Fragaria × vescana
Fragaria × vescana is a hybrid strawberry cultivar, created in an effort to combine the best traits of the garden strawberry, which has large berries and vigorous plants, with the woodland strawberry, which has an exquisite flavour, but small berries. This cross cannot take place naturally. Fragaria × ananassa has eight sets of chromosomes. Repeated attempts to cross these resulted in sterile offspring. Researchers treated tissue from a Fragaria vesca plant with colchicine to create a mutant plant with four sets of chromosomes; this mutant was crossed with a Fragaria × ananassa plant, vigorous fertile offspring were obtained. The offspring were found to be decaploid. Fragaria × vescana remains under development. While the plants are vigorous like their F. × ananassa parents, the berries have the excellent flavour of the F. vesca parents, the berries are still quite small. The following decaploid strawberries were released by the Swedish breeding program at Balsgård:'Annelie"Sara' —'Annelie' ×'Rebecka' — × F. × ananassa F861502German F. × vescana cultivars:'Spadeka"Florika' — ×'Klettererdbeere Hummi' Bauer, A. 1993.
Progress in breeding decaploid Fragaria × vescana. Acta Hort. 348: 60-64
Heart and dart
The heart and dart is a moth of the family Noctuidae. A familiar moth to many, it is considered one of the most common of the European region, it occurs throughout the Palearctic ecozone from Ireland to Japan. This is a quite variable species, forewings ranging from pale to dark brown but always recognizable by the distinctively shaped dark stigmata which give it its common name; the hindwings are whitish. The wingspan is 35–44 mm; this species has a dark area at the front of the thorax, visible as a horizontal bar when viewing the moth head-on. This moth is attracted to light, sometimes in large numbers, it frequently visits nectar-rich flowers such as Buddleia and red valerian. The larva feeds on a variety of plants, both wild and cultivated; this is one of the notorious cutworms and severs or fatally damages plants at the base. The species overwinters as a full-grown larva in a chamber in the soil before pupating in the spring. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range.
A. e. corsica - Corsica A. e. exclamationis - Europe A. e. informis Leech, - Japan Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to the Moths of the British Isles 1984 Heart and Dart up UKmoths Heart and dart at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera pages Lepiforum.de
The grizzled skipper is a common butterfly from the family Hesperiidae, widespread throughout Europe. It is a small Skipper with a chequered pattern on its wings that appears to be white; this butterfly can be found throughout Europe and is concentrated in central and southern regions of England. The butterfly prefers three major types of habitat: woodland and industrial. Referenced as a superspecies, Pyrgus malvae includes three semispecies: malvae and melotis. Eggs are laid on plants that will provide warmth and proper nutrition for development, such as A. euphoria. As larvae, their movement is restricted to a single plant, on which they will build tents, unless they move onto a second host plant. Larvae spin cocoons on the last host plant they have occupied, where they remain until spring. Upon emerging as adult butterflies, grizzled skippers are quite active during the day and tend to favour blue or violet-coloured plants for food, they possess multiple methods of communication. Exhibiting territorial behaviour, males apply perching and patrolling strategies to mate with a desired female.
In terms of a species complex, Pyrgus malvae is considered a superspecies that consists of three semispecies, which exhibit geographic variations in the genitalia of both male and female butterflies. These three semispecies are considered to be the Pyrgus malvae, Pyrgus malvoides, Pyrgus melotis types; this classification can be described as a monophyletic clade. Significant isolation mechanisms exist to accentuate the division between the malvae type and melotis type, more than the difference between the malvae and malvoides types. In fact, interbreeding has been observed between the malvae and malvoides types, indicating their close relation - namely that they are both part of the same species. With its characteristic chequered black-and-white pattern, the grizzled skipper is quite distinctive, it is small, with an average forewing diameter of 12 millimeters, resembles moths in appearance. Males and females can be differentiated by the shape of their wings: males have more angular wings, while females have a more rounded wing shape.
Larvae are coloured light brown with darker brown stripes. Pygrus malvae can be found throughout Western Europe in northern Scandinavia, parts of Greece, some of the Mediterranean Islands, its populations in many European countries appear to be quite stable. It is present in Korea, as well as throughout the Mediterranean up to Middle Finland, in parts of Germany. Although grizzled skippers occupy three major forms of habitats, they tend to settle in environments with spring nectar plants, larval food plants, ranker vegetation, edges with scrub or woodland. Host plants are from the family Rosaceae with a focus on Agrimonia eupatoria as well as Potentilla. Woodland: This consists of sparsely distributed vegetation and can have regions of bare ground that result from cutting or windblow. Grassland: These can result from three different patterns that involve animal grazing, scrub cutting, or disturbance by animals: 1) Scrubby grassland that includes bramble and wild strawberry 2) Unimproved grassland that include creeping cinquefoil 3) Unimproved grassland that includes agrimony.
Industrial: Sparse vegetation with wild strawberry or creeping cinquefoil depending on whether the environment is along a railway or clay working. These environments have been abandoned recently. Other possible environments for the butterflies are heathland, sand dunes, acidic and marshy grassland. Studies support a concentrated preference for coloured flowers by grizzled skippers, they are most attracted to blue and violet while showing little or no attraction to white, yellow, or red. Butterflies have ultraviolet and blue receptors that may be responsible for Hesperiidae butterflies favoring blue; this evidence indicates that when butterflies from this species forage for food, they are attentive to short-wavelength light, reflected off flowers. In fact, this particular preference aligns with a prominent attentiveness that members of Hesperiidae have for blue; this preference may be a result of phylogenetic adaptations, foraging signals, learning abilities. The prevalence of blue flowers in lowlands could further intensify this preference for grizzled skippers that tend to be found in lowland grasslands.
An overarching theme in behavioral ecology can be seen through female grizzled skipper investment in host plant selection. Females tend to lay eggs on host plants that are viewed more nutritionally rich. However, this nutritional advantage for caterpillars must be balanced with the presence of a warm microclimate, suitable for the species. Warm microclimates align with P. tabernaemontani plants, but these may have an increased chance of desiccation. On the other hand, A. eupatoria is a larger plant when near molehills and can be found in more suitable environments. As a result, A. eupatoria provides an appropriate balance for both of these requirements and is preferred as a host plant by P. malvae near molehills. Females consider plant visibility, through prominence. More prominent host plants, like A. eupatoria over P. tabernaemontani, are favored. However, these two different habitats are used and may be evolutionary adaptations to offset the grizzled skippers’ risk of extinction imposed by a polarized weather pattern.
The Saturniinae or saturniines are a subfamily of the family Saturniidae. They are known as emperor moths or wild silk moths, they are spotted by the eyespots on the upper surface of their wings. Some exhibit realistic eye-like markings, whilst others have adapted the eyespots to form crescent moon or angular shapes or have lost their wing scales to create transparent windows, they are medium to large moths, with adult wingspans ranging from 7.5 to 15 cm, in some cases more. They consist of some of the largest groups of Lepidoptera like the moon or luna moth, atlas moth, many more; the Saturniinae is human food in many different cultures. The saturniine genera 169 in number, are divided into four major and one minor tribes, divided into nine subfamilies; the genus Adafroptilum presently consists of a group of species with undetermined relationships. Adults in the Saturniinae live about 5–12 days and are nocturnal, excluding males in four of the subfamilies; the moths do not eat during their short lives and their mouths are not formed.
In some species of Saturniinae, there is unmistakable sexual dimorphism. The females in these subfamilies can weigh double that of the males, are larger in size, have larger wings; the Saturniinae's eggs are laid flat against each other in clusters. Once hatched, the larval period lasts about 78 days, they pass through five larval instars, although some may have more. The pupal stage takes place in an yellowish cocoon. In this stage, they resemble small wooden barrels in color. Tribe Attacini Archaeoattacus Attacus Attacus atlas – Atlas moth Attacus dohertyi Attacus erebus Attacus lorquinii Callosamia Callosamia angulifera – tuliptree silkmoth Callosamia promethea – promethea silkmoth Coscinocera Coscinocera hercules – Hercules moth Epiphora Eupackardia Eupackardia calleta – calleta silkmoth Hyalophora Hyalophora euryalus – ceanothus silkmoth Hyalophora cecropia – cecropia moth Hyalophora columbia – Columbia silkmoth Hyalophora gloveri – Glover's silkmoth Rothschildia Grote, 1896 Rothschildia jacobaeae Rothschildia maurus Samia Samia cynthia – ailanthus silkmothTribe Bunaeini Packard, 1902 Athletes Aurivillius Bunaea Bunaea alcinoe – cabbage tree emperor moth Bunaeopsis Cinabra Cirina Eochroa Gonimbrasia Gonimbrasia belina – mopane moth, mopane worm Gynanisa Heniocha Imbrasia Leucopteryx Lobobunaea Melanocera Nudaurelia Protogynanisa Pseudimbrasia Pseudobunaea Rohaniella UbaenaTribe Micragonini Cockerell in Packard, 1914 Carnegia Decachorda Goodia Holocerina Ludia Micragone Orthogonioptilum Pseudoludia VegetiaTribe Saturniini Boisduval, 1837 Actias – Asian-American moon moths Agapema Agapema anona Agapema homogena Antheraea – tussar moths Antheraea polyphemus – Polyphemus moth Antheraeopsis Argema – African moon moths Argema mimosae – African moon moth Argema mittrei – comet moth Caligula Calosaturnia Ceranchia Copaxa Cricula Eudia Graellsia Graellsia isabellae – Spanish moon moth Lemaireia Loepa Loepa katinka – golden emperor moth Loepantheraea Neodiphthera Neoris Opodiphthera Pararhodia Perisomena Rhodinia Rinaca Saturnia – typical emperor moths Saturnia zuleika Solus SyntherataTribe Urotini Antherina Antistathmoptera Eosia Eudaemonia Maltagorea Parusta Pselaphelia Pseudantheraea Pseudaphelia Sinobirma Tagoropsis Urota UstaIncertae sedis Adafroptilum
The juniper pug or juniper looper is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found throughout the Near East. Subspecies interruptofasciata is sometimes treated as a valid species Eupithecia interruptofasciata; the forewings are greyish brown with two distinctive black bands. The wingspan is 17–21 mm; the adults are attracted to light. In the Old World the larva feeds on juniperus and on some other conifers in the cypress family such as Chamaecyparis and Thuja. In the New World there is a greater range of recorded food plants including apple, raspberry, strawberry and willow as well as juniper; the species overwinters as an egg. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range. Eupithecia pusillata pusillata Eupithecia pusillata interruptofasciata Packard, 1873 Eupithecia pusillata kashmirica Mironov & Ratzel, 2008 Eupithecia pusillata scoriata Staudinger, 1857 Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles 1984 Juniper Pug up UKmoths Lepiforum.de
The musk strawberry or hautbois strawberry, is a species of strawberry native to Europe. Its French name hautbois strawberry may be anglicised as hautboy strawberry; the plants are hardy and can survive in many weather conditions and are cultivated commercially on a small scale in Italy. The fruit are round. Popular cultivated varieties include'Capron' and'Profumata di Tortona'. Musk strawberries grow wild to a limited extent in the forests of Central Europe, north into Scandinavia, east into Russia; the musk strawberry is found growing along the edges of forests and requires moist and sheltered sites since they do not tolerate temperature fluctuations. All strawberries have a base haploid count of 7 chromosomes. Fragaria moschata is hexaploid. Musk strawberry has long been in cultivation in parts of Europe; this species was the first strawberry of any sort with a cultivar name, Le Chapiron. By 1591, the cultivar was called Chapiton later Capiton. In the early 17th century an illustration appeared in the Hortus Eystettensis as fraga fructu magno.
It was mentioned by Quintinye, gardener to Louis XIV, as Capron in 1672. At the beginning of the 19th century musk strawberries were the most common garden strawberry in Germany. Cultivation of musk strawberries is not different from that of garden strawberry or alpine strawberry. However, neither female plants nor hermaphrodite plants are self-fertile. Cultivars:'Capron royal', hermaphrodite'Askungen' hermaphrodite'Marie Charlotte' hermaphrodite'Bauwens', female Fragaria moschata'Capron', female'Profumata di Tortona', female'Siegerland', female'Cotta', male F. moschata information from Ibiblio's Plants for a Future database Den Virtuella Floran Swedish site with good photos of F. moschata. Smithsonian article on F. moschata
Common swift (moth)
The common swift is a moth of the family Hepialidae. It was placed in the genus Hepialus, it is a common abundant European species. The male has a wingspan of about 30 mm with dark brown forewings with white apical and basal streaks meeting to make a'v' shape with another spot close to the costa; the hindwings are plain brown. The female is larger with similar patterning to the male but paler and less distinct. A significant proportion of individuals of both sexes are plain brown with no pattern; the adults are attracted to light. The species overwinters as a larva; the larvae feed underground on the roots of a wide variety of plants and can be an agricultural pest. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range. "Narcissus pests, 6th ed". Ministry of Agriculture and Food Bulletin. 1970. Retrieved 20 December 2014. Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles 1984 Common swift up UKmoths Lepiforum.de