Limenitis arthemis, the red-spotted purple or white admiral, is a North American butterfly species in the cosmopolitan genus Limenitis. It has been studied for its evolution of mimicry, for the several stable hybrid wing patterns within this nominal species. L. arthemis can be split into two major groups based on one physical characteristic: the presence of a white band along the wings. Individuals of the northern group, called white admirals, have a conspicuous white band that traverse both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the wing, while those of the southern group, called red-spotted purples, lack that trait as they have evolved to mimic the poisonous pipevine swallowtail. Due to overlap in distribution among the two major groups, intermediates are numerous as hybridization occurs frequently. L. arthemis is a butterfly species of the Limenitidini Nymphalidae family. The Limenitidini are a tribe of the better known "brush-footed butterflies", as they are known to perch on hindlegs, whereas the other two forelegs are positioned curled up.
These two forelegs have brush-like hairs, a key identifier of the Nymphalidae family. The Limenitidini tribe consists of 25 species grouped by region; the Basilarchia species group, spread in North America, include the American white admiral species, L. arthemis, as well as L. archippus, L. lorquini, L. weidemeyerii. Limenitis arthemis is described to be beautiful and active; the butterfly species themselves can be divided into two major groups from one main characteristic, the white band on the upper wings. However, besides the look of the butterfly, L. arthemis are in constant motion. Their flights are short in duration and at low altitudes, flying only about 2 to 3 feet off the ground; when not in flight, L. arthemis are walking over leaves and folding their wings. They enjoy the sun. During the short period they are at rest, L. arthemis keep their wings closed, body at a 45 degree angle upwards, antennae straight forward. Both sexes of this species are identical except that the females are larger than the males.
The upperside of L. a. arthemis is blackish-blue with white postmedian bands across both wings. Some individuals have a row of red submarginal spots; the underside of the wings is a blackish color with a broad white post-median band. The basal area of both wings contains many red spots; the submarginal area may contain the marginal area having bluish spots. However, sometimes the submarginal and marginal areas are just a reddish-brown color; the upperside of L. a. astyanax is much like L. a. arthemis except it lacks the broad white bands. The forewing submarginal area will sometimes have a row of red spots; the hindwings are either an iridescent bluish-green. The underside of the wings lacks the white band; the basal area has several red spots. It has a row of red submarginal spots and bluish marginal spots. Limenitis arthemis are vastly spread out throughout North America. L a. arthemis or the white admiral live on the far north side of the continent, ranging from New England and southern Great Lakes area all the way to various parts of Canada.
L. a. astyanax are based further south from southern Great Lake boundary. These butterflies spend their days in deciduous woodlands, along the edges of the forest in shady areas, including roadsides; when males are searching for mates, they try to defend areas that have high female visitation rates, regardless of the amount of resources. Male L. arthemis are known to be aggressive when it comes down to defending an area bountiful of female mates. Male residents perch under the sun. Once conflicts comes to an end, males periodically patrol their territory for other outsiders tempted to take over the territory. Males have high fidelity to the territory they are defending. Caterpillars of the hybrid region feed on tree species in the plant family Salicacceae, including aspen and willow trees; those of the northern region feed extensively on yellow birch trees, including Betula aleghaniensis and Betula lenta. Southern caterpillars feed on the Rosaceae tree family, which include black cherry and Prunus serotina.
The adult diet includes rotting fruit and nectar from small white flowers. Females lay eggs on leaves of food plants at the tips of these leaves, to the point where the width of the egg and that of the leaf are the same; these plants are about two to three feet off the ground. Mother undergoes labor for several weeks. L. arthemis have two broods lasting from April to October. Most of the first brood grow until the caterpillar is half-grown, they form a hibernaculum and hibernate for the winter until the start of spring. However, some larvae are able to mature during the summer, so they emerge as the second brood early fall; the second brood mate and lay eggs, but these larvae are not yet mature enough to undergo hibernation. This could mean death for the larvae. Lasting about 7 days, the eggs have a grey-green color with kite-shaped cells surrounding a central circular structure. Lasting couple weeks after hatching, L. arthemis larvae have wood brown heads with dark brown and yellow
In North America, "winter moth" denotes the invasive species Operophtera brumata, but may mean refer to a native species, Erannis tiliaria or Operophtera bruceata. The winter moth is a moth of the family Geometridae, it is an abundant species of Europe and the Near East and a famous study organism for evaluating insect population dynamics. It is one of few lepidopterans of temperate regions in which adults are active in late fall and early winter; the adults use endothermy for movement in these cold temperatures. The female of this species is wingless and cannot fly, but the male is winged and flies strongly. After the initial frosts of late fall, the females emerge from their pupa, walk to and up trees, there emitting pheromones in the evening to attract males. Fertilized, she ascends to lay, around 100 eggs; the larger the female moth is the more eggs she lays. Winter moths are considered an invasive species in North America. Nova Scotia, experienced the first confirmed infestations in the 1930s.
It was accidentally introduced to Oregon in the 1950s and the Vancouver area of British Columbia around 1970. Defoliation by the moth was first noted in eastern states of the United States in the late 1990s, is now well established in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Maine. Winter moth is confirmed present in British Columbia and Oregon. In Massachusetts, the moths have attracted the attention of several media outlets due to the severity of the infestation. Efforts at biological control are underway; the forewing ground colour of the winged males varies from grey-yellow to beige-brown or slightly reddish-tinted. The patterns are band-shaped dark brownish indistinct; the fringe is yellowish. The hindwings are yellow grey; the antennae are finely hairy. The flightless female has a brownish-grey body with rudimentary wing stubs that are brown to grey and have dark bands. Body length for both sexes 1.0 centimeters. Larvae at hatching will grow to 3/4 inch over a six-week period. In North America, winter moth can be confused with the related native species Bruce spanworm.
In fact, the two species hybridize. Native to Northern and Central Europe: In the South, its range extends to Northern Italy; the genetic populations of winter moth in Europe are a result of recolonization following the last glacial period. As an invasive species, this moth is found in Nova Scotia, coastal New England and the Pacific northwest. In New England, expansion inland and north appears to be curtailed by cold winter temperatures, so for example, coastal Maine but not inland. Locally milder winters, as part of global climate change, may be allowing expansion of afflicted territory. A study conducted in Massachusetts documented that winter moth defoliation reduced the annual trunk diameter growth rate of oak trees by an average of 47% while not impacting growth rates of the less defoliated maple trees. Winter moth larvae emerge in early spring from egg masses laid near leaf buds after a series of days in which the daytime high temperatures reach into the 50s Fahrenheit. Research conducted in the Netherlands indicated that as climate warming is causing spring temperatures to become warmer sooner, some of the winter moth eggs were hatching before tree leaf buds - first food for the caterpillars - had begun to open.
Early hatchlings starved. Late hatchlings survived; because hatch timing is genetically controlled, the moths are evolving to resynchronize with bud opening by delaying the response to the temperature trigger by 5 to 10 days. The larvae, like the adults, can withstand below freezing temperatures at night. Larval dispersal is the dominant source of density-dependent larval mortality and regulates high density population dynamics of winter moth in New England. Larvae prefer Oak and Apple, but feed on Maple, Hornbeam, Hazel, Beech, Poplar, Pear, Raspberry, Willow and other leafy trees and shrubs. Hatched larvae feed on expanding leaf buds after having burrowed inside the bud, on foliage, for six weeks. In addition to feeding on the tree where they hatched, young larvae will product silk strands to'balloon' to other trees. Defoliation can approach 90%. By mid-May the larvae, green in color and about an inch long, descend to the ground. Little mortality due to disease has been noted in winter moth larvae in North America.
Pupation occurs in the soil in late May. Adults emerge from the soil in late fall to early winter, upon mating, the flightless female lays eggs in bark crevices and on branches. With such a long pupal period, winter moth is vulnerable to numerous pupal predators and parasitoids. In Europe, where winter moths are native, two parasitic species, a wasp and a fly prey on winter moth caterpillars; the wasps insert eggs into the larvae. The flies lay eggs on leaves; as a biological control, the wasp was introduced in Canada but is not being pursued in the United States because there is not sufficient evidence that the wasp would not lay eggs in larvae of other moth species. Introduction of C. albicans, species-specific to preying on winter moths, has proven successful in reducing, although not eliminating, winter moth infestation in Nova Scotia, Canada. Test introduc
Beech is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe and North America. Recent classification systems of the genus recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera and Fagus; the Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. Fagus japonica, Fagus engleriana, the species F. okamotoi, proposed by the botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, comprise this subgenus. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark; this group includes Fagus sylvatica, Fagus grandifolia, Fagus crenata, Fagus lucida, Fagus longipetiolata, Fagus hayatae. The classification of the European beech, Fagus sylvatica is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within this region.
Research suggests that beeches in Eurasia differentiated late in evolutionary history, during the Miocene. The populations in this area represent a range of overlapping morphotypes, though genetic analysis does not support separate species. Within its family, the Fagaceae, recent research has suggested that Fagus is the evolutionarily most basal group; the southern beeches thought related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae. They are found in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Chile; the European beech is the most cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such as leaf shape. The leaves of beech trees are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5 -- 4 -- 10 cm broad. Beeches are monoecious; the small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. They are produced in spring; the bark is light grey. The fruit is a small three–angled nut 10–15 mm long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm long, known as cupules.
The husk can have a variety of spine- to scale-like appendages, the character of which is, in addition to leaf shape, one of the primary ways beeches are differentiated. The nuts are edible, though bitter with a high tannin content, are called beechnuts or beechmast; the name of the tree is of Indo-European origin, played an important role in early debates on the geographical origins of the Indo-European people. Greek φηγός is from the same root, but the word was transferred to the oak tree as a result of the absence of beech trees in Greece. Beech grows on a wide range of soil types, provided they are not waterlogged; the tree canopy casts dense shade, carpets the ground thickly with leaf litter. In North America, they form beech-maple climax forests by partnering with the sugar maple; the beech blight aphid is a common pest of American beech trees. Beeches are used as food plants by some species of Lepidoptera. Beech bark is thin and scars easily. Since the beech tree has such delicate bark, such as lovers' initials and other forms of graffiti, remain because the tree is unable to heal itself.
Beech bark disease is a fungal infection that attacks the American beech through damage caused by scale insects. Infection can lead to the death of the tree. Fagus sylvatica was a late entrant to Great Britain after the last glaciation, may have been restricted to basic soils in the south of England; some suggest. The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is removed from'native' woods. Large areas of the Chilterns are covered with beech woods, which are habitat to the common bluebell and other flora; the Cwm Clydach National Nature Reserve in southeast Wales was designated for its beech woodlands, which are believed to be on the western edge of their natural range in this steep limestone gorge. Beech is not native to Ireland; the Friends of the Irish Environment say that the best policy is to remove young regenerating beech, while retaining veteran specimens with biodiversity value. A campaign by Friends of the Rusland Beeches and South Lakeland Friends of the Earth launched in 2007 to reclassify the beech as native in Cumbria.
The campaign is backed by Tim Farron, MP, who tabled a motion on 3 December 2007 regarding the status of beech in Cumbria. Today, beech is planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain below about 650 m; the tallest and longest hedge in the world is the Meikleour Beech Hedge in Meikleour and Kinross, Scotland. The common European beech grows in Denmark and southern Norway and Sweden up to about the 57–59°N; the most northern known growing beech trees are found in a few small forests around the city of Bergen on th
The rough prominent is a moth of the family Notodontidae in the subfamily Notodontidae. It is known as the white-dotted prominent and the tawny prominent; this common moth is found across North America from the northern boreal forests to as far south as Florida. It is most common in deciduous forests at some elevation, it is nocturnal but attracted to lights. The moths start to fly soon after return to resting places some time before dawn breaks; the adults live through late spring and early summer, larvae are active until fall. They pupate until the following spring; the moth is tan or dull orange in color, with two small silver spots on each forewing. The wingspan is 2 inches, it sports a pointed thoracic tuft between its wings. The larva is blue-green, it has a large head capsule, yellow mandibles, yellow longitudinal stripes down its body. It feeds on the leaves of other deciduous trees; the larva is sometimes called the green oak caterpillar. Acer - Maple Alnus - Alder Amelanchier Betula - Birch Castanea - Chestnut Corylus - Hazel Fagus - Beech Fraxinus americana - White ash Populus - Poplar Prunus Quercus - Oak Rosa - Rose Salix - Willow Fullard, James H. & Napoleone, Nadia: Diel flight periodicity and the evolution of auditory defences in the Macrolepidoptera.
Animal Behaviour 62: 349–368. Doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1753 PDF fulltext
The brown-tail moth is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is native to Europe, neighboring countries in Asia, the north coast of Africa. Descriptions of outbreaks, i.e. large population increases of several years duration, have been reported as far back as the 1500s. The life cycle of the moth is atypical, in that it spends nine months as larvae, leaving about one month each for pupae and eggs. Larvae are covered in hairs. Two red spots on the back, toward the tail, distinguish these species from other hairy moth larvae; the winged adults have white wings and a hairy white body with a tuft of brown hair at the tip of the abdomen. Females lay one egg cluster on the underside of a leaf of a host plant; the species is polyphagous, meaning that it feeds on many different species of trees, including pear, apple and oak. This species was accidentally introduced to the United States in the 1890s. During the early 20th century it was present from eastern Connecticut northward into New Brunswick, but a subsequent severe population collapse reduced the territory to parts of coastal Maine, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, by the late 20th century.
One theory for the decline appeared to be parasitism by a fly introduced to combat gypsy moths. Starting in 2015 there has been a population territory expansion in coastal Maine. In Europe, there are multiple parasitic and predator species, yet there is still a history of population outbreaks. Hairs from the caterpillars are toxic for humans, causing a poison ivy-like itchy rash of up to weeks' duration due to mechanical and chemical irritation. Direct contact with larvae is not necessary, as the hairs can become windblown. Toxins in the hairs remain potent for up to three years. Outdoor activities such as mowing a lawn or raking leaves in the fall can cause exposure; the upper surface of the wings of this species is pure white. Males may have some brown color on the underside of the forewing. Wingspan is 36–42 millimetres; the body is hairy, white except for the tail, covered in reddish-brown hairs, much more prominent in the females. Males have larger antennae, used to detect pheromones released by unmated females.
Females have a larger body. As winged adults, this species is superficially similar in appearance to Euproctis similis and Hyphantria cunea, but female E. similis have a yellow tail tuft and H. cunea lacks tail tuft coloration. The female lays one cluster of 200 to 400 eggs on the underside of a leaf; the egg cluster is covered with hairs from her anal tuft. The larva is hairy, brown with white markings, two prominent red spots toward the tail end; the hairs provide protection from predators. The species overwinters communally as larvae within a tough, silken tent constructed around branch-tip leaves and anchored to twigs. In areas where the species is abundant, these tents are a familiar sight, can be seen on a huge range of plants in late fall and winter when unaffected leaves have fallen; this species can be found throughout Europe, except in the most northern countries in the westernmost countries of Asia, such as Turkey and Israel, the countries across the northern parts of Africa. Fernand and Kirkland recount historic mentions of brown-tail moths dating back to 1500s, describing outbreaks in Paris and Berlin so severe as to strip all trees of leaves.
Carl Linnaeus described the species in the tenth edition of Systema Naturae. The brown-tail moth is an invasive species in the United States and Canada, having arrived in Somerville, MA circa 1890 and becoming widespread there and in neighboring Cambridge by 1897. Initial outbreaks were most evident in apple trees. Doctors reported "poisonings" far worse than poison ivy rash. Within a few years it was seen as a serious, fast-spreading and health problem. Through the early parts of the 20th century it was present in much of New England from eastern Connecticut to Maine, northward into New Brunswick, but the 1906 introduction of a parasitic fly to counter Gypsy moths collaterally impacted brown-tail moths. By the late 20th century the habitat was reduced to the coast and islands of Maine, parts of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Cold and wet weather hinders re-expansion of the population outside its current territories, although starting in 2015 there has been a population spike and territory expansion in coastal Maine.
In addition to North America, there have been reports of this species appearing in China and New Guinea. Photographs taken from aerial fly-overs are used to identify areas where the trees have been denuded of leaves and where the branch-tip tents are present; the female sex hormone has been synthesized and field-tested in moth traps as a means of monitoring moth populations during the June/July flight season. The white-winged adults are nocturnal and attracted to light; the brown-tail moth produces one generation a year. It has four life stages. Eggs are laid in hatch in August; the annual cycle is one month as eggs, nine months as larvae, one month pupae, one month Imagoes. Pre-diapausing larvae: Emerge and feed gregariously starting in August after about three weeks of egg incubation. Diapausing larvae: As a response to shortened periods of daylight, larvae build communal winter nests in the fall, inside of which they overwinter; these involve webbing binding l
The Drepanidae is a family of moths with about 660 species described worldwide. They are divided in three subfamilies which share the same type of hearing organ. Thyatirinae often placed in their own family, bear a superficial resemblance to Noctuidae. Many species in the Drepanid family have a distinctively hook-shaped apex to the forewing, leading to their common name of hook-tips; the larvae of many species are distinctive, tapering to a point at the tail and resting with both head and tail raised. They feed on the leaves of trees and shrubs, pupating between leaves spun together with silk. Subfamily Drepaninae Subfamily Thyatirinae Subfamily Cyclidiinae Unassigned to subfamily Hypsidia Rothschild, 1896 Yucilix Yang, 1978 List of drepanid genera Chinery, Michael: Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe Minet, J. & Scoble, M. J.: The Drepanoid/Geometroid Assemblage. In: Kristensen, N. P.: Lepidoptera and Butterflies Volume 1: Evolution and Biogeography, chapter 17. Handbuch der Zoologie.
Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Vol. IV: Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 35. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York. Skinner, Bernard: Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles CSIRO Images
The Saturniinae or saturniines are a subfamily of the family Saturniidae. They are known as emperor moths or wild silk moths, they are spotted by the eyespots on the upper surface of their wings. Some exhibit realistic eye-like markings, whilst others have adapted the eyespots to form crescent moon or angular shapes or have lost their wing scales to create transparent windows, they are medium to large moths, with adult wingspans ranging from 7.5 to 15 cm, in some cases more. They consist of some of the largest groups of Lepidoptera like the moon or luna moth, atlas moth, many more; the Saturniinae is human food in many different cultures. The saturniine genera 169 in number, are divided into four major and one minor tribes, divided into nine subfamilies; the genus Adafroptilum presently consists of a group of species with undetermined relationships. Adults in the Saturniinae live about 5–12 days and are nocturnal, excluding males in four of the subfamilies; the moths do not eat during their short lives and their mouths are not formed.
In some species of Saturniinae, there is unmistakable sexual dimorphism. The females in these subfamilies can weigh double that of the males, are larger in size, have larger wings; the Saturniinae's eggs are laid flat against each other in clusters. Once hatched, the larval period lasts about 78 days, they pass through five larval instars, although some may have more. The pupal stage takes place in an yellowish cocoon. In this stage, they resemble small wooden barrels in color. Tribe Attacini Archaeoattacus Attacus Attacus atlas – Atlas moth Attacus dohertyi Attacus erebus Attacus lorquinii Callosamia Callosamia angulifera – tuliptree silkmoth Callosamia promethea – promethea silkmoth Coscinocera Coscinocera hercules – Hercules moth Epiphora Eupackardia Eupackardia calleta – calleta silkmoth Hyalophora Hyalophora euryalus – ceanothus silkmoth Hyalophora cecropia – cecropia moth Hyalophora columbia – Columbia silkmoth Hyalophora gloveri – Glover's silkmoth Rothschildia Grote, 1896 Rothschildia jacobaeae Rothschildia maurus Samia Samia cynthia – ailanthus silkmothTribe Bunaeini Packard, 1902 Athletes Aurivillius Bunaea Bunaea alcinoe – cabbage tree emperor moth Bunaeopsis Cinabra Cirina Eochroa Gonimbrasia Gonimbrasia belina – mopane moth, mopane worm Gynanisa Heniocha Imbrasia Leucopteryx Lobobunaea Melanocera Nudaurelia Protogynanisa Pseudimbrasia Pseudobunaea Rohaniella UbaenaTribe Micragonini Cockerell in Packard, 1914 Carnegia Decachorda Goodia Holocerina Ludia Micragone Orthogonioptilum Pseudoludia VegetiaTribe Saturniini Boisduval, 1837 Actias – Asian-American moon moths Agapema Agapema anona Agapema homogena Antheraea – tussar moths Antheraea polyphemus – Polyphemus moth Antheraeopsis Argema – African moon moths Argema mimosae – African moon moth Argema mittrei – comet moth Caligula Calosaturnia Ceranchia Copaxa Cricula Eudia Graellsia Graellsia isabellae – Spanish moon moth Lemaireia Loepa Loepa katinka – golden emperor moth Loepantheraea Neodiphthera Neoris Opodiphthera Pararhodia Perisomena Rhodinia Rinaca Saturnia – typical emperor moths Saturnia zuleika Solus SyntherataTribe Urotini Antherina Antistathmoptera Eosia Eudaemonia Maltagorea Parusta Pselaphelia Pseudantheraea Pseudaphelia Sinobirma Tagoropsis Urota UstaIncertae sedis Adafroptilum