National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
Tenderloin, San Francisco
The northern boundary with Lower Nob Hill historically has been set at Geary Street. The terms Tenderloin Heights and The Tendernob refer to the area around the boundary between the Upper Tenderloin and Lower Nob Hill. The eastern extent, near Union Square, overlaps with the Theater District, part of the western extent of the Tenderloin and Hyde Streets between Turk and OFarrell, was officially named Little Saigon by the City of San Francisco. The Tenderloin took its name from a neighborhood in New York with similar characteristics. There are several explanations of how that neighborhood was named, some said it was a reference to the neighborhood as the soft underbelly of the city, with allusions to vice and corruption, especially graft. Another popular explanation, probably folklore, attributes the name to a New York City police captain, Alexander S. Another version of story says that the officers who worked in the Tenderloin received a hazard pay bonus for working in such a violent area. Yet another story, likely apocryphal, is that the name is a reference to the loins of prostitutes, the Tenderloin borders the Mission/Market Street corridor, which follows the Spaniards El Camino Real, which in turn traced an ancient north/south Indian trail.
The Tenderloin is sheltered by Nob Hill, and far enough from the bay to be on solid ground, there is evidence that a community resided here several thousand years ago. In the 1960s, the area was excavated to develop the BART/MUNI subway station at Civic Center, during the excavation, the remains of a woman dated to be 5,000 years old were found. The Tenderloin has been a residential community since shortly after the California Gold Rush in 1849. The area had an active nightlife in the late 19th century with many theaters, notorious madam Tessie Wall opened her first brothel on OFarrell Street in 1898. Almost all of the buildings in the neighborhood were destroyed by the 1906 earthquake, the area was immediately rebuilt with some hotels opening by 1907 and apartment buildings shortly thereafter, including the historic Cadillac Hotel. Also around this time, due to Red Light Abatement Act and other began to be pushed out from the Barbary Coast district to the more southern. With housing consisting almost entirely of single-room-occupancy hotel rooms and one bedroom apartments, after World War II, with the decline in central cities throughout the United States, the Tenderloin lost population, creating a large amount of vacant housing units by the mid-1970s.
The low-cost vacant housing, and the proximity to Chinatown through the Stockton Street Tunnel, made the area appealing to refugees, studio apartments became home for families of four and five people and became what a local police officer called vertical villages. The Tenderloin quickly increased from having just a few children to having over 3,500, a number of neighborhood Southeast Asian restaurants, bánh mì coffee shops, ethnic grocery stores, video shops, and other stores opened at this time, which still exist. The Tenderloin has a history as a center of alternate sexualities
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. The AIA works with members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry. The AIA is currently headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and Thomas V. Vonier, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president. They met on February 23,1857 and decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect and they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10,1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Walter, of Philadelphia, suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects, the members signed the new constitution on April 15,1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. As of 2008, AIA has more than 300 chapters, the AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C.
A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington, mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts. The firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building, the design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was ultimately approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members, AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, and colleagues of an architects dedication to the highest standards in professional practice. There are five levels of membership in the AIA, Architect members are licensed to practice architecture in the United States, international associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States.
Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 65 years of age or are incapacitated, allied membership is a partnership with the AIA and the American Architectural Foundation. The AIA’s most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and this membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. Slightly more than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA, the AIA is governed by a Board of Directors and has a staff of over 200 full-time employees. Although the AIA functions as an organization, at its heart are some 300 local. The components are spread throughout the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, by speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life.
The AIA monitors legislative and regulatory actions and uses the power of its membership to participate in decisionmaking by federal, state
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Old St. Mary's Cathedral
Old Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Immaculate Conception is a proto-cathedral and parish of the Roman Catholic Church in San Francisco, California. The cathedral is located on the corner of Grant Avenue and California Street, the church is named for Mary, the Mother of Jesus, under the title of the Immaculate Conception. Old Saint Marys cornerstone was placed on Sunday, July 17,1853 at the corner of California and Dupont Streets by the Bishop of Monterrey Joseph S. Alemany. With its dedication by Alemany, now as the new Archbishop of San Francisco, at Christmas Midnight Mass,1854, it became the first cathedral of the Archdiocese of San Francisco. It is the first cathedral in California to be built for the purpose of serving as a cathedral. When it opened, it was the tallest building in San Francisco, in 1891, Old Saint Marys became a parish church, still using the same name that it bore as a cathedral. The new St. Marys Cathedral was located at Van Ness Avenue, under the clock face of Old St. Marys appear the words, Observe the Time and Fly from Evil.
This sentiment was aimed at the men who frequented the brothels in the 1850s. Old St. Marys survived the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, only to be gutted a day by the fires started by the earthquake, the fires were so hot that they melted the church bells and marble altar. All that were left were the brick walls and the bell tower. The renovation of the church was completed in 1909, Dupont Street, with its association with the Barbary Coast and Chinatown, was renamed Grant Avenue, a respectful nod to former president and general Ulysses S. Grant. The church further expanded and built an auditorium, a library, Old St. Marys remains an active parish of the archdiocese, serving the Chinatown and Nob Hill communities of San Francisco. Old St. Marys Church is a California Historical Landmark, the Paulist Fathers have served Old Saint Marys since 1901, and continue serving there today. From 2011–2012, the church went through renovations, during which time all the crosses on the roof were removed as it was restored.
While the four crosses along the sides were put back up, rectors of St. Marys Cathedral 1854-1891 Rev
Bank of Italy Building (San Francisco)
The Bank of Italy Building, known as the Clay-Montgomery Building, is a building in San Francisco, California. Shortly thereafter, more permanent accommodations were found in a building on Montgomery Avenue near the site of the original headquarters, the building was designed by Frank T. Shea of Shea & Lofquist, the ground floor facade is built from granite cladding while the upper ones, which mimic the design forms, are from less expensive terra-cotta. The interior is a box of white marble and gold leaf detailing with a spectacular coffered ceiling. During this period and the directors decided to construct their own bank building. A parcel of land was purchased for $125,000 at the corner of Clay, due to demands on the banks funds following the fires, construction was not started for nearly a year after the land purchase. The building opened on August 17,1908 and served as the headquarters of the Bank of Italy until 1921 when operations were moved to a building at 1 Powell Street. Following the headquarters move, the served as the headquarters for Gianninis Liberty Bank System.
In the 1930s, the became a Bank of America branch. On September 4,2012 mens luxury retailer Wingtip opened a location on the buildings ground floor, with tailoring. The Bank of Italy Building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1978, the external structure is predominantly original with the exception of the replacement of the original doors and the addition of another entrance. Additionally, the windows that originally existed on the side of the building were bricked over when the neighboring Scatena Building was constructed. The interior of the floors have seen extensive modification and little remains of the original design. The basement has heavily modified with the exception of the original safe containing 5,000 safe deposit boxes. The first floor retains much of the plaster and marble work. The tables, marble counters and light fixtures are originals, the original bronze teller cages have been replaced with newer protective cages that retain the look of the originals. Photos of the exterior and interior of the Bank of Italy, National Register #78000754 - Bank of Italy in San Francisco.
Archived from the original on 17 September 2008
American Society of Civil Engineers
The American Society of Civil Engineers is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Headquartered in Reston, Virginia, it is the oldest national engineering society in the United States and it was the first national engineering society created in the United States. In 1999, the ASCE elected the top-ten civil engineering achievements that had the greatest positive impact on life in the 20th century in broad categories. Monuments of the Millennium were a combination of technical engineering achievement and inspiration, and it publishes conference proceedings, manuals of practice, technical reports, and monographs. The ASCE corporate website hosts the society’s bookstore, the access to all journal articles published since 1983, all conference proceedings since 2000. Each year, more than 55,000 engineers earn continuing education units and/or professional development hours by participating in ASCE’s continuing education programs, ASCE hosts more than 15 annual and specialty conferences, over 200 continuing education seminars and more than 300 live Web seminars.
The Societys Committee on Technical Advancement has 10 divisions, each year, more than 6,000 civil engineering professionals contribute volunteer technical expertise through participation on ASCE technical committees. These committees are housed in the divisions of the Committee on Technical Activities or in the Society’s institutes, the efforts of these volunteers advance the profession in many ways including the numerous conferences held each year, manuals of practice and standards. Certification is the recognition of attaining advanced knowledge and skills in a specialty area of civil engineering, ASCE offers certifications for engineers who demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in their area of engineering. American Academy of Water Resources Engineers Academy of Geo-Professionals Academy of Coastal, michel Award for Industry Advancement of Research and the Charles Pankow Award for innovation,11 scholarships and fellowships for student members. Special consideration is given to private practice engineering work that is recognized as a contribution to the field of environmental engineering.
The Lifetime Achievement Award has been presented annually since 1999 and recognizes five different individual leaders, one award is present in each category of design, government and management. ASCE designates national and international Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks, on February 12,2007 Lt. Gen Strock gave all expert review panel members an Outstanding Civilian Service Medals. On June 1,2007, the ASCE issued its expert review panel report, the report stated that had levees and pump stations not failed, far less property loss would have occurred and nearly two-thirds of deaths could have been avoided. The ASCE administration was criticized by the Times-Picayune for an attempt to minimize, the Corps acknowledged receiving a copy of the letter and refused to comment until the ASCEs Committee on Professional Conduct had commented on the complaint. It took over a year for the ASCE to announce the results of the CPC, the ASCE self-study panel did not file charges of ethical misconduct and blamed errors on staff and not review panel members having created the June press release.
On November 14,2007, ASCE announced that U. S, congressman Sherwood Boehlert, R‑N. Y. would lead an independent task force of outside experts to review how ASCE participated in engineering studies of national significance. ASCE President David Mongan said the review was to address criticism of ASCE´s role in assisting the Army Corps of Engineers-sponsored investigation of Katrina failures
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
ASME is thus an engineering society, a standards organization, a research and development organization, a lobbying organization, a provider of training and education, and a nonprofit organization. Founded as a society focused on mechanical engineering in North America, ASME is today multidisciplinary. ASME has over 130,000 members in 158 countries worldwide, ASME was founded in 1880 by Alexander Lyman Holley, Henry Rossiter Worthington, John Edison Sweet and Matthias N. Forney in response to numerous steam boiler pressure vessel failures. ASME is one of the oldest standards-developing organizations in America and it produces approximately 600 codes and standards covering many technical areas, such as fasteners, plumbing fixtures, elevators and power plant systems and components. ASMEs standards are developed by committees of subject matter using a open. Many ASME standards are cited by government agencies as tools to meet their regulatory objectives, ASMEs standards are used in more than 100 countries and have been translated into numerous languages.
The largest ASME standard, both in size and in the number of involved in its preparation, is the ASME Boiler. The BPVC provides rules for the design, installation, inspection and use of boilers, pressure vessels, the code includes standards on materials and brazing procedures and qualifications, nondestructive examination, and nuclear in-service inspection. Over 3,000 members have attained the grade of Fellow, the ASME Fellow membership grade is the highest elected grade in ASME. ASME runs the Student Professional Development Conference, which students to network with working engineers, host contests. SPDC conferences are held in North America and internationally, the location for each district changes every year. ASME holds a variety of competitions every year for engineering students from around the world. Y. ASME has two institutes and 32 technical divisions within its organizational structure. Volunteer activity is organized into four sectors, Technical Events and Content, Public Affairs and Outreach and Certification, ASME became the first non-profit organization to be guilty of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1982.
The Supreme Court found the organization liable for more than $6 million in American Society of Mechanical Engineers v. Hydrolevel Corp, ASME Y14. 41-2003 Digital Product Definition Data Practices List of Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmarks ASME Medal ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Calvert, Monte A. The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830-1910, Professional Cultures in Conflict, The Johns Hopkins University Press,1967. Hutton, Frederick Remson A History of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, a Centennial History of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1880-1980. A History of the American Locomotive, Its Development, 1830-1880
Jacks Restaurant was a restaurant in San Francisco, California. Opened in 1863, Jack’s was the second oldest restaurant in the city and it was made a San Francisco Designated Landmark in 1981. In 2002, French-born chef Philippe Jeanty purchased Jacks, renaming it Jeanty on Jacks, in June 2016, Bar Works purchased the freehold to the 6,000 sq ft building for a reported $3.55 million. The former restaurant is set to become a space, with food