Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary in different jurisdictions. A constable is the rank of an officer within the police. Other people may be granted powers of a constable without holding this title; the title comes from the Latin comes stabuli and originated from the Roman Empire. The title was imported to the monarchies of medieval Europe, in many countries developed into a high military rank and great officer of State. Most constables in modern jurisdictions are law enforcement officers. However, in the Channel Islands a constable is an elected office-holder at the parish level. A constable could refer to a castellan, the officer charged with the defense of a castle. Today, there is a Constable of the Tower of London. An equivalent position is that of Marshal, which derives from Old High German marah "horse" and schalh "servant", meant "stable keeper", which has a similar etymology. In Australia, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank in most police services.
It is categorised into the following from lowest to highest: probationary constable, constable first class, senior constable, leading senior constable. These variations depend on the individual state/territory police force in question. Senior constable refers to a police officer of the rank above constable and is denoted by way of two chevrons/stripes; the New South Wales Police Force has three grades of senior constable, namely senior constable, incremental senior constable and leading senior constable. A senior constable is senior to a constable but junior to an incremental senior constable. Promotion to senior constable can occur after a minimum of five years service, one year as a probationary constable in addition to four years as constable and upon passing probity checks and an exam. Incremental senior constable is attained after ten years of service automatically. One is appointed the rank of leading senior constable on a qualification basis but must have a minimum of seven years service amongst other criteria in order to be eligible.
Leading senior constable is a specialist position of which there are limited allocated numbers within any section/unit or local area command. If an officer is transferred to another duty type or station, the officer is relieved of the position of leading senior constable, it is a position for field training officers who oversee the training and development of inexperienced probationary constables or constables. Within Victoria Police, a senior constable is the rank above a constable while above a senior constable is a leading senior constable; when first introduced into Victoria Police, the leading senior constable was a classification not a rank, somewhat like "detective". Leading senior constables were appointed to assist in the training and mentoring of more junior members; the last round of wage negotiations however saw leading senior constable become a rank in its own right, one that a lot of members will pass on their way from constable to sergeant though it is not necessary and is permissible to be promoted to sergeant direct from senior constable.
The general form of address for both senior constable and leading senior constable is "senior" and this is acceptable in courts. In Canada, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank with most law enforcement services, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In Newfoundland the provincial police are the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary whereby all officers are addressed by the term "constable". In addition, the chief officers of some municipal police services in Canada, notably Vancouver Police Department, carry the title of chief constableIn Canadian French, constable is translated to agent, except in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police where it is translated as gendarme.) Appointments can further be separated into: Special constables RCMP special constables are appointed for specific skills, for example, aboriginal language skills. They are peace officers under the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act. Outside of the RCMP, special constables are not police officers but are appointed to serve certain law enforcement functions.
For example, SPCA agents or court/jail security officers. Auxiliary constables, or reserve constables, are volunteers with a policing agency, they only have peace officer status when engaged in specific authorized tasks only. Provincial civil constables deal with matters of a civil nature. In the Danish armed forces the ranks "Konstabel", "Overkonstabel" and "Overkonstabel af 1. Grad" are used for professional enlisted soldiers and airmen; the rank is more or less equal to a Private, Private 1st class and Lance corporal but higher than the rank "menig" which translates into "private" and only applies to drafted soldiers. In the Finnish Police, the lowest rank of police
A traffic collision called a motor vehicle collision among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building. Traffic collisions result in injury and property damage. A number of factors contribute to the risk of collision, including vehicle design, speed of operation, road design, road environment, driver skill, impairment due to alcohol or drugs, behavior, notably distracted driving and street racing. Worldwide, motor vehicle collisions lead to death and disability as well as financial costs to both society and the individuals involved. In 2013, 54 million people worldwide sustained injuries from traffic collisions; this resulted in 1.4 million deaths in 2013, up from 1.1 million deaths in 1990. About 68,000 of these occurred in children less than five years old. All high-income countries have decreasing death rates, while the majority of low-income countries have increasing death rates due to traffic collisions.
Middle-income countries have the highest rate with 20 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, accounting for 80% of all road fatalities with 52% of all vehicles. While the death rate in Africa is the highest, the lowest rate is to be found in Europe. Traffic collisions can be classified by general types. Types of collision include head-on, road departure, rear-end, side collisions, rollovers. Many different terms are used to describe vehicle collisions; the World Health Organization uses the term road traffic injury, while the U. S. Census Bureau uses the term motor vehicle accidents, Transport Canada uses the term "motor vehicle traffic collision". Other common terms include auto accident, car accident, car crash, car smash, car wreck, motor vehicle collision, personal injury collision, road accident, road traffic accident, road traffic collision, road traffic incident as well as more unofficial terms including smash-up, pile-up, fender bender; some organizations have begun to avoid the term "accident", instead preferring terms such as "collision", "crash" or "incident".
This is because the term "accident" implies that there is no-one to blame, whereas most traffic collisions are the result of driving under the influence, excessive speed, distractions such as mobile phones or other risky behavior. In the United States, the use of terms other than "accidents" had been criticized for holding back safety improvements, based on the idea that a culture of blame may discourage the involved parties from disclosing the facts, thus frustrate attempts to address the real root causes. Following collisions, long-lasting psychological trauma may occur; these issues may make those. In some cases, the psychological trauma may affect individuals' life can cause difficulty to go to work, attend school, or perform family responsibilities. A number of physical injuries can result from the blunt force trauma caused by a collision, ranging from bruising and contusions to catastrophic physical injury or death. A 1985 study by K. Rumar, using British and American crash reports as data, suggested 57% of crashes were due to driver factors, 27% to combined roadway and driver factors, 6% to combined vehicle and driver factors, 3% to roadway factors, 3% to combined roadway and vehicle factors, 2% to vehicle factors, 1% to combined roadway and vehicle factors.
Reducing the severity of injury in crashes is more important than reducing incidence and ranking incidence by broad categories of causes is misleading regarding severe injury reduction. Vehicle and road modifications are more effective than behavioral change efforts with the exception of certain laws such as required use of seat belts, motorcycle helmets and graduated licensing of teenagers. Human factors in vehicle collisions include anything related to drivers and other road users that may contribute to a collision. Examples include driver behavior and auditory acuity, decision-making ability, reaction speed. A 1985 report based on British and American crash data found driver error and other human factors contribute wholly or to about 93% of crashes. Drivers distracted by mobile devices had nearly four times greater risk of crashing their cars than those who were not. Dialing a phone is the most dangerous distraction, increasing a drivers’ chance of crashing by 12 times, followed by reading or writing, which increased the risk by 10 times.
An RAC survey of British drivers found 78% of drivers thought they were skilled at driving, most thought they were better than other drivers, a result suggesting overconfidence in their abilities. Nearly all drivers, in a crash did not believe themselves to be at fault. One survey of drivers reported that they thought the key elements of good driving were: controlling a car including a good awareness of the car's size and capabilities reading and reacting to road conditions, road signs and the environment alertness and anticipating the behavior of other drivers. Although proficiency in these skills is taught and tested as part of the driving exam, a "good" driver can still be at a high risk of crashing because:...the feeling of being confident in more and more challenging situations is experienced as evidence of driving ability, that'proven' ability reinforces the feelings of confidence. Confidence grows unchecked until something happens -- a near-miss or an accident. An AXA survey concluded Irish drivers are safety-conscious relative to other European drivers.
However, this does not translate
Lakewood is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 80,048 at the 2010 census, it is bordered by Long Beach on the west and south, Bellflower on the north, Cerritos on the northeast, Cypress on the east, Hawaiian Gardens on the southeast. Major thoroughfares include Lakewood and Del Amo Boulevards and Carson and South Streets; the San Gabriel River Freeway runs through the city's eastern regions. Sometimes called "an instant city" because of its origins, going from lima bean fields in 1950 to a well-developed city by 1960, Lakewood is a classic example of a post–World War II American suburb. Lakewood is a post-World War II planned community. Developers Louis Boyar, Mark Taper and Ben Weingart are credited with "altering forever the map of Southern California." Begun in late 1949, the completion of the developers' plan in 1953 helped in the transformation of mass-produced housing from its early phases in the 1930s and 1940s to the reality of the 1950s. WWII veterans could get home loans with no down payment and a 30-year mortgage at only 4 percent interest.
On the first day of sales, March 24, 1950, an estimated 30,000 people lined up to walk through a row of seven model houses. By the end of April, more than 200,000 people had flocked to the Lakewood Park sales office and more than 1,000 families had purchased homes. On one occasion, 107 homes sold in just one hour; the monthly cost was $44 to $56, including principal and insurance. The building of Lakewood broke records. Empty fields became 17,500 houses in less than three years. A new house was completed every 7 1/2 minutes, 40 to 60 houses per day, with a record 110 completed in a single day. Lakewood's primary thoroughfares are boulevards with landscaped medians, with frontage roads on either side in residential districts. Unlike in most similar configurations, access to the main road from the frontage road is only possible from infrequently spaced collector streets; this arrangement, hailed by urban planners of the day, is a compromise between the traditional urban grid and the arrangement of winding "drives" and culs-de-sac that dominates contemporary suburban and exurban design.
As the unincorporated Lakewood grew to a community of more than 70,000 residents, so grew its municipal needs. Lakewood in 1953 had three choices: be annexed to nearby Long Beach, remain unincorporated and continue to receive county services, or incorporate as a city under a novel plan that continued county services under contract. In 1954, residents chose the latter option and voted to incorporate as a city, the largest community in the country to do so and the first city in Los Angeles County to incorporate since 1939. Lakewood is credited as a pioneer among California cities in service provision. Although it is an incorporated city, Lakewood still contracts for most municipal services, with most of these provided by Los Angeles County and, to a lesser extent, by other public agencies and private industry. Lakewood was the first city in the nation to contract for all of its municipal services when it incorporated as a municipality in 1954, making it the nation's first "contract city." Many other Los Angeles suburbs, such as Cerritos, Bellflower and Diamond Bar, have adopted the so-called "Lakewood Plan."
About half the cities in Los Angeles County contract for law enforcement from Los Angeles County though the County Sheriff's Department. Lakewood is the home of the first Denny's Restaurant. In 1953 Harold Butler founded Danny's Donuts, renamed Denny's Restaurant in 1959. Lakewood attracted widespread media attention in 1993 when nine boys attending Lakewood High School were arrested on allegations of rape and lewd conduct. Charges were dropped against eight of the boys, the Los Angeles Times writing: Under the glare of public scrutiny, the white, middle-class city of 76,000 became identified with rampant promiscuity and familial dysfunction; the Spur story served to harness fears about teenage values, to give form to a shapeless anxiety about life on Main Street. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.5 square miles. 9.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Lakewood had a population of 80,048.
The population density was 8,456.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lakewood was 44,820 White, 6,973 African American, 564 Native American, 13,115 Asian, 744 Pacific Islander, 9,249 from other races, 4,583 from two or more races. In addition, there were 24,101 Hispanic or Latino residents of any race; the Census reported that 79,939 people lived in households, 109 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 26,543 households, out of which 10,649 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 14,711 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,975 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,696 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,262 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 283 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 4,719 households were made up of individuals and 1,965 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01. There were 20,382 families (76.8% of all househ
A vehicle is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, motor vehicles, railed vehicles, amphibious vehicles and spacecraft. Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types and definitions; the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation are logboats, with the oldest logboat found, the Pesse canoe found in a bog in the Netherlands, being carbon dated to 8040 - 7510 BC, making it 9,500–10,000 years old, a 7,000-year-old seagoing boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait. Boats were used in the Indian Ocean. There is evidence of camel pulled wheeled vehicles about 4000–3000 BC; the earliest evidence of a wagonway, a predecessor of the railway, found so far was the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece since around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. In 200 CE, Ma Jun built a vehicle with an early form of guidance system. Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages; the earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. 1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in 1769. In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, gear box and bearings. 1783 Montgolfier brothers first balloon vehicle 1801 Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, which many believe was the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, though it could not maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use.
1817 Push bikes, draisines or hobby horses were the first human means of transport to make use of the two-wheeler principle, the draisine, invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais, is regarded as the forerunner of the modern bicycle. It was introduced by Drais to the public in Mannheim in summer 1817. 1885 Karl Benz built the first automobile, powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine in Mannheim, Germany 1885 Otto Lilienthal began experimental gliding and achieved the first sustained, reproducible flights. 1903 Wright brothers flew the first controlled, powered aircraft 1907 First helicopters Gyroplane no.1 and Cornu helicopter 1928 Opel RAK.1 rocket car 1929 Opel RAK.1 rocket glider 1961 Vostok vehicle carried the first human, Yuri Gagarin, into space 1969 Apollo Program first manned vehicle landed on the moon 2010 The number of road motor vehicles in operation worldwide surpassed the 1 billion mark – one for every seven people. There are over 1 billion bicycles in use worldwide.
In 2002 there were an estimated 590 million cars and 205 million motorcycles in service in the world. At least 500 million Chinese Flying Pigeon bicycles have been made, more than any other single model of vehicle; the most-produced model of motor vehicle is the Honda Super Cub motorcycle, having passed 60 million units in 2008. The most-produced car model is the Toyota Corolla, with at least 35 million made by 2010; the most common fixed-wing airplane is the Cessna 172, with about 44,000 having been made as of 2017. The Soviet Mil Mi-8, at 17,000, is the most-produced helicopter; the top commercial jet airliner is the Boeing 737, at about 10,000 in 2018. Locomotion consists of a means that allows displacement with little opposition, a power source to provide the required kinetic energy and a means to control the motion, such as a brake and steering system. By far, most vehicles use wheels which employ the principle of rolling to enable displacement with little rolling friction, it is essential.
Energy can be extracted from external sources, as in the cases of a sailboat, a solar-powered car, or an electric streetcar that uses overhead lines. Energy can be stored, provided it can be converted on demand and the storing medium's energy density and power density are sufficient to meet the vehicle's needs. Human power is a simple source of energy. Despite the fact that humans cannot exceed 500 W for meaningful amounts of time, the land speed record for human-powered vehicles is 133 km/h, as of 2009 on a recumbent bicycle; the most common type of energy source is fuel. External combustion engines can use anything that burns as fuel, whilst internal combustion engines and rocket engines are designed to burn a specific fuel gasoline, diesel or ethanol. Another common medium for storing energy is batteries, which have the advantages of being responsive, useful in a wide range of power levels, environmentally friendly, simple to install, easy to maintain. Batteries facilitate the use of electric motors, which have thei
Sheriffs in the United States
In the United States, a sheriff is an official in a county or independent city responsible for keeping the peace and enforcing the law. Unlike most officials in law enforcement in the United States, sheriffs are elected, although many states have state laws requiring that a person possess certain law enforcement qualifications before being able to run for the office. Elected sheriffs are accountable directly to the constitution of their state, the United States Constitution and the citizens of their county; the responsibilities of sheriffs and their agencies vary by county. Many sheriffs have the role of a police chief, though some lead agencies with limited law enforcement duties. Sheriffs are often responsible for managing county jails and security at local government buildings; the law enforcement agency headed by a sheriff is most referred to as the "Sheriff's Office", while some are instead called the "Sheriff's Department." According to the National Sheriffs' Association, an American sheriff's advocacy group, there were 3,081 sheriff's offices as of 2015.
These range in size from small forces in sparsely populated rural areas to large, full-service law enforcement agencies, such as the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, the largest sheriff's office and the seventh largest law enforcement agency in the United States, with 16,400 members and 400 reserve deputies. A regular officer of a sheriff's office is known as a deputy sheriff, sheriff's deputy or informally as a deputy. In a small sheriff's office, the deputies are supervised directly by the sheriff. Large sheriffs offices have several ranks in a similar manner to a police department; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department has thousands of regular deputies, who are 8 ranks below the sheriff. The actual second-in-command of the sheriff holds the title of chief deputy or undersheriff. In some counties, the undersheriff is the warden of the county jail. Of the 50 U. S. states, 48 have sheriffs. The two exceptions are Alaska, which does not have counties, Connecticut, which has no county governments.
The federal district and the 5 populated territories do not have county governments. Sheriffs are elected to four-year terms in 42 states, two-year terms in Arkansas and New Hampshire, three-year terms in New Jersey, six-year terms in Massachusetts. Sheriffs are appointed instead of elected in Hawaii, Rhode Island and a small number of counties elsewhere. In many rural areas of the United States in the South and West, the sheriff has traditionally been viewed as one of a given county's most influential political office-holder; the role of a sheriff's offices varies from state to state and from county to county. Sheriffs and their deputies tend to be sworn peace officers with the power to make arrests and serve before a magistrate or judge, serve warrants for arrest or order for arrest, give a ticket/citation; some states extend this authority to the entire state. In a small sheriff's office, the sheriff is to carry out law enforcement duties just like a regular deputy or police officer. In medium-sized or large sheriff's office, this is rare.
Many sheriff's offices perform other functions such as traffic control, animal enforcement, accident investigations, homicide investigation, narcotics investigation, transportation of prisoners, school resource officers, courthouse security. Larger departments may perform other criminal investigations or engage in other specialized law enforcement activities; some larger sheriff's departments may have aviation, motorcycle unit, K9 units, tactical units, mounted details, or water patrols at their disposal. In some areas of the country, such as in California's San Bernardino, Orange, Sierra and Ventura counties, the sheriff's office has the responsibility of a coroner's office, is charged with recovering deceased persons within their county and conducting autopsies; the official in charge of such sheriff's departments is titled sheriff-coroner or sheriff/coroner, officers who perform this function for such departments are titled deputy sheriff-coroner or deputy coroner. Many sheriff's departments enlist the aid of local neighborhoods, using a community policing strategy, in working to prevent crime.
The National Neighborhood Watch Program, sponsored by the National Sheriffs' Association, allows civilians and law enforcement officers to cooperate in keeping communities safe. As the trends of sheriff's law enforcement duties becoming more extensive and complex continues, new career opportunities for people with specialized skills are opening up in sheriff's offices around the country. Among the specialties now in demand are underwater diving, boating, snow skiing, radar technology, computer technology, emergency medicine, foreign languages. Sheriff's offices may coexist with other county level law enforcement agencies such as county police, county park police, etc. Sheriffs in the United States fall into three broad categories: Restricted service – provide basic court related services such as keeping the county jail, transporting prisoners, providing courthouse security and other duties with regard to service of process and summonses that are issued by county and state courts; the sheriff often conducts public auction sales of real property in foreclosure in many jurisdictions, is also empowered to conduct seizures of chattel property to satisfy a judgment.
In other jurisdictions, these civil process duties are performed by other