Ismael Nery was a Brazilian artist. Born in Belém, Pará of Dutch, Native-Brazilian and African ancestry, he studied at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro and at the Académie Julian in Paris, he created numerous paintings, wrote many poems and helped design Brazil's National Patrimony of the Treasury department. Nery married a poet, Adalgisa Nery, in 1922, he contracted tuberculosis in 1931, died of it in 1934. Ismael Nery's works
The Naza Group of Companies is a Malaysian business conglomerate involved in many types of business ranging from motoring to education. The group began operations in 1975 as a motor trading company. Motoring sector remains the most important sector for the group; the group has business divisions including vehicles and bikes distribution, motor-trading, property development and beverage, transportation services, limousine services, automotive education, cigarette distribution, non-financial services. The group was founded and led by Malaysian business tycoon Tan Sri SM Nasimuddin SM Amin until his death on 1 May 2008. Naza Group is the franchise holder for Ferrari, Koenigsegg, Kia Motors, Chevrolet, Citroën, Ducati, Harley-Davidson, Vespa, Aprilia and Indian Motorcycle brands in Malaysia. Naza has marketed rebadged versions of Kia's Carnival, Picanto vehicles as Naza Ria, Naza Citra, Naza Suria for the Malaysian market. In April 2006, Naza developed the Naza Sutera based on Hafei Lobo, it was joined by a Naza-badged version of the Peugeot 206 called the Naza 206 Bestari in May 2006, a Naza-badged version of the Kia Picanto called Naza Picanto in November 2006.
The Naza Group of Companies began with the establishment of Naza Motor Trading Sdn Bhd in 1975 as an importer of used and reconditioned cars in Malaysia by the late Tan Sri SM Nasimuddin SM Amin. At just 21, he used his savings, earned from helping his father's construction business, to import used Japanese vehicles. After selling off his entire stock within three-months, Tan Sri SM Nasimuddin began a dealership for used luxury vehicles in Kuala Lumpur. Within several years, the group established itself as a major dealer of used luxury vehicles in Malaysia; the group included the importation of used luxury bikes. By the late 90s, the Naza Group expanded its business to include automotive distribution after capturing its first franchise from South Korean carmaker, Kia Motors Corp. Part of Naza Group of Companies, Naza Hotel Management was born. Under the late Tan Sri SM Nasimuddin, the Naza Group ventured into the hotel management industry. In the late 90s it acquired the Crowne Plaza Los Angeles Harbor Hotel and the Howard Johnson Inn Torrance in California, USA.
In 2000, the Naza Group's extended its portfolio to include the distribution of motorcycles after being appointed as the exclusive distributor for the Ducati brand in Malaysia. By 2001, the Naza Group became a full-fledged auto assembler with the introduction of the locally assembled, Kia Spectra. Several locally assembled Kia models that were subsequently launched such as the Naza Ria MPV, the Sorento and the Sportage became market leaders in their respective segments. In the same year, the Naza Group captured its second franchise after it was appointed as the exclusive distributor of Brabus-tuned cars. In 2002, the Naza Group acquired hotels in Penang and Johor Bahru; these three hotels were re-branded under the name, Naza Talyya Hotels, in 2010. Naza Talyya Hotel closes their operation in Johor and to-date only two Naza Talyya Hotels which in Penang and Melaka. With demand for locally assembled Kia's increasing, the Naza Group started construction works on its own automotive manufacturing facility in Gurun, Kedah in September 2002.
In 2003, the Naza Group commenced operations of a RM30 million motorcycle manufacturing plant in Shah Alam, Selangor to assemble a wide range of bikes including scooters and superbikes. By May 2003, the RM500 million manufacturing facility in Gurun- known as Naza Automotive Manufacturing – commenced operations by rolling out a Naza Ria MPV, it has a production capacity of 50,000 units per annum. The group's foray into manufacturing into NAM led to the launch of the Naza 206 Bestari, the result of a joint venture with Automobiles Peugeot, the group's first car, the Naza Sutera in 2006. In 2004, current shareholder Ekspedisi Nikmat Sdn Bhd helmed by Naza Group late chairman Tan Sri Dato' Seri Utama SM Nasimuddin SM Amin, acquired TTDI from Danaharta. TTDI is now the main property arm of the NAZA group of companies. TTDI development changed its name to Naza TTDI Sdn Bhd on 11 March 2008 to reflect its association with the NAZA Group; the Naza Group is an established player in the property development market through its subsidiary, Naza TTDI, best known for the development of the acclaimed township of Taman Tun Dr Ismail in Kuala Lumpur.
At the same time, the Naza Group began to expand its motor-trading business. In 2005, it launched the Naza Auto Mall in Petaling Jaya, the largest motor showroom in Malaysia. With a built-up area of 250,414 square feet and the capacity to display 2,000 cars, the Naza Auto Mall symbolised the group's status as the largest importer of used and re-conditioned luxury and high-end vehicles in Malaysia. Naza Auto Mall and has won a mention in the Malaysia Book of Records for being the largest motor showroom in the country; the group has had a strong commitment in the field of education. In 2006, the group established the Naza Kia Academy by its manufacturing facility in Kedah. NKA offers sales and after-sales training to all employees of the Naza Group in developmental and technical-related programs; the academy is recognised by Kia Motors as its overseas training centre in the Asia Pacific region. In 2008, the group added more brands to its portfolio. In January, it was appointed the sole distributor for the Peugeot brand followed by Ferrari in April and Harley-Davidson in October.
By 2009, it added Maserati, to its portfolio. As the distributor for Peugeot vehicles in Malaysia, the Naza Group bega
Cildo Meireles is a Brazilian conceptual artist, installation artist and sculptor. He is noted for his installations, many of which express resistance to political oppression in Brazil; these works large and dense, encourage a phenomenological experience via the viewer's interaction. Meireles was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1948. From an early age, Meireles showed a keen interest in spatial relations, he was interested in how this has been explored in animated film. His father, who encouraged Meireles' creativity, worked for the Indian Protection Service and their family traveled extensively within rural Brazil. In an interview with Nuria Enguita, Meireles described a time when he was "seven or eight" and living in the countryside that had a huge impact on him, he said. The next day, the young Meireles went to investigate, but the man was gone and only a small but perfect hut the man had made the night before remained. Meireles said that this hut "was the most decisive thing for the path followed in life...
The possibility one has of making things and leaving them for others."During his time in rural Brazil, Meireles learned the beliefs of the Tupi people which he incorporated into some of his works in order to highlight their marginalization in, or complete disappearance from, Brazilian society and politics. Installations which contain allusions to the Tupi include Southern Olvido. Meireles cites Orson Welles' 1938 radio broadcast War of the Worlds as one of the greatest works of art of the 20th century because it "seamlessly dissolved the border between art and life and reality." Recreating this concept of total audience investment was an important artistic goal of Meireles, seen throughout his body of work. He began his study of art in 1963 at the District Federal Cultural Foundation in Brasilia, under the Peruvian painter and ceramist Felix Barrenechea. In the late 1960s, Meireles discovered the work of Hélio Oiticica and Lygia Clark, thereby introducing him to the Brazilian Neo-Concrete movement.
These artists, as well as Meireles, were all concerned with blurring the boundary between what is art and what is life, responding to current political situations within their pieces. Meireles unintentionally participated in a political demonstration in April 1964, when he was sixteen years old, he has cited this moment has his "political awakening" and began to take an interest in student politics. In 1967 he studied at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes. Meireles lives and works in Rio de Janeiro. Meireles has stated that drawing was his main artistic medium until 1968, when he altogether abandoned expressionistic drawing in favor of designing things that he wanted to physically construct. A topic that he explored in his art was the concept of the ephemeral and the non-object, art that only exists with interaction, which prompted him to create installation pieces or situational art; this led to his Virtual Spaces project, which he began in 1968. This project was "based on Euclidian principles of space" and sought to show how objects in space can be defined by three different planes.
He modeled this concept as a series of environments made to look like corners in rooms. Following the military coup in 1964, Meireles became involved in political art; when Meireles was "first getting started as an artist," governmental censorship of various forms of media, including art, was standard in Brazil. Meireles found ways to create art, subversive but subtle enough to make public by taking inspiration from Dadaist art, which he notes had the ability to seem "tame" and "ironic." In the early 1970s he developed a political art project that aimed to reach a wide audience while avoiding censorship called Insertions Into Ideological Circuits, continued until 1976. Many of his installation pieces since this time have taken on political themes, though now his art is "less overtly political."He was one of the founders of the Experimental Unit of the Museu de Arte Moderna in Rio de Janeiro in 1969 and in 1975, edited the art magazine Malasartes. In 1999, Meireles was honoured with a Prince Claus Award and in 2008 he won the Velazquez Plastic Arts Award, presented by the Ministry of Culture of Spain.
A large-scale, three-room exploration of an red environment. The title of the installation refers both to the scientific concept of chromatic shift as well as to the idea of a "shift" as a displacement or deviation; the first room, called Impregnation, is 50 m² and filled with a number of everyday, domestic objects in a variety of different shades of red. The effect is an overwhelming visual saturation of the color. Upon entering the room, the participant experiences an initial shock from the visual inundation of red. Dan Cameron writes that "one's gaze is thwarted in an effort to gain a purchase on the specificity of things." Because of its lack of chromatic differentiation, the environment appears to lack depth. Cameron argues that the longer a participant stays in the room the more aware they become of the color's negative, unsettling psychological impact on them; the second room is called Spill/Environment and consists of a large pool of red ink spilled from a small bottle on the floor, evoking mental associations with blood.
The amount of liquid on the floor in comparison to the amount which the bottle could conceivably hold is disproportionate. The redness on the floor extends throughout the small room to the edge of the darkened third room, an effect which lends itself to feelings of foreboding and uncertainty; the third room, contains a washbasin attached to the wall at a 30° ang
Marcelo Pombo is an Argentine artist. His work is in the collections of the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, the Museo de Arte Moderno de Buenos Aires, the Museo Castagnino + macro, the Blanton Museum of Art of The University of Texas at Austin, among others. In the late eighties, he began exhibiting small works with images connected to rock, "gay culture". At the beginning of his career, he formed part of the group of artists that exhibited at the Galería de Artes Visuales at the Centro Cultural Rojas under the direction of Jorge Gumier Maier. During that period, Pombo's work was characterized by the use of materials and procedures associated with decoration and domestic handicrafts of the sort taught in school. Starting in 1999, his production revolved around paintings in synthetic enamel on panel that brought together different styles: surrealist or visionary landscape, geometric art, abstract expressionism. From 2008 to 2015, his production centered on Argentine and Latin American art of the past—works produced at the margins of modernism or rendered invisible by art history.
He grew up in Buenos Aires, at the age of eight, he attended the "Taller de la flor" directed by Ana Srezovic, where he drew and experimented with clay and enamel on metal. His childhood was marked by an identification with the universe of rock -music, lifestyle-, influenced by the reading of Argentinian rock n' roll magazine Pelo and by listening Argentinian rock, he studied in San Isidro National High School. In 1978, after graduating from high school, he began working as a gofer at an advertising agency; that same year, he enrolled in the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes Prilidiano Pueyrredón. He dropped out after only one month, he travelled to Tartagal, in the northern province of Salta, to coordinate a crafts workshop in a Wichí community and went on to visit the rest of northern Argentine, venturing as far north as the Bolivian border. When he returned to Buenos Aires, he worked as an apprentice at a print shop in San Telmo. In 1982, at the outbreak of the Falkland's War during the last military dictatorship, Marcelo Pombo traveled to São Paulo, Brazil.
While there, he produced a series of drawings that make reference to the gay night life in that city. In their style, those drawings bear the influence of Walt Disney, low-budget films, underground comics by artists ranging from Robert Crumb to Nazario, he resumed his work at print shops. He soon began working as an art teacher at a special education school in Buenos Aires. In 1984, he got involved in the political group Grupo de Acción Gay, where he met cultural journalist and curator Jorge Gumier Maier and left-wing activist and university professor Carlos R. Luis—both of whom would prove decisive to his professional career and to his personal life. Starting in 1985, he began making works in which he would drip synthetic enamel paint on existing objects like LPs and, in the case of the emblematic work "Winco", a record player, collages with photographs from magazine, his first solo show was held at the Espacio Joven of the Centro Cultural Recoleta in 1987. In 1989, he showed at the Galería de Artes Visuales at the Centro Cultural Rojas for the first time, exhibiting works like Michael y yo.
The first in a series of group shows featuring Pombo, Pablo Suárez, Miguel Harte would take place at that same venue some months later. In 1991 and 1992, he made three works related to San Francisco Solano, the town outside of Buenos Aires where he worked as a special education teacher. In their procedures and materials, those works make use of a complex network of references, combining the festive and the bitter. In 1993, he traveled to New York City for the first time—in the company of Pablo Siquier—to participate in the exhibition “Space of Time” at the Americas Society. Other artists in the show included Félix González Torres, Larry Pittman, Rosângela Rennó, Jana Sterbak. During these years, he produced works like Xuxa, Ramonesmanía and Telefe, which evidence a renewed interest in show business. Jorge López Anaya, an art historian and La Nación critic, stated the idea of a "light art" as synonymous of a futile, shallow and de-ideologized aesthetic linked to the artists from Rojas scene. In 1995, Pombo made a series of drawings entitled Dibujos de Puerto Madryn, produced in the Patagonian city of that name in the province of Chubut.
In the late nineties, Pombo’s production veered toward works in synthetic enamel paint on panel that made use of a meticulous drop-on-drop technique to generate a hypnotic effect. During this decade, Pombo consolidated his career on the West Coast of the United States. Pombo would gain critical attention in media like Flash Art, The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, Frieze. In 2006, he developed the show “Ocho pinturas y un objeto” where he exhibited works in enamel that depict floating scenes with small farmhouses, demonstrations and rubble; those works entail an eccentric appropriation of French rococo, Latin American folklore, metaphysical painting, other influences. That same year, the book Pombo with texts by Inés Katzenstein, Marcelo Pacheco, Amalia Sato, was published. In 2008, he organized the show "Nuevos Artistas del Grupo Litoral" featuring artists from the Grupo Litoral active in Rosario in the fifties; the exhibition was held at the Museo Castagnino + macro in Rosario. In 2009, he developed the project “Ornaments in the Landscape and the Museum as a Hotel Room” for the Blanton Museum of Art at the University of Texas, Austin.
The project consisted of an installation recreatin
Master of Calamarca
The Master of Calamarca was a Bolivian artist who created two series of angels painted on the walls of a catholic church in Calamarca, Bolivia in the Department of La Paz. His works were stylistically close to earlier master Leonardo Flores from La Paz; the Calamarca church contains two sets of angels, most created by the same person. The first contains militant Ángel arcabuceros wielding firearms, with each angel's name written at the bottom; the second set depicts androgynous angels wearing billowing capes, elaborate short European-style female dresses and Roman military boots. They are unsigned, but each is carrying an object uniquely identifying the subject as one of Archangels of Palermo. According to a tradition stemming from medieval Palermo, these were seven archangels, venerated in Spain, although only three were recognized by the Church. Exact identity of the artist is unknown. Media related to Master of Calamarca at Suzanne L. Stratton; the Arts in Latin America, 1492-1820. Yale University Press.
ISBN 978-0-300-12003-5. Donahue-Wallace, Kelly. Art and architecture of viceregal Latin America, 1521-1821. UNM Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-3459-6. Walsham, Alexandra. Angels in the early modern world. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84332-4. Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann. Toward a geography of art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-13311-9
Antônio Francisco Lisboa, more known as Aleijadinho, was a sculptor and architect of Colonial Brazil, noted for his works on and in various churches of Brazil. His works are considered some of the best examples of Portuguese colonial architecture in Brazil. Born in Vila Rica, whose name was changed to Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1738 he was the son of Manuel Francisco da Costa Lisboa, a Portuguese man and his African slave, Isabel, his father, a carpenter, had immigrated to Brazil where his skills were so in demand that he appears to have been elevated to the position of architect. When Antônio was young his father married and he was raised in his father's home along with his half siblings, it was there he is presumed to have learned the fundamentals of sculpture and the combination of the two. Antônio first appears as a day laborer working on the Church of Our Lady of Carmel in the town of Ouro Preto, a church designed by his father. Within a short time he had become a noted architect himself and had designed and constructed the Chapel of the Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto.
He had executed the carvings on the building, the most notable being a round bas-relief depicting St. Francis receiving the stigmata. In 1777 he began to show signs of a debilitating disease leprosy or scleroderma, he received the name "o Aleijadinho", "The Little Cripple." Although disfigured and disabled, popular belief holds that he continued sculpting with a chisel and hammer tied to his fingerless hands. He became more and more reclusive, working at night; when he did go out in public, he would be carried through the streets in a covered palanquin by his slaves/assistants. He died on November 18, 1814, was buried in the Church of Our Lady of Conception of Antonio Dias under a wooden floor section with his name carved on it, his crowning achievement was the Twelve Prophets at the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos at Congonhas. A wealthy businessman, Feliciano Mendes, had built the church to fulfill a vow made while he was ill. Between 1800 and 1805 Aleijadinho sculpted the twelve soapstone figures by having his assistants strap his hammer and chisels to what remained of his hands, which did not at this point include fingers.
Since he no longer had feet to stand on he had pads strapped to his knees up which he would climb the ladders needed to get him off the ground. The Twelve Prophets are arranged around the stairway in front of the church. At the bottom of the stairs is a long courtyard, bounded by half a dozen pavilions. In each of the pavilions is a scene from the Passion of Christ. There are sixty-six life-sized figures carved in wood from 1780 to 1790, beginning with the Last Supper and ending with the Crucifixion; the main figures, Peter, John, the Good and Bad thieves, Mary Magdalene, Mary, mother of Jesus are carved by Aleijadinho while the other figures, Roman soldiers, on-lookers and lesser figures were carved by his assistants. The figures were painted by Manoel da Costa Ataíde, who painted the ceiling of Lisboa's Church of Saint Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto. One of the figures watching the crucifixion is believed to be a portrait of Aleijadinho. Melo writes that the prevailing religious ideals at that time were, "associated with the ideas of pain, acceptance of suffering and reflection on the passion of Christ through visual reminders of His wounds."
There is some debate as to whether Aleijadinho existed. The theory that Aleijadinho was a myth was proposed by Augusto de Lima, Jr. who suggested that Aleijadinho was invented by Rodrigo Bretas in his 1951 book "Traços biográficos de Antônio Francisco Lisboa". This theory relies on the notion that there were no references to Aleijadinho until this book was published. Research published in 2008 further challenges the traditional biography of the artist. Faced with the lack of documentary evidence, the author identifies Antônio Francisco Lisboa as a poor sculptor in 18th century Vila Rica, but not a victim of the deformities that would have earned him the nickname, his work, of much smaller scope than attributed, had to be confined to Ouro Preto and surrounding areas, where he lived all of his life. There is no evidence for his work as an architect and his parentage is in doubt. Instead, Guiomar de Grammont proposes the figure of a talented maker of religious imagery, a trade shared with other artisans in the same workshop.
In her interpretation, the Aleijadinho myth was created by the Rodrigo Bretas biography and reinforced over time by modernist intellectuals who saw in this character a symbolic founder of an indigenous Brazilian culture. Doubts about Aleijadinho's actual existence have been countered by evidence brought up by researcher Felicidade Patrocínio, who listed over 30 documented works, including the masterpieces on which his fame was built: the 12 apostles and the cycle of the Via Crucis at the Sanctuary of Matosinhos. Who else could have created them? Abrantes, José Israel and C Bandeira de Melo, Visitando Ouro Preto, Mariana e Congonhas, Ouro Preto: Turismo Receptivo Ltda. Bazin, Germain, O Aleijadinho e a escultura barroca no Brasil, Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 1971 Bretas, Rodrigo José Ferreira, Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Belo Horizonte: Editora Itatiaia, 2002 Bury, Arquitetura e Arte no Brasil Colonial, São Paulo: Editora Nobel, 1991 Drummond, Aristóteles, Minas: História, Estórias, Evocações, Personalidades, Belo Horizonte: Armazém de Idéias, 2002 Ferreira, Delson Gonçalves, O Aleijadinho, Belo Horizonte: Editora Comunicação (Prefeit
Delesio Antonio Berni was an Argentine figurative artist. He is associated with the movement known as Nuevo Realismo, a Latin American extension of social realism, his work, including a series of Juanito Laguna collages depicting poverty and the effects of industrialization in Buenos Aires, has been exhibited around the world. Berni was born in the city of Rosario on May 14, 1905, his mother Margarita Picco was the Argentine daughter of Italians. His father Napoleón, an immigrant tailor from Italy, died in the first World War. In 1914 Berni became the apprentice of Catalan craftsman N. Bruxadera at the Buxadera and Co. stained glass company. He studied painting at the Rosario Catalá Center where he was described as a child prodigy. In 1920 seventeen of his oil paintings were exhibited at the Salon Mari. On November 4, 1923 his impressionist landscapes were praised by critics in the daily newspapers La Nación and La Prensa; the Jockey Club of Rosario awarded Berni a scholarship to study in Europe in 1925.
He chose to visit Spain, as Spanish painting was in vogue the art of Joaquín Sorolla, Ignacio Zuloaga, Camarasa Anglada, Julio Romero de Torres. But after visiting Madrid, Segovia, Granada, Córdoba, Seville he settled in Paris where fellow Argentine artists Horacio Butler, Aquiles Badi, Alfredo Bigatti, Xul Solar, Héctor Basaldua, Lino Enea Spilimbergo were working, he attended "City of Lights" workshops given by André Lhote and Othon Friesz at Académie de la Grande Chaumière. Berni painted two landscapes of Arcueil, Paisaje de París, Mantel amarillo, La casa del crimen and Naturaleza muerta con guitarra, he went back to Rosario for a few months but returned to Paris in 1927 with a grant from the Province of Santa Fe. Studying the work of Giorgio de Chirico and René Magritte, Berni became interested in surrealism and called it "a new vision of art and the world, the current that represents an entire youth, their mood, their internal situation after the end of the World War. A dynamic and representative movement."
His late 1920s and early 1930s surrealist works include La Torre Eiffel en la Pampa, La siesta y su sueño, La muerte acecha en cada esquina. He began studying revolutionary politics including the Marxist theory of Henri Lefebvre, who introduced him to the Communist poet Louis Aragon in 1928. Berni continued corresponding with Aragon after leaving France recalling, "It is a pity that I have lost, among the many things I have lost, the letters that I received from Aragon all the way from France. In 1931 Berni returned to Rosario where he lived on a farm and was hired as a municipal employee; the Argentina of the 1930s was different from the Paris of the 1920s. He witnessed labor demonstrations and the miserable effects of unemployment and was shocked by the news of a military coup d'état in Buenos Aires. Surrealism didn't convey the frustration or hopelessness of the Argentine people. Berni organized Mutualidad de Estudiantes y Artistas and became a member of the local Communist party. Berni met Mexican artist David Alfaro Siqueiros, painting large-scale political murals on public buildings and was visiting Argentina to give lectures and exhibit his work in an effort to "summon artists to participate in the development of a proletarian art."
In 1933 Berni, Spilimbergo, Juan Carlos Castagnino and Enrique Lázaro created the mural Ejercicio Plástico. But Berni didn't think the murals could inspire social change and implied a connection between Siqueiro's artwork and the privileged classes of Argentina, saying, "Mural painting is only one of the many forms of popular artistic expression...for his mural painting, Siqueros was obliged to seize on the first board offered to him by the bourgeoisie."Instead he began painting realistic images that depicted the struggles and tensions of the Argentine people. His popular Nuevo Realismo paintings include Manifestación. Both were based on photographs Berni had gathered to document, as graphically as possible, the "abysmal conditions of his subjects." As one critic noted, "the quality of his work resides in the precise balance that he attained between narrative painting with strong social content and aesthetic originality."In a 1936 interview Berni said that the decline of art was indicative of the division between the artist and the public and that social realism stimulated a mirror of the surrounding spiritual, social and economic realities.
In 1941, at the request of the Comisión Nacional de Cultura, Berni traveled to Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia to study pre-Columbian art. His painting Mercado indígena is based on the photos. Two years he was awarded an Honorary Grand Prix at the Salón Nacional and co-founded a mural workshop with fellow artists Spilimbergo, Juan Carlos Castagnino, Demetrio Urruchúa, Manuel Colmeiro; the artists decorated the dome of the Galerías Pacifico. The 1940s saw various revolutions and coups d'état in Latin America including the ou