research & Development No. 1 Department abbreviated as Nintendo R&D1, was Nintendo's oldest video game development team. It was known as Nintendo Research & Development Department before splitting in 1978, its creation coincided with Nintendo's entry into the video games industry, the original R&D1 was headed by Gunpei Yokoi. The developer has created several notable Nintendo series such as Metroid, Mario Bros. and Donkey Kong. R&D1 developed the hugely successful Game Boy line, released in 1989, they developed some of the line's most popular games, such as Super Mario Land, created the character of Wario. Team Shikamaru was a small club within Nintendo R&D1, composed of Makoto Kano, Yoshio Sakamoto, Toru Osawa; the group was responsible for designing characters and coming up with scripts for several games including Metroid, Kid Icarus, Famicom Tantei Club: Kieta Kōkeisha, Trade & Battle: Card Hero, several others. After Yokoi's resignation in 1997, the group was led by Takehiro Izushi.
In 2005, Satoru Iwata restructured the Nintendo R&D1 team. Many of the staff members were reassigned to the Nintendo SPD team, which in turn merged with Nintendo EAD in 2015 to form Nintendo Entertainment Planning & Development. In 1965, still a hanafuda card manufacturer, hired Gunpei Yokoi, a newly-graduated electronics engineer. Yokoi was assigned to the manufacturing division to work on the assembly line machines used to manufacture its cards. In the following year, Hiroshi Yamauchi, president of Nintendo at the time, during a visit to the factory Yokoi was working at, took notice of a toy, an extending arm, that Yokoi had made for his own amusement during his spare time; as Yamauchi was looking to diversify the company's business far beyond its primary card business, Yokoi was ordered to develop the toy into a proper mass-market product for the 1966 holiday rush. The toy was launched as Ultra Hand and it was a huge success selling over 1.2 million units during its lifetime. Following that, Yokoi was assigned to work on other toys including the Ten Billion Barrel puzzle, a miniature remote-controlled vacuum cleaner called the Chiritory, a baseball throwing machine called the Ultra Machine, a "Love Tester."
Sometime before 1972, Nintendo created its first electronics development team, the Research & Development department from Nintendo's manufacturing division, assigning Gunpei Yokoi as its general manager. By 1972 the department had 20 developers. In 1978, the manufacturing division split its single research & development department into two, renaming it to Research & Development No. 1 and creating the Nintendo Research & Development No. 2 department. After the split, Yokoi remained general manager of R&D1. According to an urban legend, in the late 1970s, Yokoi saw a bored Japanese salaryman playing with a calculator on the Shinkansen high-speed train; this was the inspiration behind the creation of the Game & Watch series, a line of handheld electronic games, with each system featuring a single game to be played on an LCD screen in addition to a clock, an alarm, or both. Regardless, it was confirmed that Yokoi was inspired by calculators to develop the line using calculator integrated circuits in the systems and button cells to power them.
Although Nintendo competitors Mattel and Tomy had produced portable games, they were bulky systems with low-resolution LED displays and uninspiring gameplay. Yokoi exploited the cheapness of LCDs, producing a cheap and light systems, starting in 1980, he would call this principle Lateral Thinking of Withered Technology: using seasoned technology in radical ways. In 1980, Game & Watch: Ball was the first release of the Game & Watch Silver series, called after its metallic face-plate. Sales weren't "astonishing", but they were enough to persuade Nintendo to continue developing new titles; the series saw a total of all released during that year. In 1981, Game & Watch: Manhole debuted the Gold series, fundamentally the same system with a golden face-plate, it saw only 3 titles which were released during the same year. In mid-1981, Game & Watch: Parachute was released, debuting the Wide Screen series, sporting a 30% larger display; the series saw a total of 10 titles released until early 1982. The limitations of the LCD display prompted Yokoi and his team to introduce the Multi Screen series with the release of Game & Watch: Oil Panic in mid 1982, adding another screen to double the amount of gameplay each title could offer.
The next title of the series was Game & Watch: Donkey Kong a port of the hugely successful Donkey Kong arcade game. Unable to use a joystick like the original game, as it would reduce the system's portability, Yokoi began researching for solutions. Early Game & Watch systems had a button for each action such as jumping. However, for the new system the team introduced the "cross" directional pad: a flat, four-way directional control with one button on each point; the design was patented and earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award in 2008. From on, all major video game consoles since have had a D-pad of some shape on their controllers, until the Nintendo Switch in 2017; when the department started working on a successor to the Game & Watch series, Yokoi envisioned a simple and cheap system with interchangeable game cartridges. Development of the system, suffered from disagreements in direction, with assistant director Satoru Okada arguing for a more powerful system with third-party development and long-term support from Nintendo, emulating the successful business model that Nintendo R&D2 had achieved with the Nintendo Entertainment Sys
The flip or clamshell is a form factor of a mobile phone or other device, in two or more sections that fold via a hinge. If the hinge is on a long edge the device is more to be called clamshell than flip phone. Speaking, the interface components such as keys and display are kept inside the closed clamshell, protecting them from damage and unintentional use while making the device shorter or narrower so it is easier to carry around. In many cases, opening the clamshell offers more surface area than when the device is closed, allowing interface components to be larger and easier to use than on devices which do not flip open. A disadvantage of the clamshell design is the connecting hinge, prone to fatigue or failure; the clamshell form factor is most associated with the cell phone market, as Motorola used to have a trademark on the term "flip phone", but the term "flip phone" has become genericized to be used more than "clamshell" in colloquial speech. The form factor was first used by the laptop manufacturer GRiD for their Compass model in 1982.
In 1983, the Ampere WS-1 laptop used a modern clamshell design. The first Motorola model to support the clamshell design was the MicroTAC, created in 1989, although General Telephone & Electronics held the trademark from the 1970s for its Flip-Phone, until 1993; the design has since been copied by all smartphone manufacturers many times. Motorola is best known for its clamshell models such as the RAZR; the clamshell design has been used in the Nokia Communicator series, with the first model released in 1996. Early models were expensive and Nokia did not adopt the traditional clamshell phone design until 2004. Clamshells were, as of early 2009, the most popular form factor for smartphones in the U. S. However, they have lost ground to touchscreen smartphones. Late 2014 saw a return of flip phones thanks to celebrities like Rihanna, Kate Beckinsale and Anna Wintour. Reasons for their return included their simple nature, being lightweight and their ability to fit in pockets due to their smaller size, preference of buttons.
A reference to a flip phone style communicator is referenced in chapter 3 of "Armageddon 2419 A. D." a science fiction novella by Philip Francis Nowlan which first appeared in the August 1928 issue of the pulp magazine Amazing Stories. The device is described in the following quoted passage "Alan took a compact packet about six inches square from a holster attached to her belt and handed it to Wilma. So far as I could see, it had no special receiver for the ear. Wilma threw back a lid, as though she was opening a book, began to talk; the voice that came back from the machine was as audible as her own." Besides smartphones, devices using the flip form include laptop computers, the Game Boy Advance SP, the Nintendo DS, the Nintendo 3DS, though these are less described as "flip" or "clamshell" compared to smartphones. Other appliances like pocket watches, waffle irons, sandwich toasters, krumkake irons, the George Foreman Grill have long utilised a clamshell design. Bookbinders build archival "clamshell" boxes called Solander cases, in which valuable books or loose papers can be protected from light and dust.
It is an informal name for General Motors full-size station wagons, manufactured from 1971 to 1976, that featured a complex, two-piece "disappearing" tailgate known as the "Glide Away" tailgate. Communicator, the fictional forerunner of the "flip form" smartphone
A keychain, or keyring, is a small chain made from metal or plastic, that connects a small item to a keyring. The length of a keychain allows an item to be used more than if connected directly to a keyring; some keychains allow one or both ends the ability to rotate, keeping the keychain from becoming twisted, while the item is being used. A keychain can be a connecting link between a keyring and the belt of an individual, it is employed by personnel whose job demands frequent use of keys, such as a security guard, prison officer, janitor, or retail store manager. The chain is retractable, therefore may be a nylon rope, instead of an actual metal chain; the chain ensures that the keys remain attached to the individual using them, makes accidental loss less and saves on wear and tear on the pockets of the user. Keychains are one of the most common advertising items. Keychains are used to promote businesses. A standard advertising keychain will carry the businesses name and contact information and a logo.
In the 1950s and 1960s, with the improvement of plastic manufacturing techniques, promotional items including keychains became unique. Businesses could place their names on promotional keychains that were three-dimensional for less cost than the standard metal keychains. Keychains are small and inexpensive enough to become promotional items for larger national companies that might give them out by the millions. For example, with the launch of a new movie or television show, those companies might partner with food companies to provide a character keychain in each box of cereal. Keychains that hold keys are an item, never long misplaced by the owner. People sometimes attach their keychain to their belt to allow quick access to it. Many keychains offer functions that the owner wants accessible as well; these include an army knife, bottle opener, an electronic organizer, address book, family photos, nail clipper, pill case and pepper spray. Modern cars include a keychain that serves as a remote to lock/unlock the car or start the engine.
An electronic key finder is a useful item found on many keys that will beep when summoned for quick finding when misplace A keyring or "split ring" is a ring that holds keys and other small items, which are sometimes connected to keychains. Other types of keyrings are made of leather and rubber. Keyrings were invented in the 19th century by Samuel Harrison; the most common form of the keyring is a single piece of metal in a'double loop'. Either end of the loop can be pried open to allow a key to be inserted and slid along the spiral until it becomes wholly engaged onto the ring. Novelty carabiners are commonly used as keyrings for ease of access and exchange; the keyring is adorned with a key fob for self-identification. Other forms of rings may use a single loop of metal or plastic with a mechanism to open and securely close the loop. A key fob is a decorative and at times useful item many people carry with their keys, on a ring or a chain, for ease of tactile identification, to provide a better grip, or to make a personal statement.
The word fob may be linked to the low German dialect for the word Fuppe, meaning "pocket", the real origin of the word is uncertain. Fob pockets were pockets meant to deter thieves. A short "fob chain" was used to attach to items, like a pocket watch, placed in these pockets. Fobs vary in size and functionality. Most they are simple discs of smooth metal or plastic with a message or symbol such as that of a logo or a sign of an important group affiliation. A fob may be symbolic or aesthetic, but it can be a small tool. Many fobs are small flashlights, calculators, discount cards, bottle openers, security tokens, USB flash drives; as electronic technology continues to become smaller and cheaper, miniature key-fob versions of larger devices are becoming common, such as digital photo frames, remote control units for garage door openers, barcode scanners and simple video games or other gadgets such as breathalyzers. Some retail establishments such as gasoline stations keep their bathrooms locked and customers must ask for the key from the attendant.
In such cases, the keychain has a large fob to make it difficult for customers to walk off with the key. Access control key fobs are electronic key fobs that are used for controlling access to buildings or vehicles, they are used for activating such things as remote keyless entry systems on motor vehicles. Early electric key fobs operated using required a clear line-of-sight to function; these could be copied using a programmable remote control. More recent models use challenge-response authentication over radio frequency, so these are harder to copy and do not need line-of-sight to operate. Programming these remotes sometimes requires the automotive dealership to connect a diagnostic tool, but many of them can be self-programmed by following a sequence of steps in the vehicle and requires at least one working key. Key fobs are used in apartment buildings and condominium buildings for controlling access to common areas; these contain a passive RFID tag. The fob operates in much the same manner as a proximity card to communicate with a central server for the building, which can be programmed to allow access only to those areas in which the tenant or owner is permitted to access, or only within certain time frames.
Telecommuters may use a security token — an electronic device o
Donkey Kong Jr.
Donkey Kong Jr. is a 1982 platform video game by Nintendo. It's the sequel to Donkey Kong, which featured Mario as Junior's father as the villain, it first appeared in arcades, over the course of the 1980s, was released for a variety of home platforms. The game's title is written out as Donkey Kong Junior in the North American arcade version and various ports to non-Nintendo systems; the game was principally designed by one of his coworkers. Miyamoto created the graphics for the title along with Yoshio Sakamoto; as with its predecessor, the music for the game was composed by Yukio Kaneoka. Like its Donkey Kong predecessor, Donkey Kong Jr. is a platform game. There are a total of each with a unique theme. DK Jr. can run left and right and grab vines/chains/ropes to climb higher on the screen. He can climb faster by holding two. Enemies include "Snapjaws,". DK Jr. can jump over these enemies while on platforms, switch from one vine/chain/rope to another to dodge them, or knock down pieces of fruit that will destroy every enemy they touch before falling off the bottom of the screen.
To pass the first three stages, DK Jr. must reach the key hanging next to his father's cage, whereupon Mario flees while pushing it off the screen. In the fourth stage, DK Jr. must push six keys into locks on the topmost platform to free Donkey Kong. After a brief cutscene, the player is taken back to the first stage at an increased difficulty. A bonus timer runs throughout each stage, any points remaining on it are added to the player's score upon completion. DK Jr. loses a life when he touches any enemy or projectile, falls too great a distance, or falls off the bottom of the screen. Additionally, he loses a life; the game ends when the player loses all of her lives. Like in its predecessor, Donkey Kong Jr. features a kill screen at level 22. Due to the level counter only having one digit, the counter shows numbers 1 to 9 in levels 1 to 9, seven blanks in levels 10 to 16, the letters A to F in the levels 17-22; the kill screen occurs the same way as in Donkey Kong, where an integer overflow occurs after too big a result is given after a multiplication problem in the computing.
The timer counts as if there are 700 points kills Donkey Kong Jr. until all lives are taken. The game's eponymous star, Donkey Kong Jr. called Junior or abbreviated as DK Jr. is trying to rescue his father Donkey Kong, imprisoned. Donkey Kong's cage is guarded by Mario, in his only appearance as an antagonist in a Nintendo video game. Donkey Kong Jr. must rescue his father by working his way through a series of four screens. Mario attempts to stop DK Jr. by putting obstacles in his way. When DK Jr. succeeds on the last screen, Donkey Kong is freed and kicks Mario into the distance, leaving him to run away and to an unknown fate. As with Donkey Kong, the order of the levels is different in different territories. In the Japanese version, the four levels appear in 1-2-3-4 sequence and repeat, just as with the Japanese release of Donkey Kong. In the US version of DK Jr, the order is 1-4. 1-2-4, 1-3-4, 1-2-3-4 and 1-2-3-4 from on. Donkey Kong Jr. received an award in the category of "1984 Best Videogame Audio-Visual Effects" at the 5th annual Arkie Awards, where the judges described it as "great fun", noted that the game was successful as a sequel–"extend the theme and present a radically different play-action" than its predecessor, Donkey Kong.
Donkey Kong Jr. is regarded as one of the Top 100 Video Games by the Killer List of Videogames. It was selected to be among five arcade games chosen for history's first official video game world championship, filmed at Twin Galaxies in Ottumwa, Iowa by ABC-TV's That's Incredible! over the weekend of January 8–9, 1983. Donkey Kong Jr was ported to the NES, Family Computer Disk System, Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Atari 8-bit family, ColecoVision, Coleco Adam, Intellivision and BBC Micro. Three Game & Watch versions of the game were made. Two black-and-white versions for the New Wide Screen and Multi Screen handheld series, a color version for the Tabletop and Panorama series; the NES version–along with its predecessor Donkey Kong–was re–released in 1988 in an NES compilation titled Donkey Kong Classics. This version was released on the e-Reader and is available on the Virtual Console for the Wii; the NES version is a playable game on Animal Crossing, though a special password is needed from an official website, now no longer available.
It was made available for the Nintendo 3DS from the Nintendo eShop, released in Japan on April 18, 2012, in North America on June 14, 2012 and in Europe on August 23, 2012 and was given away free to the Ambassadors users before the full release. It was again released for the Wii U Virtual Console in 2014. In 2004, Namco released an arcade cabinet which contained Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Mario Bros. For more than twenty years, the Donkey Kong Jr. world record was held by noted gamer Billy Mitchell, who had achieved 957,300 points in 1983. On August 10, 2008, Mitchell's benchmark score was eclipsed by Icarus Hall of Port Angeles, who scored 1,033,000 points. On April 24, 2009, Steve Wiebe eclipsed Hall's score. On September 3, 2009, at 1984 Arcade in Sprin
Game Boy Color
The Game Boy Color is a handheld game console manufactured by Nintendo, released on October 21, 1998, in Japan, released in November of the same year to international markets. It continued in the Game Boy family; the GBC features a color screen rather than monochrome. It is thicker and taller and features a smaller screen than the Game Boy Pocket, its immediate predecessor in the Game Boy line; as with the original Game Boy, it has a custom 8-bit processor made by Sharp, considered a hybrid between the Intel 8080 and the Zilog Z80. The spelling of the system's name, Game Boy Color, remains consistent throughout the world, with its American English spelling of "color"; the Game Boy Color was part of the fifth generation of home consoles. The GBC's primary competitors in Japan were the grayscale 16-bit handhelds, Neo Geo Pocket and the WonderSwan, though the Game Boy Color outsold these by a wide margin. SNK and Bandai countered with the Neo Geo Pocket Color and the Wonderswan Color but this did little to change Nintendo's sales dominance.
With Sega discontinuing the Game Gear in 1997, the Game Boy Color's only competitor in the United States was its predecessor, the Game Boy, until the short-lived Neo Geo Pocket Color was released in August 1999. The Game Boy and the Game Boy Color combined have sold 118.69 million units worldwide making it the 3rd best-selling system of all time, a metric that includes Game Boy units. It was discontinued in 2003, shortly after the release of the Game Boy Advance SP, so competed with the Game Boy Advance, released in 2001, its best-selling game was Pokémon Gold and Silver, which shipped 14.51 million combined in Japan and the US. The Game Boy Color was a response to pressure from game developers for a more sophisticated handheld platform, as they felt that the Game Boy in its latest incarnation, the Game Boy Pocket, was insufficient; the resultant product was backward compatible, a first for a handheld system, leveraged the large library of games and installed base of the predecessor system.
This became a major feature of the Game Boy line, since it allowed each new launch to begin with a larger library than any of its competitors. On March 23, 2003, the Game Boy Color was discontinued. Tetris DX Wario Land II Pocket Bomberman The technical specifications for the console are as follows: Main processor: Sharp Corporation LR35902 Processor speed: 1.0485 or 2.097 MHz Resolution: 160 × 144 pixels Palette colors available: 32,768 Colors on screen: Supports 10, 32 or 56 Maximum sprites: 40 total, 10 per line, 4 colors per sprite Sprite size: 8×8 or 8×16 Tiles on screen: 512 Audio: 2 square wave channels, 1 wave channel, 1 noise channel, mono speaker, stereo headphone jack RAM: 32 kB VRAM: 16 kB Power: internal: 2 AA batteries, up to 10 hours of gameplay external: 3V DC 0.6W indicator: Red LED Input: 8-way Control Pad 4 buttons Volume potentiometer Power switch Serial I/O: 512 kbit/s with up to 4 connections in serial Infra-red I/O: Less than 2 m distance at 45° Cartridge I/O Dimensions: Metric: 133.5 × 78 × 27.4 mm Imperial: 5.25 × 3.07 × 1.07 in Weight: 138 gGame Paks manufactured by Nintendo have the following specifications: ROM: 8 MB maximum Cartridge RAM: 128 kBThe processor, a Zilog Z80 workalike made by Sharp with a few extra instructions, has a clock speed of 8 MHz, twice as fast as that of the original Game Boy.
The Game Boy Color has three times as much memory as the original. The screen resolution was the same as the original Game Boy, 160×144 pixels; the Game Boy Color featured an infrared communications port for wireless linking. The feature was only supported in a small number of games, so the infrared port was dropped from the Game Boy Advance line, to be reintroduced with the Nintendo 3DS, though wireless linking would return in the Nintendo DS line; the console was capable of showing up to 56 different colors on screen from its palette of 32,768, could add basic four-, seven- or ten-color shading to games, developed for the original 4-shades-of-grey Game Boy. In the 7-color modes, the sprites and backgrounds were given separate color schemes, in the 10-color modes the sprites were further split into two differently-colored groups; this method of upgrading the color count resulted in graphic artifacts in certain games. Manipulation of palette registers during display allowed for a used "high color mode", capable of displaying more than 2,000 colors on the screen simultaneously.
For dozens of popular Game Boy titles, the Game Boy Color has an enhanced palette built in featuring up to 16 colors - four colors for each of the Game Boy's four layers. If the system does not have a palette stored for a game, it defaults to a palette of green, salmon and white. However, when the user turns on the system, they may choose one of 12 built in color palettes by pressing certain button combinations (namely a direction key and optionally A or