Notodontidae is a family of moths with 3,800 known species. Moths of this family are found in all parts of the world, but they are most concentrated in tropical areas in the New World; the Thaumetopoeidae are sometimes included here as a subfamily. Species of this family tend to be heavy-bodied and long-winged, the wings held folded across the back of the body at rest, they display any bright colours being grey or brown, with the exception of the subfamily Dioptinae. These features mean they rather resemble Noctuidae although the families are not related; the adults do not feed. Many species have a tuft of hair on the trailing edge of the forewing which protrudes upwards at rest; this gives them the common name of prominents. The common names of some other species reflect their hairiness, such as puss moth and the group known as kittens, so named as they resemble small versions of the puss moth; the egg is hemispherical or spherical, lacks any ribs. The caterpillars are hairless, but may have tubercules, spines, or humps, rest with both ends raised.
The last set of prolegs is vestigial, or may be long, with glands that can be everted. Some larvae undergo shape colour changes with each instar. Notodontid larvae are notable for their bizarre shapes, some have chemical defenses not found in other Lepidoptera. Schizura unicornis and S. badia have a mixture of formic acid, acetic acid and other compounds which they spray at their attacker. The larvae of some species are extraordinary: That of the Puss Moth has a fearsome-looking "face" and two long whip-like "tails" and it rears both ends in a threatening display when disturbed; the larva of the Lobster Moth is more remarkable, resembling a crustacean. Others, such as Cerura vinula mimic the edge of a leaf, damaged and is turning brown. Most are solitary feeders, but some are gregarious, this is most common in the processionary moths, Thaumetopoeinae, they feed except in the subfamily Dioptinae, which feed on herbaceous plants. The larvae feed on only one family of trees, but related species will feed on distantly related plants.
Adults have tympanal organs on the metathorax that opens towards the top, the tibial spurs have serrated edges. Mouthparts vary from well-developed to absent; the Dioptinae, considered a separate family, are colourful and fly by day, while the rest of the notodontids are nocturnal. Some of these Dioptinae have non-functional tympanal hearing organs which are defensive against bats; some notodontids cause noticeable defoliation of their hosts. Well-known defoliators include: the saddled prominent Heterocampa guttivita, poplar defoliator Clostera cupreata, California oakworm Phryganidia californica, the beech caterpillar, Quadricalcarifera punctatella, variable oakleaf caterpillar Lochmaeus manteo, Epicerura pergisea, yellownecked caterpillars Datana ministra, walnut caterpillar Datana integerrima, among others. Notable species are: Buff-tip Puss moth Lobster moth Poplar kitten Coxcomb prominent Rough prominent Some subfamily genera: Dudusinae Crinodes Hemiceratinae Hemiceras Dicranurinae Parasinga Heterocampinae RifargiaApart from the subfamilies listed in the two places above, there are numerous notodontid genera of uncertain relationships.
These are: Comparison of butterflies and moths Thaumetopoeidae treated as a subfamily within Notodontidae. Ochrogaster, a genus of Australian processionary caterpillar. Attygalle, AB, S. Smedley, J. Meinwald and T. Eisner. 1993. Defensive secretion of 2 notodontid caterpillars. J. Chem Ecol 19:2089-2104. Blum, M. S. 1981. Chemical Defenses of Arthropods. Academic Press, New York. Chinery, Michael. 1991. Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Fullard, Jeff W. Dawson, L. Daniel Otero, Annemarie Surlykke. 1997. Bat-deafness in day-flying moths. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 181: 477-483 Grimaldi, D, MS Engel, 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. Miller, James. 1992. Host-plant association among prominent moths. BioScience 42: 50-56. Scoble, MJ. 1995. The Lepidoptera: Form and Diversity. Second ed. Oxford University Press. Skinner, Bernard. 1984. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles Weller, SJ. 1992. Survey of Adult Morphology in Nystaleinae and Related Neotropical Subfamilies.
Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 31:233-277. Family Notodontidae at Lepidoptera.pro azalea caterpillar, Datana major on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
The mottled beauty is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is a common species of the Near East; the species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae The wingspan is 32–40 mm. This is an variable species being buff or grey with black bars along the costa, but with a broad blackish band across the forewings. Melanic forms are common in industrial areas. In all but the darkest variations the most characteristic feature is a pale zigzag line across the hindwing; this moth is attracted to light. The larva feeds on the leaves and soft bark of a wide range of other plants; the species overwinters as a small larva. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range. Alnus – alder Betula – birch Calluna – heather Crataegus – hawthorn Cytisus – broom Filipendula – meadowsweet Ligustrum – privet Lonicera – honeysuckle Quercus – oak Rhododendron Ribes – currant Rubus – bramble Rumex – dock Salix – willow Sorbus – rowan Tilia – lime Vaccinium A. r. muraria A. r. repandata A. r. sodorensium Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles 1984 Mottled beauty at UKMoths Lepiforum e.
Coleophora binderella is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found from Scandinavia and Finland to the Iberian Peninsula and Italy, from Ireland to the Baltic States and Romania; the wingspan is 8–12 millimetres. Head deep shining ochreous. Antennae white, indistinctly ringed with fuscous, basal joint ochreous. Forewings deep shining ochreous, coppery tinged. Hindwings blackish.. Adults are on wing from late June to July; the larvae feed on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Alnus viridis, Betula pubescens, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus and Corylus avellana. They live in a composite leaf case composed of large leaf fragments. In spring, the case has two colours, consisting of dull yellowish and grey or pink old material dating from before hibernation and reddish brown new material. Data related to Coleophora binderella at Wikispecies
The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. Their scientific name derives from the Ancient Greek geo γη or γαια'the earth' and metron μέτρων'measure' in reference to the way their larvae, or inchworms, appear to "measure the earth" as they move along in a looping fashion. A large family, it has around 23,000 species of moths described, over 1400 species from six subfamilies indigenous to North America alone. A well-known member is the peppered moth, Biston betularia, subject of numerous studies in population genetics. Several other geometer moths are notorious pests. Many geometrids have slender abdomens and broad wings which are held flat with the hind wings visible; as such, they appear rather butterfly-like. They tend to blend into the background with intricate, wavy patterns on their wings. In some species, females have reduced wings. Most are of moderate size, about 3 cm in wingspan, but a range of sizes occur from 10–50 mm, a few species reach an larger size.
They have distinctive paired tympanal organs at the base of the abdomen. The name "Geometridae" derives from Latin geometra from Greek γεωμέτρης; this refers to the means of locomotion of the larvae or caterpillars, which lack the full complement of prolegs seen in other lepidopteran caterpillars, with only two or three pairs at the posterior end instead of the usual five pairs. Equipped with appendages at both ends of the body, a caterpillar clasps with its front legs and draws up the hind end clasps with the hind end and reaches out for a new front attachment - creating the impression that it measures its journey; the caterpillars are accordingly called loopers, spanworms, or inchworms after their characteristic looping gait. The cabbage looper and soybean looper are not inchworms, but caterpillars of a different family. In many species of geometer moths, the inchworms are about 25 mm long, they tend to be green, grey, or brownish and hide from predators by fading into the background or resembling twigs.
Many inchworms, when disturbed, stand erect and motionless on their prolegs, increasing the resemblance. Some have filaments, they are gregarious and are smooth. Some eat lichen, flowers, or pollen, while some, such as the Hawaiian species of the genus Eupithecia, are carnivorous. Certain destructive inchworms are called cankerworms; the placement of the example species follows a 1990 systematic treatment. Subfamilies are tentatively sorted in a phylogenetic sequence, from the most basal to the most advanced. Traditionally, the Archiearinae were held to be the most ancient of the geometer moth lineages, as their caterpillars have well-developed prolegs. However, it now seems that the Larentiinae are older, as indicated by their numerous plesiomorphies and DNA sequence data, they are either an basal lineage of the Geometridae – together with the Sterrhinae –, or might be considered a separate family of Geometroidea. As regards the Archiearinae, some species that were traditionally placed therein seem to belong to other subfamilies.
Larentiinae – about 5,800 species, includes the pug moths temperate, might be a distinct familySterrhinae – about 2,800 species tropical, might belong to same family as the Larentiinae Birch mocha, Cyclophora albipunctata False mocha, Cyclophora porata Maiden's blush, Cyclophora punctaria Riband wave, Idaea aversata Small fan-footed wave, Idaea biselata Single-dotted wave, Idaea dimidiata Small scallop, Idaea emarginata Idaea filicata Dwarf cream wave, Idaea fuscovenosa Rusty wave, Idaea inquinata Purple-bordered gold, Idaea muricata Bright wave, Idaea ochrata Least carpet, Idaea rusticata Small dusty wave, Idaea seriata Purple-barred yellow, Lythria cruentaria Vestal, Rhodometra sacraria Common pink-barred, Rhodostrophia vibicaria Middle lace border, Scopula decorata Cream wave, Scopula floslactata Small blood-vein, Scopula imitaria Lewes wave, Scopula immorata Lesser cream wave, Scopula immutata Mullein wave, Scopula marginepunctata Zachera moth, Semiothisa zachera Blood-vein, Timandra comae Eastern blood-vein, Timandra griseataDesmobathrinae – pantropical Geometrinae – emerald moths, about 2,300 named species, most tropical Archiearinae – 12 species.
Infant, Archiearis infans Scarce infant, Leucobrephos brephoides Oenochrominae – in some treatments used as a "wastebin taxon" for genera that are difficult to place in other groups Alsophilinae – a few genera, defoliators of trees, might belong in the Ennominae, tribe Boarmiini March moth, Alsophila aescularia Fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometariaEnnominae – about 9,700 species, including some defoliating pests, global distribution Geometridae genera incertae sedis include: Dichromodes Homoeoctenia Nearcha Fossil Geometridae taxa include: †Hydriomena? protrita Cockerell, 1922 Hausmann, A.: The geometrid moths of Europe. Apollo Books. Minet, J. & Scoble, M. J.: The Drepanoid / Geometroid Assemblage. In: N. P. Kristensen: Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches
Coleophora ibipennella is a moth of the case-bearer family. It is found in Europe from central Scandinavia southwards, as well as in North Africa and in the Near East to Lebanon; the caterpillars feed on oaks. The full grown larva lives in a black pistol case of about 7 mm long; the mouth angle is about 80°. From the rear end a grey silken cloak hangs down to halfway the mouth; this species has been known under the following now-obsolete scientific names: Coleophora alba Toll, 1952 Coleophora ardeaepennella Scott, 1861 Coleophora nemorum Heinemann, 1854 Coleophora peralba Toll, 1953 Coleophora quercivorella Capuse, 1971 Savela, Markku: Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Coleophora ibipennella. Version of 2010-FEB-01. Retrieved 2010-APR-13
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians have a larval phase of their life cycle; the larva's appearance is very different from the adult form including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may be different. Larvae are adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form. In some species like barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, use their mobile larval form to distribute themselves; some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers.
In Ropalidia marginata the males are capable of feeding larvae but they are much less efficient, spending more time and getting less food to the larvae. The larvae of some species do not develop further into the adult form; this is a type of neoteny. It is a misunderstanding; this could be the case, but the larval stage has evolved secondarily, as in insects. In these cases the larval form may differ more than the adult form from the group's common origin. Within Insects, only Endopterygotes show different types of larvae. Several classifications have been suggested by many entomologists, following classification is based on Antonio Berlese classification in 1913. There are four main types of endopterygote larvae types: Apodous larvae – no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. Based on sclerotization, three apodous forms are recognized. Eucephalous – with well sclerotized head capsule. Found in Nematocera and Cerambycidae families. Hemicephalus – with a reduced head capsule, retractable in to the thorax.
Found in Tipulidae and Brachycera families. Acephalus – without head capsule. Found in Cyclorrhapha Protopod larvae – larva have many different forms and unlike a normal insect form, they hatch from eggs which contains little yolk. Ex. first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. Polypod larvae – known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal prolegs, in addition to usual thoracic legs, they poorly sclerotized and inactive. They live in close contact with the food. Best example is caterpillars of lepidopterans. Oligopod larvae – have well developed head capsule and mouthparts are similar to the adult, but without compound eyes, they have six legs. No abdominal prolegs. Two types can be seen: Campodeiform – well sclerotized, dorso-ventrally flattened body. Long legged predators with prognathous mouthparts.. Scarabeiform – poorly sclerotized, flat thorax and abdomen. Short legged and inactive burrowing forms.. Crustacean larvae Ichthyoplankton Spawn Non-larval animal juvenile stages and other life cycle stages: In Porifera: olynthus, gemmule In Cnidaria: ephyra, strobila, hydranth, medusa In Mollusca: paralarva, young cephalopods In Platyhelminthes: hydatid cyst In Bryozoa: avicularium In Acanthocephala: cystacanth In Insecta: Nymphs and naiads, immature forms in hemimetabolous insects Subimago, a juvenile that resembles the adult in Ephemeroptera Instar, intermediate between each ecdysis Pupa and chrysalis, intermediate stages between larva and imago Protozoan life cycle stages Apicomplexan life cycle Algal life cycle stages: Codiolum-phase Conchocelis-phase Marine larval ecology Media related to Larvae at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C.
Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Feb 27, 2010 Vol.365 no.1540 653-669 Brusca, R. C. & Brusca, G. J.. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Hall, B. K. & Wake, M. H. eds.. The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms. San Diego: Academic Press. Leis, J. M. & Carson-Ewart, B. M. eds.. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes. An Identification Guide to Marine Fish Larvae. Fauna Malesiana handbooks, vol. 2. Brill, Leiden. Minelli, A.. The larva. In: Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution. Oxford University Press. P. 160-170. Link. Shanks, A. L.. An Identification Guide to the Larval Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 256 pp. Smith, D. & Johnson, K. B.. A Guide to Marine Coastal Plankton and Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Kendall/Hunt Plublishing Company. Stanwell-Smith, D. Hood, A. & Peck, L. S.. A field guide to the pelagic invertebrates larvae of the maritime Antarctic.
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. Thyssen, P. J.. Keys for Identification of Immature Insects. In: Amendt, J. et al.. Current Concepts in Forensic Entomology, chapter 2, pp. 25–42. Springer: Dordrecht
Coleophora betulella is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found except the Balkan peninsula; the wingspan is 10–15 mm. Head white. Antennae white, ringed with pale brownish, basal joint with rather short tuft. Forewings white. Hindwings rather dark grey. Only reliably identified by dissection and microscopic examination of the genitalia. Adults are on wing from June to July; the larvae feed on Betula pendula and Betula pubescens. In its final stage the larva lives in a pistol shaped case, that with a mouth angle of 30°-45° is standing obliquely on the leaf. Swedish Moths UKmoths Fauna Europaea