Large yellow underwing
The large yellow underwing is a moth, the type species for the family Noctuidae. It is an abundant species throughout the Palearctic ecozone, one of the most common and most familiar moths of the region. In some years the species is migratory with large numbers appearing in marginal parts of the range, it is present in Europe, North Africa, Canary Islands, Middle East, Iraq, Afghanistan, northwest India, Novosibirsk Oblast, Caucasus and Central Asia. It was introduced into North America at Nova Scotia. Since it has increased its range and has been recorded for Maine in 1985, spread throughout the northeast from Vermont and Massachusetts to New Hampshire, New York and Connecticut, it was first recorded in Pennsylvania in 1998, North Carolina and west to Colorado, California, British Columbia and Alaska and Ontario. This is a quite heavy moth with a wingspan of 50 -- 60 mm; the forewings are quite variable from light brown to black. The darker individuals have a pale streak along the costa; the hindwings are bright orange-yellow with a black sub-terminal band.
As with other Noctua species, this contrast of bland-on-land and bright-in-flight is used to confuse potential predators. This species flies at night from July to September and is attracted to light, sometimes in huge numbers, it will visit flowers such as Buddleia and red valerian. The larva is brown with two rows of black dashes along the back; this is one of the notorious "cutworms", causing fatal damage at the base of any herbaceous plant, sometimes severing it completely. This ubiquitous species is considered as a garden pest; the species feeds on mild days throughout the winter. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range. See Robinson, G. S. et al. Chinery, Michael. Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe. Skinner, Bernard. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles. Lepiforum Noctua pronuba at funet.fi Fauna Europaea
Note: the small white species of butterfly is called a "cabbage moth" in North America. Mamestra brassicae, or the cabbage moth, is known as a pest, responsible for severe crop damage of a wide variety of plants species. While known colloquially as the cabbage moth, the name is a misnomer as the species is known to feed on many fruits and other crops with the Brassica vegetable crops being most preferred. Other notable host plants include tobacco and tomato, making this pest species economically damaging; the moth spans a wide geographic range encompassing the entire Palearctic region. Due to this wide geographic region and the presence of various populations globally, local adaptations have resulted in a species with high variability in life history and behavior across different populations; the cabbage moth has a wide geographic distribution across parts of Europe and Asia ranging from about 30°N to 70°N in latitude. This geographic range is within the Palearctic region, which includes parts of Europe, Asia north of the Himalayan Mountains, Africa north of the Sahara Desert.
As many host plants are both endemic or domesticated in various parts of this region, the moth is able to thrive in nearly all parts of this region due to local adaptation.. While the moth is limited to this range, there is a threat that it could be introduced to new regions through global food trade industries involving live plant imports; the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, should not be confused with the cabbage looper or the white cabbage butterfly which share similar names but occupy different taxonomies. Mamestra brassicae belongs to the Lepidoptera order of butterflies. Within this order, the species belongs to the Ditrysia clade, which contains 98% of the Lepidoptera species and indicates that the female has two separate openings for mating and laying eggs; the species belongs to the second largest family in Lepidoptera. Within this family, the cabbage moth falls within the subfamily Hadeninae; the genus Mamestra has a global distribution. The life history is variable depending on the location of the population.
Some populations are able to fit two to three generations within one calendar year. Other populations, in less favorable and opportune climates, may only have one generation in a given year. Diapause is this species' most variable life stage, lasting anywhere from 80 days to six months if needed over the winter. Upon oviposition, the eggs are pale white, oblong and ribbed; the eggs develop a brown marking at their center. The egg measures 1.2mm in diameter and hatch within six to ten days. The caterpillar progresses through six instars of development. In the first instar, the caterpillar has a light green body with three pairs of legs along the thorax and an anal appendage at the end of the abdomen; the caterpillars remain the same in color until the fourth instar, in which the dorsal region darkens. The dorsal region now appears brown. There is some variability in coloring at this stage. There is a dark stripe that appears to run down the length of the caterpillar with light yellow stripes flanking the sides.
The head is a copper color. At the sixth and final instar, the head develop a dorsal hump; the total time for this larval development is four to six weeks and the final body length ranges from 40-50mm. Larvae can be found feeding on plant leaves during the night, they are located on the underside of the leaves close to the ground of the host plant. Larvae are gregarious feeders in their initial stages. In the fourth instar, the larvae may disperse to the other areas of the original host plant and may migrate to other host plants; when forming into pupae, the larvae will burrow into the soil where they will remain until they emerge as adults. The pupae are glossy. Pupae can develop once or twice during the year, with pupation taking place over winter. Pupae develop within cocoons; the pupae are 20mm long. The pupae can be found in the ground anywhere from 2-10mm deep into the soil. Adult moths emerge from the pupae in soil during the months of June, their appearance is similar to many moths within the same family.
The forewings tend to be darker than the hindwings in color. Characteristic markings of the species include a kidney shaped spot enclosed in a white border on the forewing of the adult. There is a thin white border that goes around the entirety of the forewing; the wingspan ranges between 34-50mm. Adult wingspan and body size are correlated with the nutritive status of the developing moth. Curved dorsal spurs located on the tibia of the forelegs distinguish this species from others similar to it. Adults emerge from the end of April through the beginning of June. Shortly after emerging, the adult moths mate; the moth is most active at night, when it feeds. During the day, the adult moth seeks cover under the foliage of surrounding plants. Mating in Mamestra brassicae occurs among emerged adult moths. In one controlled observation, adults began mating the first night of emergence. In this observation, mating behavior started at ten in the evening, with most mating activity occurring after midnight. Mating pairs remained associated for upwards of twelve hours, with females covering male wings with the posterior of their body during this
The nutmeg known as the clover cutworm, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found in the west Palearctic and Quebec in North America. In the north of its European range it is a summer migrant, not being able to survive the cold winters; this is a small to medium species with cryptically coloured forewings, varying from light to dark brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge. The most characteristic feature is a distinctively "W"-shaped, white subterminal line; this feature is seen on some other noctuids, but much larger species. The hindwings are grey or buff, darker towards the termen, marked with dark veins. One or two broods are produced each year, adults can be seen at any time from May to September; this species is attracted to light as well as to sugar and nectar-rich flowers. Flight from June to first half of July. Second generation from latter half of July to September; the larvae feed on a wide range of plants. The species overwinters as pupae. See reference. Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles 1984 Funet Taxonomy Lepiforum.de
The beetroot is the taproot portion of a beet plant known in North America as the beet, known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. It is one of several cultivated varieties of Beta vulgaris grown for their edible taproots and leaves. Vulgaris'Conditiva' Group. Besides being used as a food, beets have uses as a medicinal plant. Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties sugar beet. Beta is the ancient Latin name for beets of Celtic origin, becoming bete in Old English around 1400. Root derives from the late Old English rōt, itself from Old Norse rót. From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions illnesses relating to digestion and the blood. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of "garlic-breath". During the middle of the 19th century, wine was coloured with beetroot juice. Below is a list of several available cultivars of beets. 55 to 65 days are needed from germination to harvest of the root.
All cultivars can be harvested earlier for use as greens. Unless otherwise noted, the root colours are shades of red and dark red with different degrees of zoning noticeable in slices; the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted, or raw, either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a small scale for home consumption; the green, leafy portion of the beet is edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the mature leaves are most served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach; those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration. The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.
Beetroot can be boiled or steamed and eaten warm with or without butter as a delicacy. Pickled beets are a traditional food in many countries. A traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dish is pickled beet egg. Hard-boiled eggs are refrigerated in the liquid left over from pickling beets and allowed to marinate until the eggs turn a deep pink-red colour. In Poland and Ukraine, beet is combined with horseradish to form popular ćwikła or бурачки, traditionally used with cold cuts and sandwiches, but also added to a meal consisting of meat and potatoes. In Serbia where the popular cvekla is used as winter salad, seasoned with salt and vinegar, with meat dishes; as an addition to horseradish, it is used to produce the "red" variety of chrain, a popular condiment in Ashkenazi Jewish, Polish, Lithuanian and Ukrainian cuisine. Popular in Australian hamburgers, a slice of pickled beetroot is combined with other condiments on a beef patty to make an Aussie burger. In Northern Germany, beetroot is added as its side order.
When beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings. Betanins, obtained from the roots, are used industrially as red food colourants, e.g. to intensify the colour of tomato paste, desserts and jellies, ice cream and breakfast cereals. Beetroot can be used to make wine. A moderate amount of chopped beetroot is sometimes added to the Japanese pickle fukujinzuke for color. Food shortages in Europe following World War I caused great hardships, including cases of mangelwurzel disease, as relief workers called it, it was symptomatic of eating only beets. Beetroot as food Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein, less than 1% fat. In a 100-gram amount providing 43 calories, raw beetroot is a rich source of folate and a moderate source of manganese, with other nutrients having insignificant content. In preliminary research, beetroot juice reduced blood pressure in hypertensive people. Tentative evidence has found that dietary nitrate supplementation, such as from beets and other vegetables, results in a small improvement in endurance exercise performance.
Betanin, obtained from the roots, is used industrially as red food colorant, to improve the color and flavor of tomato paste, desserts and jellies, ice cream and breakfast cereals, among other applications. The chemical adipic acid occurs in nature, but happens to occur in beetroot; the red colour compound betanin is not broken down in the body, in higher concentrations may temporarily cause urine or stools to assume a reddish colour, in the case of urine a condition called beeturia. Although harmless, this effect may cause initial concern due to the visual similarity to what appears to be blood in the stool, hematochezia or hematuria. Nitrosamine formation in beet juice can reliably be prevented by adding ascorbic acid. List of Lepidoptera that feed on beets Media related to Beetroot at Wikimedia Commons
The ghost moth known as the ghost swift, is a moth of the family Hepialidae. It is common throughout Europe. Female ghost moths are larger than males, exhibit sexual dimorphism with their differences in size and wing color; the adults are attracted to light. The species overwinters as a larva; the term ghost moth is sometimes used as a general term for all Hepialids. The ghost moth gets its name from the hovering display flight of the male, sometimes rising and falling, over open ground to attract females. In a suitable location several males may display together in a lek; the larva is whitish and maggot-like and feeds underground on the roots of a variety of wild and cultivated plants. The species can be an economically significant pest in forest nurseries. Female ghost moths have a wingspan of 50-70mm, they have yellowish-buff forewings with brown hindwings. Males are smaller, with a wingspan of 46-50mm, have white or silver wings. However, in H. h. thulensis, found in Shetland and the Faroe Islands, there are buff-coloured individuals.
The ghost swift aggregates in leks. Lekking occurs at dusk and lasts for 20–30 minutes. During the lekking period, incident light intensities between 10.0 and 2.0 lux have been found to increase the brightness contrast between the background and male moths' silver/white wings. It is thus believed that the male wing color may have evolved as a secondary adaptation to aid in the moth's visibility; the male ghost swifts display by hovering directly above vegetation, while shifting horizontally. The displaying male only made vertical movements to shift display positions. Females are attracted to the displaying males in leks, once a female chooses a male she will pass within a few centimeters of him; the male will follow the female, who will land and beat her wings, signaling that the male may approach her. The two moths will copulate, the male moth may return to the lek and display again afterwards. Males perform a flight display and use both chemical and visual signals to attract females to their mating sites.
In addition to aggregating in leks, male ghost swifts use pheromones to attract a mate. The pheromones are emitted in order to attract a female; the main component of the male pheromone is -α-Farnesene. The olfactory substances used to attract females are produced on the male's hind-tibial brushes. Males may be attracted to stationary females by olfactory stimuli. In addition, the male ghost moths produce a goat-like smell from their hind tibiae while in flight The ghost moth displays high levels of sexual dichromatism. Female ghost moths are a yellow brownish color, it has been suggested that the difference in wing color between males and females is used for visual epidemic signaling. The upper side of males have un-pigmented scales with elaborate morphology and meshwork that allow for light reflection and may aid in attracting females; the females lack the intricate morphology of the males. The underside of both the male and female ghost moth is a uniform grey/brown color, it is believed that there is behavioral dimorphism as well, with one study showing that females were more attracted to light than males.
Common predators of ghost moths include several species of birds. These predators are attracted to the moths during the male flight displays. Eptesicus nilssonii, the northern bat, has been documented preying on lekking ghost moths; the ghost moth is a member of an early branch of Lepidoptera. Species in the Hepialidae lack several predator defense systems, including ultrasonic hearing; the ghost moth lacks sophisticated predator defense systems, instead the ghost moth restricts its sexual behavior to a short period during dusk to reduce its predation risk. Despite these precautions, the moth is still at a large predation risk, it is believed that the deaf moths, such as the family Hepialidae, predate the predatory bats that may have driven the evolution of ultrasonic hearing. Members of the Hepialidae lack adaptations that allow for erratic and maneuverable flight as well as color mimicking, two traits that aid in predator defense, it is believed that the ghost moth’s restricted flight patterns and low flight positions may be the ghost swift’s main form of predatory defense.
The ghost moth displays for only 20–30 minutes at dusk, which aids in predator avoidance, as most bats do not start feeding until after dusk, when it is darker outside. On average, most female ghost moths will lay around 600 eggs over four days, but a female can lay anywhere from 200 to 1,600 eggs; the ghost moth larvae have a white opaque body with a red/brown head. Their prothoracic plate is red/brown, their pinacula is dark brown; the young larvae feed on plant rootlets, while the older large feed on larger roots and the lower regions of plant stems. The larval growth is slow, the developmental period can last for two to three years; the larva have at least 12 instars, but further research is needed to see if there may be more instars during higher temperatures. The larva cause damage to the plants they consume, with damage being the worst during the second summer of the larva’s growth period; the larvae feed in grasslands and pastures and have been known to cause significant damage to the host species.
In the British Isles, the ghost moth larvae live in the soil and can be found underneath the grass. The ghost moth pupates during the April or May after
The turnip moth is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is a common European species, but it is found in Asia and Africa likely having been spread by the international trade in nursery stock, it is known to migrate some distances. The species was first described by Michael Denis and Ignaz Schiffermüller in 1775, it is a cutworm in the genus Agrotis, the genus that includes the largest number of species of cutworms. This is a variable species with the forewings ranging from pale buff through to black; the paler forms have three dark-bordered stigmata on each forewing. Antennae of male bipectinated with moderate length branches; the main feature distinguishing it from other Agrotis species is the shade of the hindwings, pure white in the males, pearly grey in the females. The wingspan is 32–42 mm. Two broods are produced each year, the adults flying in May and June and again in August and September; the species is nocturnal and attracted to nectar-rich flowers. The species overwinters as a caterpillar.
Agrotis segetum is one of the most important species of noctuid moths whose larvae are called cutworms. The larvae are grey, sometimes tinged with purple, they attack the roots and lower stems of a huge range of plants and can be a serious pest of root vegetables and cereals. Attacking the lower stems results in cutting down seedlings, why this species is classed as a cutworm; the insect is not believed to be present in the United States, where the government has been making efforts to prevent its introduction on imported food crops. As with any other noctuid, assorted diseases and parasitoids attack Agrotis segetum in the egg and larval stages, but not so as to render control measures unnecessary. One major problem in dealing with infestations stems from the larvae's nocturnal habits, which make it more difficult to detect its presence in the first place, more difficult to deal with anyway. Birds that will scratch it up, such as guinea fowl and other wild and domestic poultry can themselves not be tolerated in most of the crops that need protection.
Insectivorous animals such as shrews and golden moles are regarded with suspicion by most gardeners, are too few. Insecticides of various kinds have been used with varying success for many decades at least. Baits based on sweetened bran, finely spread, have met with some success. Cultural methods such as fallowing land before sowing, to starve the larvae can be effective, in suitable conditions, dry-plowing land to kill larvae and pupae, expose them to predators, has been effective in maize fields. A virus is being tested as a biocontrol on crops in Europe; the following is other taxa which are hosts for the turnip moth. UKMoths. Retrieved 23 January 2019 Savela, Markku. "Agrotis segetum". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved 23 January 2019. Taxonomy "Lepidoptera fauna of Lesotho" Lepiforum e. V
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms, it is one of the most widespread and recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features; the most apparent is the presence of scales that cover the bodies, a proboscis. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", give butterflies and moths their wide variety of colors and patterns. All species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults near or on host plants for the larvae.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are called caterpillars, are different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs; as they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges; the Lepidoptera have, over millions of years, evolved a wide range of wing patterns and coloration ranging from drab moths akin to the related order Trichoptera, to the brightly colored and complex-patterned butterflies. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many people involved in the observation, collection, rearing of, commerce in these insects.
A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain. In many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day; the caterpillars hatching from these eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the silk they produce, or as pest species; the term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Greek λεπίς, gen. λεπίδος and πτερόν. Sometimes, the term Rhopalocera is used for the clade of all butterfly species, derived from the Ancient Greek ῥόπαλον and κέρας meaning "club" and "horn" coming from the shape of the antennae of butterflies; the origins of the common names "butterfly" and "moth" are varied and obscure. The English word butterfly is with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the pale yellow color of many species' wings suggesting the color of butter.
The species of Heterocera are called moths. The origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe" from Common Germanic, its origins are related to Old English maða meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge", which until the 16th century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. The etymological origins of the word "caterpillar", the larval form of butterflies and moths, are from the early 16th century, from Middle English catirpel, catirpeller an alteration of Old North French catepelose: cate, cat + pelose, hairy; the Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects. They are found on all continents, except Antarctica, inhabit all terrestrial habitats ranging from desert to rainforest, from lowland grasslands to mountain plateaus, but always associated with higher plants angiosperms. Among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
In the Himalayas, various Apollo species such as Parnassius epaphus have been recorded to occur up to an altitude of 6,000 m above sea level. Some lepidopteran species exhibit symbiotic, phoretic, or parasitic lifestyles, inhabiting the bodies of organisms rather than the environment. Coprophagous pyralid moth species, called sloth moths, such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are found inhabiting the fur of sloths, mammals found in Central and South America. Two species of Tinea moths have been recorded as feeding on horny tissue and have been bred from the horns of cattle; the larva of Zenodochium coccivorella is an internal parasite of the coccid Kermes species. Many species have been recorded as breeding in natural materials or refuse such as owl pellets, bat caves, honeycombs or diseased fruit; as of 2007, there was 174,250 lepi