In baseball or softball, a strikeout occurs when a batter accumulates three strikes during a time at bat. It usually means the batter is out, a strikeout is a statistic recorded for both pitchers and batters, and is denoted by K. Although a strikeout suggests that the pitcher dominated the batter, the style that generates home runs also leaves batters susceptible to striking out. Some of the greatest home run hitters of all time — such as Alex Rodriguez, Gorman Thomas, Reggie Jackson, and Sammy Sosa — were notorious for striking out. A pitched ball is ruled a ball by the if the batter did not swing at it and, in that umpires judgment. Any pitch at which the batter swings or, that in that umpires judgment passes through the zone, is ruled a strike. Each ball and strike affects the count, which is incremented for each pitched ball with the exception of a ball on any count with two strikes. That is, a strike may only occur by the batter swinging and missing at a pitched ball. A pitched ball that is struck by the batter with the bat on any count, a batter may also strike out by bunting, even if the ball is hit into foul territory. In Japan, this is called furinige, or swing and escape, in Major League Baseball, it is known as an uncaught third strike. When this happens, a strikeout is recorded for both the pitcher and the batter, but no out is recorded, because of this, a pitcher may occasionally be able to record more than three strikeouts in one half-inning. In baseball scorekeeping, a strikeout is recorded as a K. A strikeout looking is often scored with a backward K, and sometimes as a K-L, CK, despite the scorekeeping custom of using K for strikeout, SO is the official abbreviation used by Major League Baseball. K is still used by fans and enthusiasts for purposes other than official record-keeping. The K may be placed backward in cases where the batter strikes out looking, the use of K for a strikeout was invented by Henry Chadwick, a newspaper journalist who is widely credited as the originator of the box score and the baseball scorecard. As is true in much of baseball, both the box score and scorecard remain largely unchanged to this day, Chadwick decided to use K, the last letter in struck, since the letter S was used for sacrifice. Chadwick was responsible for several other scorekeeping conventions, including the use of numbers to designate player positions and those unaware of Chadwicks contributions have speculated that K was derived from the last name of 19th century pitcher Matt Kilroy. If not for the evidence supporting Chadwicks earlier use of K, Kilroy raised the prominence of the strikeout, setting an all-time single-season record of 513 strikeouts in 1886, only two years after overhand pitching was permitted
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can later attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East, West, and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position. Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket also descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1979, his first year of eligibility. Mays shares the record of most appearances in the All-Star Games,24, with Hank Aaron, in appreciation of his All-Star record, Ted Williams said They invented the All-Star Game for Willie Mays. In 1999, Mays placed second on The Sporting Newss List of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, later that year, he was also elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Mays is one of five National League players to have had eight consecutive 100-RBI seasons, along with Mel Ott, Sammy Sosa, Chipper Jones, and Albert Pujols. Mays hit over 50 home runs in 1955 and 1965, representing the longest time span between 50-plus home run seasons for any player in Major League Baseball history and his final Major League Baseball appearance came on October 16 during Game 3 of the 1973 World Series. Mays was born in Westfield, Alabama, just outside Fairfield and his father, Cat Mays, was a talented baseball player with the Negro team for the local iron plant. His mother, Annie Satterwhite, was a basketball and track star in high school. His parents never married each other, as a baby, Mays was cared for by his mothers younger sisters Sarah and Ernestine. Sarah became the female role model in Mays life. His father exposed him to baseball at an age. At age 10, Mays was allowed to sit on the bench of his fathers League games, Mays played multiple sports at Fairfield Industrial High School, averaging a then-record 17 points a game in basketball and more than 40 yards a punt in football, while also playing quarterback. Mays graduated from Fairfield in 1950, Mays professional baseball career began in 1947, while he was still in high school and played briefly with the Chattanooga Choo-Choos in Tennessee during the summer. A short time later, Mays left the Choo-Choos and returned to his state to join the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro American League. Mays helped them win their pennant and advance to the 1948 Negro League World Series, Mays hit a respectable.262 for the season, but it was also his excellent fielding and baserunning that made him a standout. By playing professionally with the Black Barons, Mays jeopardized his opportunities to high school sports in Alabama. This created some problems for him with school administrators at Fairfield. Over the next years, a number of Major League baseball franchises sent scouts to watch him play. The first was the Boston Braves, the scout who discovered him, Bud Maughn, had been following him for over a year and referred him to the Braves, who then packaged a deal which called for $7,500 down and $7,500 in 30 days
Tristram Edgar Speaker, nicknamed The Grey Eagle, was an American baseball player. Considered one of the best offensive and defensive center fielders in the history of Major League Baseball and his 792 career doubles represent an MLB career record. His 3,514 hits are fifth in the all-time hits list, defensively, Speaker holds career records for assists, double plays, and unassisted double plays by an outfielder. His fielding glove was known as the place where triples go to die, after playing in the minor leagues in Texas and Arkansas, Speaker debuted with the Boston Red Sox in 1907. He became the center fielder by 1909 and led the Red Sox to World Series championships in 1912 and 1915. In 1915, Speakers batting average dropped to.322 from.338 the previous season, as player-manager for Cleveland, he led the team to its first World Series title. In ten of his seasons with Cleveland, he finished with a batting average greater than.350. Speaker resigned as Clevelands manager in 1926 after he and Ty Cobb faced game fixing allegations, during his managerial stint in Cleveland, Speaker introduced the platoon system in the major leagues. Speaker played with the Washington Senators in 1927 and the Philadelphia Athletics in 1928, then became a minor league manager and he later held several roles for the Cleveland Indians. Late in life, Speaker led a short-lived indoor baseball league, ran a liquor business, worked in sales. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937 and he was named 27th in the Sporting News 100 Greatest Baseball Players and was also included in the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Speaker was born on April 4,1888, in Hubbard, Texas, to Archie, as a youth, Speaker broke his arm after he fell from a horse, the injury forced him to become left-handed. In 1905, Speaker played a year of baseball for Fort Worth Polytechnic Institute. He worked on a ranch before beginning his professional baseball career, Speakers abilities drew the interest of Doak Roberts, owner of the Cleburne Railroaders of the Texas League, in 1906. After losing several games as a pitcher, Speaker converted to outfielder to replace a Cleburne player who had struck in the head with a pitch. Speakers mother opposed his participation in the leagues, saying that they reminded her of slavery. Though she relented, for several years Mrs. Speaker questioned why her son had not stayed home and he performed well for the Texas Leagues Houston Buffaloes in 1907, but his mother stated that she would never allow him to go to the Boston Americans. Roberts sold the youngster to the Americans for $750 or $800, Speaker played in seven games for the Americans in 1907, with three hits in 19 at bats for a.158 average
Donald Richard Richie Ashburn, also known by the nicknames, Putt-Putt, The Tilden Flash, and Whitey due to his light-blond hair, was an American center fielder in Major League Baseball. He was born in Tilden, Nebraska, from his youth on a farm, he grew up to become a professional outfielder and veteran broadcaster for the Philadelphia Phillies and one of the most beloved sports figures in Philadelphia history. He was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1995, one of the famous Whiz Kids of the National League champion 1950 Phillies, Ashburn spent 12 of his 15 major-league seasons as the Phillies center fielder. He sported a.308 lifetime batting average, leading the National League twice, and routinely led the league in fielding percentage. In 1950, in the last game of the season, he threw Dodgers runner Cal Abrams out at home plate to preserve a 1–1 tie. He had been playing in to back up a throw on a pitchout. The following year Ashburn displayed his skill on the national stage in the All-Star Game at Tiger Stadium in Detroit. Ashburn caught the ball in front of the right centerfield screen 400 feet distant after a long run and he was also the last Phillies player to collect eight hits in a double-header when he singled eight times in a twinbill at Pittsburgh on May 20,1951. Ashburn was a singles hitter rather than a slugger, accumulating over 2,500 hits in 15 years against only 29 home runs. In his day he was regarded as the archetypal spray hitter, stroking the ball well to all fields. Ashburn accumulated the most hits of any batter during the 1950s, during an August 17,1957 game Ashburn hit a foul ball into the stands that struck spectator Alice Roth, wife of Philadelphia Bulletin sports editor Earl Roth, breaking her nose. When play resumed Ashburn fouled off another ball struck her while she was being carried off in a stretcher. Ashburn and Mrs. Roth maintained a friendship for many years, Ashburn was traded to the Chicago Cubs following the 1959 season for three players. He went on to anchor center field for the North Siders in 1960 and 1961, Ashburn was drafted by the expansion New York Mets for the 1962 season. He had a good year offensively, batting.306, and was the teams first-ever All-Star Game representative. It was, however, a year for the polished professional. He retired at the end of the season, one oft-told story is that on short flies to center or left-center, center fielder Ashburn would collide with shortstop Elio Chacón. Chacón, from Venezuela, spoke little English and had difficulty understanding when Ashburn was calling him off the ball, to remedy matters teammate Joe Christopher taught Ashburn to say Yo la tengo, Spanish for I’ve got it
Ken Griffey Jr.
George Kenneth Ken Griffey Jr. nicknamed Junior and The Kid, is an American former professional baseball outfielder who played 22 years in Major League Baseball. He spent most of his career with the Seattle Mariners and Cincinnati Reds, a 13-time All-Star, Griffey is one of the most prolific home run hitters in baseball history, his 630 home runs rank as the sixth-most in MLB history. Griffey was also a defender and won 10 Gold Glove Awards in center field. He is tied for the record of most consecutive games with a home run, although popular with fans around the league, Griffey was unable to shake reports of his petulant demeanor throughout his major league baseball career. Griffey is one of only 29 players in history to date to have appeared in Major League games in four different calendar decades. Following his playing career, Griffey joined the Mariners front office as a special consultant and he was inducted into both the Mariners Hall of Fame and the Reds Hall of Fame. In 2016, Griffey was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, receiving a record 99. 32% of the vote and he is the son of former MLB player Ken Griffey Sr. Griffey was born in Donora, Pennsylvania, on November 21,1969. His family moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where his father, Ken Griffey Sr. played for the Cincinnati Reds, Ken Jr. was in the clubhouse during his fathers back-to-back championships in the 1975 and 1976 World Series. As a young child, Ken Sr. would instill in his son the pride of a team accomplishment rather than the individual performance and my dad would have bopped me on the head when I was a kid if I came home bragging about what I did on the field. He only wanted to know what the team did and he attended Archbishop Moeller High School in Cincinnati, where he was the U. S high school baseball player of the year in 1987. Griffey was the number one selection by the Seattle Mariners during the Major League Baseball Amateur Draft held on June 2,1987. He received a bonus of $16,000 from the Mariners. On June 11,1987 he joined the Bellingham Mariners of the Northwest League and he made his professional debut on June 16th,1987. During the 54-game season he hit.313 and he led the team with 14 home runs,40 RBI, and 13 steals. Baseball America magazine named him the number one major league prospect. In 1988, Griffey joined the San Bernardino Spirit of the California League, during his 58 games with the Spirit, Griffey batted.338, hit 11 home runs, drove in 42 runs, and stole an astounding 32 bases. Late in the season, Griffey was promoted to the Vermont Mariners of the Class AA Eastern League and he played the final 17 games with the club, hitting.279 with 2 home runs and 10 RBI. In his eleven seasons with Seattle Griffey established himself as one of the most prolific and exciting players of the era, racking up 1,752 hits,398 home runs,1,152 RBIs, and 167 stolen bases