N. C. Wyeth
Newell Convers Wyeth, known as N. C. Wyeth, was illustrator, he became one of America's greatest illustrators. During his lifetime, Wyeth created more than 3,000 paintings and illustrated 112 books, 25 of them for Scribner's, the Scribner Classics, the work for which he is best known; the first of these, Treasure Island, was one of his masterpieces and the proceeds paid for his studio. Wyeth was a realist painter at a time when the camera and photography began to compete with his craft. Sometimes seen as melodramatic, his illustrations were designed to be understood quickly. Wyeth, both a painter and an illustrator, understood the difference, said in 1908, "Painting and illustration cannot be mixed—one cannot merge from one into the other."He is the father of Andrew Wyeth and the grandfather of Jamie Wyeth, both well-known American painters. Wyeth was born in Massachusetts. An ancestor, Nicholas Wyeth, a stonemason, came to Massachusetts from England in 1645. Ancestors were prominent participants in the French and Indian Wars, the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the American Civil War, passing down rich oral histories and tradition to Wyeth and his family and providing subject matter for his art, felt.
His maternal ancestors came from Switzerland, during his childhood, his mother was acquainted with literary giants Henry David Thoreau and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. His literary appreciation and artistic talents appear to have come from her, he was the oldest of four brothers who spent much time hunting and enjoying other outdoor pursuits, doing chores on their farm. His varied youthful activities and his astute sense of observation aided the authenticity of his illustrations and obviated the need for models: "When I paint a figure on horseback, a man plowing, or a woman buffeted by the wind, I have an acute sense of the muscle strain."His mother encouraged his early inclination toward art. Wyeth was doing excellent watercolor paintings by the age of twelve, he went to Mechanics Arts School to learn drafting, Massachusetts Normal Art School, now Massachusetts College of Art and Design, where painting instructor Richard Andrew advised him to become an illustrator, the Eric Pape School of Art to learn illustration, under George Loftus Noyes and Charles W. Reed.
A bucking bronco for the cover of The Saturday Evening Post on February 21, 1903 was Wyeth's first commission as an illustrator. That year he described his work as "true, solid American subjects—nothing foreign about them."It was a spectacular accomplishment for the 20-year-old Wyeth, after just a few months under Pyle's tutelage. In 1904, the same magazine commissioned him to illustrate a Western story, Pyle urged Wyeth to go West to acquire direct knowledge, much as Zane Grey had done for his Western novels. In Colorado, he worked as a cowboy alongside the professional "punchers," moving cattle and doing ranch chores, he gained an understanding of Native American culture. When his money was stolen, he worked as a mail carrier, riding between the Two Grey Hills trading post and Fort Defiance, to earn enough to get back home, he wrote home, "The life is wonderful, strange—the fascination of it clutches me like some unseen animal—it seems to whisper,'Come back, you belong here, this is your real home.'"On a second trip two years he collected information on mining and brought home costumes and artifacts, including cowboy and Indian clothing.
His early trips to the western United States inspired a period of images of cowboys and Native Americans that dramatized the Old West. Upon returning to Chadds Ford, he painted a series of farm scenes for Scribner's, finding the landscape less dramatic than that of the West but nonetheless a rich environment for his art: "Everything lies in its subtleties, everything is so gentle and simple, so unaffected." His painting Mowing, not done for illustration, was among his most successful images of rural life. Wyeth created a stimulating household for his talented children Andrew Wyeth, Henriette Wyeth Hurd, Carolyn Wyeth, Ann Wyeth McCoy, Nathaniel C. Wyeth. Wyeth was sociable, frequent visitors included F. Scott Fitzgerald, Joseph Hergesheimer, Hugh Walpole, Lillian Gish, John Gilbert. According to Andrew, who spent the most time with his father due to his sickly childhood, Wyeth was a strict but patient father who did not talk down to his children, his hard work as an illustrator gave his family the financial freedom to follow their own artistic and scientific pursuits.
Andrew went on to become one of the foremost American artists of the second half of the 20th century, both Henriette and Carolyn became artists also. Nathaniel became an engineer for DuPont and worked on the team that invented the plastic soda bottle. Henriette and Ann married Peter Hurd and John W. McCoy. Wyeth is the grandfather of artists Jamie Wyeth and Michael Hurd, the musician Howard Wyeth. By 1911, Wyeth began to move away on to illustrating classic literature, he painted a series for an edition of Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson, thought by many to be his finest group of illustrations. The proceeds from this great success paid for his studio, he illustrated editions of Kidnapped, Robin Hood, The Last of the Mohicans, Robinson Crusoe, Rip Van Winkle, The White Company, The Yearling. He did work for prominent periodicals, including Century, Harper's Monthly, Ladies' Home Journal, McClure's, The Popular Magazine, Scribner's. By 1914, Wyeth loathed the commercia
Leon Kroll was an American painter and lithographer. Known as a figurative artist, Life Magazine described him as "the dean of U. S. nude painters," yet he was an exceptional landscape painter and produced an exceptional body of still life compositions. Born into a musical family on lower Second Avenue in New York City, Kroll's father was a violinist and his cousin was William Kroll, he studied at the Art Students League of New York under John Henry Twachtman, at the Académie Julian in Paris with Jean Paul Laurens in the late 1800s. In 1913 Kroll showed work at the Armory Show. In addition to his own work, Kroll taught at the Art Students League of New York and the school of the National Academy of Design, where he had his first solo exhibition in 1910, was named as Associate in 1920 and as full Academician in 1927. In 1930, he was elected to the American Academy of Letters, he was named Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1950. Kroll died in Gloucester, Massachusetts aged 89. Artist-Writer Jerome Myers in his autobiography Artist In Manhattan said: Leon Kroll has the eye of a hawk and the heart of a dove, to say that he has both intelligence and feeling.
What he has given to our art is a matter of public record over more years than either he or I would care to say. An academician and at the same time a humanitarian, Leon Kroll is a consummate craftsman, always sympathetic towards youthful talent, boldly standing up for the rights of others as well as for his own, his art activities have been overlapping several generations. As a teacher and lecturer, he has been foremost in the van of the Woodstock tradition, he was an able president of the Painters and Engravers Society, is an outstanding member of the National Academy. A fluent performer in many branches of art, his convictions have remained unshaken by the extremists. Leon Kroll's success is to be respected. I have always found him a gallant adversary in argument, an artist who has captured many hearts as well as many prizes. Among Kroll's major public works are murals at: the Department of Justice Building, 1935 the Worcester Memorial Auditorium, Massachusetts, 1938-1942 senate chamber murals for the Indiana Statehouse, with farm figures described by critics as "Bolsheviks", 1952 Shriver Hall at Johns Hopkins University, circa 1953 ceiling mural for the Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial, near Colleville-sur-Mer, France Leeds, Valerie Ann.
Leon Kroll Revisited. New York: Gerald Peters Gallery, 1998. Online biography another online biography Works at New Mexico Museum of Art
John Fulton Folinsbee
John Fulton "Jack" Folinsbee was an American landscape and portrait painter, a member of the art colony at New Hope, Pennsylvania. He is best known today for his impressionist scenes of New Hope and Lambertville, New Jersey the factories and canals along the Delaware River, he was born in New York, the middle son of Harrison and Louise Mauger Folinsbee. Beginning at age nine, he attended children's classes at the Art Students' League of Buffalo, but received his first formal training with the landscape painter Jonas Lie in 1907. Folinsbee contracted polio at age 14, which rendered his legs useless, weakened his right arm, left him permanently wheelchair-bound, he attended The Gunnery, a boarding school in Washington, from 1907 to 1911, where he studied with Elizabeth Kempton and Herbert Faulkner. He studied with Birge Harrison and John Carlson at the Woodstock art colony, with Frank Vincent DuMond at the Art Students League of New York. At Woodstock, he met Harry Leith-Ross, who became a lifelong friend and followed him to New Hope.
In 1914, Folinsbee married Ruth Baldwin – daughter of William H. Baldwin, Jr. and Ruth Standish Baldwin – whom he had met in Washington, Connecticut. The couple moved to New Hope in 1916, had two daughters and Joan. Early in his career, Folinsbee painted in a tonalist style, with an interest in light and atmosphere that grew directly from his time with Harrison and Carlson in Woodstock. By the late nineteen-teens, he had moved away from tonalism into a more structured, impressionist style. In the mid-1920s, Folinsbee began studying the work of Cézanne, which led to a trip to France in the summer of 1926; the paintings that resulted from this trip, those that followed in the decade, reflect a deep understanding of Cézanne's compositional strategies and a desire to reveal the underlying structure of forms. Folinsbee's exploration of structure led to an analytical individual expressionist style in which he painted for the remainder of his career, his palette darkened, his brushstrokes loosened further, his sense of light and atmosphere became more dramatic.
These works are concerned with conveying a sense of mood and an intense emotional response to the world around him. His basic aim was the communication of feeling; the communication of that feeling was. Folinsbee painted en plein air, directly from nature, he always had a sketchbook or a box of 8 x 10 inch canvasboards with him, ready to capture any scene that caught his eye. He and Leith-Ross were famous for spending afternoons sketching on the bridge at New Hope. Folinsbee could handle "paintings as large as 24 X 30" from his wheelchair. Larger works were painted in his studio from drawings and oil sketches, he repeated the same scene on different sized canvases, or as an etching or lithograph. To paint a large work, he would lean a canvas against the studio wall and sit on the floor before it, his withered legs tucked under him. Relying on notes made on the spot about color and light, he would edit the scene as he painted, emphasizing or eliminating elements to enhance the overall mood. "The larger studio paintings were never blown-up versions of a successful small painting: rather they were developments of a theme along expressive lines, with memory and emotional reaction playing an important role."The Folinsbees purchased an acre of riverfront land about a quarter-mile upstream from the bridge, across the street from the house they were renting.
In 1924, they hired architect Morgan Colt to design them studio. Folinsbee painted dozens of views of the river from the property – most notably Winter Nocturne, River Ice, his last major work, Zero Morning – and some views of the house itself, they lived at 160 North Main Street until their deaths. In 1929, the Folinsbees were among the founders of Phillips' Mill, an arts center housed in a former grist mill, Ruth Folinsbee served as the first vice-president of its community association, he participated in art exhibitions there from 1929 into the 1960s. His Shag Ledge was awarded the 1963 First Patron's Prize by Phillips' Mill; the Folinsbees were founding members of the Bucks County Playhouse. The Great Depression dealt a heavy blow to artists, with little market for luxury goods such as landscape paintings. Folinsbee resorted to bartering his works for services, including dentistry for his daughters. Portraits – for which he charged $400 to $500 for a head-and-bust and $1,000 for a three-quarter-length – became a larger part of his output.
Edward Beatty Rowan, assistant chief of the Public Buildings Administration's Section of Painting and Sculpture, offered him a commission for a post office mural in Freeland, Pennsylvania. Completed in 1938, Folinsbee's mural is both pastoral and industrial: depicting the town's church spires peeking out from among the autumnal-colored hills, but featuring the town's massive coal breaker and its long culm dump. Folinsbee was a teacher. One of his better-known students, Peter G. Cook, became a friend; the pair collaborated on murals for two other federal projects: the Federal Building and U. S. Courthouse in Paducah and the post office in Burgettstown, Pennsylvania. In the mid-1930s, Folinsbee and his family began spending their summ
Frederic Edwin Church
Frederic Edwin Church was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. He was a central figure in the Hudson River School of American landscape painters, best known for painting large landscapes depicting mountains and sunsets. Church's paintings put an emphasis on realistic detail, dramatic light, panoramic views, he debuted some of his major works in single-painting exhibitions to a paying and enthralled audience in New York City. In his prime, he was one of the most famous painters in the United States. Frederic Edwin Church was a direct descendant of Richard Church, a Puritan pioneer from England who accompanied Thomas Hooker on the original journey through the wilderness from Massachusetts to what would become Hartford, Connecticut. Church was the son of Joseph Church. Frederic had no surviving brothers, his father was successful in business as a silversmith and jeweler and was a director at several financial firms. The family's wealth allowed Frederic to pursue his interest in art from a early age.
In 1844, aged 18, Church became the pupil of landscape artist Thomas Cole in Catskill, New York after Daniel Wadsworth, a family neighbor and founder of the Wadsworth Athenaeum, introduced the two. Church studied with him for two years. Cole wrote that Church had "the finest eye for drawing in the world". During his time with Cole, he travelled around New England and New York to make sketches, visiting East Hampton, Long Island, Catskill Mountain House, The Berkshires, New Haven, Vermont, his first recorded sale of a painting was in 1846 to Hartford's Wadsworth Athenaeum for $130. In 1848, he was elected as the youngest Associate of the National Academy of Design and was promoted to full member the following year, he took his own students: William James Stillman in 1848 and Jervis McEntee in 1850. Romanticism was prominent in Britain and France in the early 1800s as a counter-movement to the rationalism of the Age of Enlightenment. Artists of the Romantic period depicted nature in idealized scenes that depicted the richness and beauty of nature, sometimes with emphasis on its grand scale.
This tradition carried on in the works of Church, who idealizes an uninterrupted nature, highlighted by his excruciatingly detailed art. The emphasis on nature is encouraged by a preponderance of sky. Church "hid" his brushstrokes so that the painting surface was smooth and the painter's "personality" absent. Church was the product of the second generation of the Hudson River School, a movement in American landscape art founded by his teacher Thomas Cole. Both Cole and Church were devout Protestants, the latter's beliefs played a role in his paintings his early canvases. Hudson River School paintings were characterized by their focus on traditional pastoral settings the Catskill Mountains, their Romantic qualities, they attempted to capture the wild realism of an unsettled America, disappearing, the appreciation of natural beauty. His American frontier landscapes show the "expansionist and optimistic outlook of the United States in the mid-nineteenth century." Church differed from Cole in the topics of his paintings: he preferred natural and majestic scenes over Cole's propensity towards allegory—though Church's work has been re-examined in terms of themes and meanings.
The Prussian explorer and scientist Alexander von Humboldt was a major influence on Church. In his Kosmos, Humboldt put forth a vision of the interconnectedness of science, the natural world, spiritual concerns. Kosmos, which Church owned, dedicated a chapter to landscape painting; as Charles Darwin's theory of evolution began to overturn Humboldt's ideas of unity in the 1860s, art historians have examined how Church's painting responded to this disruption in Church's world view. The English art critic John Ruskin was another important influence on Church. In Ruskin's Modern Painters, he emphasizes the close observation of nature: "the imperative duty of the landscape painter to descend to the lowest details with undiminished attention; every class of rock, every kind of earth, every form of cloud, must be studied with equal industry, rendered with equal precision." This attention to detail must be combined with the artist's interpretation and imagination to achieve great art. While Church's paintings were praised in the 1850s and 1860s, some critics found his detailed panoramas lacking in the imaginative or poetic.
In his 1879 American Painters, George W. Sheldon wrote of Church's canvases, "It is scarcely necessary to... explain what their principal defect is, because, by this time, that defect must have been recognized by every intelligent American lover of art. It consists in the elaboration of details at the expense of the unity and force of sentiment.... They are faithful and beautiful, but they are not so rich as they might be in the poetry, the aroma, of art; the higher and spiritual verities of Nature are the true home of landscape art."Some of Church's paintings relate to, influenced, the luminist landscape style as well. Luminist art tends to emphasize horizontals, use non-diffuse light, hide brushstrokes such that the painter's presence, or "personality", is less apparent to the viewer. An exhibition book considers Church's Morning in the Tropics and Twilight in the Wilderness to highlight the style's "meticulous draftsmanship and intense colors", while Cotopaxi and The Parthenon "exemplif
Robert Henri was an American painter and teacher. He was a leading figure of the Ashcan School of American realism and an organizer of the group known as "The Eight," a loose association of artists who protested the restrictive exhibition practices of the powerful, conservative National Academy of Design. Robert Henri was born Robert Henry Cozad in Cincinnati, Ohio to Theresa Gatewood Cozad and John Jackson Cozad, a gambler and real estate developer. Henri was a distant cousin of the painter Mary Cassatt. In 1871, Henri's father founded the town of Ohio. In 1873, the family moved west to Nebraska. In October 1882, Henri's father became embroiled in a dispute with a rancher, Alfred Pearson, over the right to pasture cattle on land claimed by the family; when the dispute turned physical, Cozad shot Pearson fatally with a pistol. Cozad was cleared of wrongdoing, but the mood of the town turned against him, he fled to Denver and the rest of the family followed shortly afterwards. In order to disassociate themselves from the scandal, family members changed their names.
The father became known as Richard Henry Lee, his sons posed as adopted children under the names Frank Southern and Robert Earl Henri. In 1883, the family moved to New York City to Atlantic City, New Jersey, where the young artist completed his first paintings. In 1886, Henri enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he studied under Thomas Anshutz, a protege of Thomas Eakins, Thomas Hovenden. In 1888, he traveled to Paris to study at the Académie Julian, where he studied under the academic realist William-Adolphe Bouguereau, came to admire the work of Francois Millet, embraced Impressionism. "His European study had helped Henri develop rather catholic tastes in art." He was admitted into the École des Beaux Arts. He visited Italy during this period. At the end of 1891, he returned to Philadelphia, studying under Robert Vonnoh at the Pennsylvania Academy. In 1892, he began teaching at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women. "A born teacher, Henry enjoyed immediate success at the school."
In Philadelphia, Henri began to attract a group of followers who met in his studio to discuss art and culture, including several illustrators for the Philadelphia Press who would become known as the "Philadelphia Four": William Glackens, George Luks, Everett Shinn, John Sloan. They called themselves the Charcoal Club, their gatherings featured life drawing, raucous socializing, readings and discussions of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, Émile Zola, Henry David Thoreau, William Morris Hunt, George Moore. By 1895, Henri had come to reconsider his earlier love of Impressionism, calling it a "new academicism." He was urging his friends and proteges to create a new, more realistic art that would speak directly to their own time and experience. He believed that it was the right moment for American painters to seek out fresh, less genteel subjects in the modern American city; the paintings by Henri, Glackens, Luks and others of their acquaintance that were inspired by this outlook came to be called the Ashcan School of American art.
They spurned academic Impressionism as an art of mere surfaces. Art critic Robert Hughes declared, he wanted paint to be as real as mud, as the clods of horse-shit and snow, that froze on Broadway in the winter, as real a human product as sweat, carrying the unsurpressed smell of human life." Ashcan painters began to attract public attention in the same decade in which the realist fiction of Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris was finding its audience and the muckraking journalists were calling attention to slum conditions. For several years, Henri divided his time between Philadelphia and Paris, where he met the Canadian artist James Wilson Morrice. Morrice introduced Henri to the practice of painting pochades on tiny wood panels that could be carried in a coat pocket along with a small kit of brushes and oil; this method facilitated the kind of spontaneous depictions of urban scenes which would come to be associated with his mature style. In 1898, Henri married a student from his private art class.
The couple spent the next two years on an extended honeymoon in France, during which time Henri prepared canvases to submit to the Salon. In 1899 he exhibited "Woman in Manteau" and La Neige, purchased by the French government for display in the Musée du Luxembourg, he taught at the Veltin School for Girls beginning in 1900 and at the New York School of Art in 1902, where his students included Joseph Stella, Edward Hopper, Rockwell Kent, George Bellows, Norman Raeben, Louis D. Fancher, Stuart Davis. In 1905, long in poor health, died. Three years Henri remarried. In 1906, Henri was elected to the National Academy of Design, but when painters in his circle were rejected for the Academy's 1907 exhibition, he accused fellow jurors of bias and walked off the jury, resolving to organize a show of his own, he would refer to the Academy as "a cemetery of art." In 1908, Henri was one of the organizers of a landmark show entitled "The Eight" at the Macbeth Galleries in New York. Besides his own works and those produced by the "Philadelphia Four", three other artists who painted in a di
Winslow Homer was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art. Self-taught, Homer began his career working as a commercial illustrator, he subsequently took up oil painting and produced major studio works characterized by the weight and density he exploited from the medium. He worked extensively in watercolor, creating a fluid and prolific oeuvre chronicling his working vacations. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1836, Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer and Henrietta Benson Homer, both from long lines of New Englanders, his mother was Homer's first teacher. She and her son had a close relationship throughout their lives. Homer took on many of her traits, including her quiet, strong-willed, sociable nature. Homer had a happy childhood, growing up in then-rural Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was an average student. Homer's father was a volatile, restless businessman, always looking to "make a killing".
When Homer was thirteen, Charles gave up the hardware store business to seek a fortune in the California gold rush. When that failed, Charles left his family and went to Europe to raise capital for other get-rich-quick schemes that didn't materialize. After Homer's high school graduation, his father saw a newspaper advertisement and arranged for an apprenticeship. Homer's apprenticeship at the age of 19 to J. H. Bufford, a Boston commercial lithographer, was a formative but "treadmill experience", he worked repetitively on other commercial work for two years. By 1857, his freelance career was underway after he turned down an offer to join the staff of Harper's Weekly. "From the time I took my nose off that lithographic stone", Homer stated, "I have had no master, never shall have any."Homer's career as an illustrator lasted nearly twenty years. He contributed illustrations of Boston life and rural New England life to magazines such as Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly at a time when the market for illustrations was growing and fads and fashions were changing quickly.
His early works commercial wood engravings of urban and country social scenes, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, lively figure groupings—qualities that remained important throughout his career. His quick success was due to this strong understanding of graphic design and to the adaptability of his designs to wood engraving. Before moving to New York in 1859, Homer lived in Massachusetts with his family, his uncle's Belmont mansion, the 1853 Homer House, was the inspiration for a number of his early illustrations and paintings, including several of his 1860s croquet pictures. The Homer House, owned by the Belmont Woman's Club, is open for public tours. In 1859, he opened a studio in the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City, the artistic and publishing capital of the United States; until 1863, he attended classes at the National Academy of Design, studied with Frédéric Rondel, who taught him the basics of painting. In only about a year of self-training, Homer was producing excellent oil work.
His mother tried to raise family funds to send him to Europe for further study but instead Harper's sent Homer to the front lines of the American Civil War, where he sketched battle scenes and camp life, the quiet moments as well as the chaotic ones. His initial sketches were of the camp and army of the famous Union officer, Major General George B. McClellan, at the banks of the Potomac River in October 1861. Although the drawings did not get much attention at the time, they mark Homer's expanding skills from illustrator to painter. Like with his urban scenes, Homer illustrated women during wartime, showed the effects of the war on the home front; the war work was exhausting. Back at his studio, Homer re-focus his artistic vision, he set to work on a series of war-related paintings based on his sketches, among them Sharpshooter on Picket Duty, Sweet Home, Prisoners from the Front. He exhibited paintings of these subjects every year at the National Academy of Design from 1863 to 1866. Home, Sweet Home was shown at the National Academy to particular critical acclaim.
During this time, he continued to sell his illustrations to periodicals such as Our Young Folks and Frank Leslie's Chimney Corner. After the war, Homer turned his attention to scenes of childhood and young women, reflecting nostalgia for simpler times, both his own and the nation as a whole, his Crossing the Pasture in the collection of the Amon Carter Museum of American Art depicts two boys who idealize brotherhood with the hope of a united future after the war that pitted brother against brother. Homer was interested in postwar subject matter that conveyed the silent tension between two communities seeking to understand their future, his oil painting A Visit from the Old Mistress shows an encounter between a group of four freed slaves and their former mistress. The formal equivalence between the standing figures suggests the balance that the nation hoped to find in the difficult years of Reconstruction. Homer composed this painting from sketches. Near the beginning of his painting career, the 27-year-old Homer demonstrated a maturity
John Marin was an early American modernist artist. He is known for his abstract watercolors. Marin was born in New Jersey, his mother died nine days after his birth, he was raised by two aunts in Weehawken, New Jersey. He attended the Stevens Institute of Technology for a year, tried unsuccessfully to become an architect. From 1899 to 1901, Marin attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. In Philadelphia he studied with William Merritt Chase, he studied at the Art Students League of New York. In 1905, like many American artists Marin went to Europe to Paris, he exhibited his work in the Salon, where he got his first exposure to modern art. He traveled through Europe for six years, painted in the Netherlands, Belgium and Italy. In Europe, he mastered a type of watercolor where he achieved an abstract ambience a pure abstraction with color that ranges from transparency to translucency, accompanied by strong opacities, linear elements, always with a sense of freedom, which became one of his trademarks.
In 1909, Marin held his first one-man exhibition at Alfred Stieglitz's 291 gallery in New York City. He had been introduced to Stieglitz by the photographer Edward Steichen, whom Marin in turn had met through the painter Arthur B. Carles. Marin's association with Stieglitz would last nearly forty years, Stieglitz's philosophical and financial support would prove essential. From 1909 until his death in 1946, Stieglitz showed Marin's work every year in one of his galleries. Marin participated in the landmark 1913 Armory Show. Marin spent his first summer in Maine in 1914 and immediately the rocky coast there became one of his favorite subjects. Over the rest of his life, Marin became intimately familiar with the many moods of the sea and sky in Maine. "In painting water make the hand move the way the water moves," Marin wrote in a 1933 letter to an admirer of his technique. Marin had a retrospective show in 1936 at the Museum of Modern Art. Late in life Marin achieved tremendous prestige as an American painter, an elder statesman of American art.
In 1950, he was honored by the University of Maine and Yale University with honorary degrees of Doctor of Fine Arts. Marin was a resident of Cliffside Park, New Jersey in his last years, maintained a summer home in Addison, where he died in 1953, he was interred at Fairview Cemetery. John Marin was among the first American artists to make abstract paintings. Marin is credited with influencing the Abstract Expressionists, his treatment of paint—handling oils like watercolors—his forays into abstraction, his use of evocative stretches of bare canvas caught the eye of younger painters. His experience with architecture might have contributed to the role played by architectural themes in his paintings and watercolors; the largest collection of Marin's paintings, drawings and photographs are at the Colby College Museum of Art, the John Marin Collection, given to the college by John Marin Jr. and Norma B. Marin. Marin's paintings are represented in several important permanent collections and museums including: the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Brooklyn Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Gallery of Art and The Phillips Collection, both in Washington, D.
C. the Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge and many others. The White House acquired his 1952 painting "The Circus No. 1" in 2007, it is now displayed in the Green Room. Adelson, Warren. Marin: The Late Oils, New York: Adelson Galleries. ISBN 0-9815801-1-4 Balken, Debra Bricker, John Marin: Modernism at Midcentury, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-14993-7. Fine, John Marin, Washington, D. C.: National Gallery of Art. Fine, The John Marin Collection at the Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville: Colby College Museum of Art, ISBN 0-9728484-0-1. Gray, Cleve, ed. John Marin by John Marin, New York: Holt and Winston. Harnsberger, R. Scott, Four Artists of the Stieglitz Circle: A Sourcebook on Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, John Marin, Max Weber, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-31488-8. Kertess, Marin in Oil, Southampton, NY: Parrish Art Museum. Marin, Selected Writings, New York: Pellegrini & Cudahy. Museum of Modern Art, John Marin: Watercolors, Oil Paintings, New York: Arno Press. Reich, John Marin: A Stylistic Analysis and Catalogue Raisonné, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, ISBN 9780816502660.
Teachout, Terry. "How a Great American Painter Vanished From the Critical Scope". Wall Street Journal. New York, NY, USA: News Corporation. 258. ISSN 0099-9660. OCLC 4299067. Retrieved August 14, 2011. John Marin was once expected to stand among the greatest American painters of the 20th century. Tedeschi, Martha. Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Sheldon, ed. John Marin Drawings, 1886-1951, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. Wright, Frederick Stallknecht, John Marin Memorial Exhibition, Los Angeles: UCLA Art Galleries. Young, John Sacret, John Marin: The Edge of Abstraction, New York: Meredith Ward Fine Art. "Deer Isle" Watercolor at The Art Institute of Chicago Self portrait at The National Portrait Gallery "Two Master Under Sail" watercolor by John Marin on artnet Short Biography Exhibition: "The Edge of Abstraction" Joh