George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. was an American professional baseball player whose career in Major League Baseball spanned 22 seasons, from 1914 through 1935. Nicknamed "The Bambino" and "The Sultan of Swat", he began his MLB career as a stellar left-handed pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, but achieved his greatest fame as a slugging outfielder for the New York Yankees. Ruth established many MLB batting records, including career home runs, runs batted in, bases on balls, slugging percentage, on-base plus slugging. Ruth is regarded as one of the greatest sports heroes in American culture and is considered by many to be the greatest baseball player of all time. In 1936, Ruth was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame as one of its "first five" inaugural members. At age 7, Ruth was sent to St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a reformatory where he learned life lessons and baseball skills from Brother Matthias Boutlier of the Xaverian Brothers, the school's disciplinarian and a capable baseball player.
In 1914, Ruth was signed to play minor-league baseball for the Baltimore Orioles but was soon sold to the Red Sox. By 1916, he had built a reputation as an outstanding pitcher who sometimes hit long home runs, a feat unusual for any player in the pre-1920 dead-ball era. Although Ruth twice won 23 games in a season as a pitcher and was a member of three World Series championship teams with the Red Sox, he wanted to play every day and was allowed to convert to an outfielder. With regular playing time, he broke the MLB single-season home run record in 1919. After that season, Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sold Ruth to the Yankees amid controversy; the trade fueled Boston's subsequent 86 year championship drought and popularized the "Curse of the Bambino" superstition. In his 15 years with the Yankees, Ruth helped the team win seven American League pennants and four World Series championships, his big swing led to escalating home run totals that not only drew fans to the ballpark and boosted the sport's popularity but helped usher in baseball's live-ball era, which evolved from a low-scoring game of strategy to a sport where the home run was a major factor.
As part of the Yankees' vaunted "Murderers' Row" lineup of 1927, Ruth hit 60 home runs, which extended his MLB single-season record by a single home run. Ruth's last season with the Yankees was 1934. During his career, Ruth led the AL in home runs during a season 12 times. Ruth's legendary power and charismatic personality made him a larger-than-life figure during the Roaring Twenties. During his career, he was the target of intense press and public attention for his baseball exploits and off-field penchants for drinking and womanizing, his reckless lifestyle was tempered by his willingness to do good by visiting children at hospitals and orphanages. After his retirement as a player, he was denied the opportunity to manage a major league club, most due to poor behavior during parts of his playing career. In his final years, Ruth made many public appearances in support of American efforts in World War II. In 1946, he died from it two years later. Ruth remains a part of American culture and in 2018, President Donald Trump posthumously awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
George Herman Ruth Jr. was born in 1895 at 216 Emory Street in the Pigtown section of Baltimore, Maryland. Ruth's parents and George Herman Ruth Sr. were both of German ancestry. According to the 1880 census, his parents were born in Maryland, his paternal grandparents were from Hanover. Ruth Sr. worked a series of jobs that included streetcar operator. The elder Ruth became a counterman in a family-owned combination grocery and saloon business on Frederick Street. George Ruth Jr. was born in the house of his maternal grandfather, Pius Schamberger, a German immigrant and trade unionist. Only one of young George's seven siblings, his younger sister Mamie, survived infancy. Many details of Ruth's childhood are unknown, including the date of his parents' marriage; as a child, Ruth spoke German. When young George was a toddler, the family moved to 339 South Woodyear Street, not far from the rail yards. Details are scanty about why young George was sent at the age of 7 to St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a reformatory and orphanage.
As an adult, Babe Ruth reminisced that as a youth he had been running the streets and attending school, as well was drinking beer when his father was not looking. Some accounts say that following a violent incident at his father's saloon, the city authorities decided that this environment was unsuitable for a small child. George, Jr. entered St. Mary's on June 13, 1902, he was spent much of the next 12 years there. Although St. Mary's boys received an education, students were expected to learn work skills and help operate the school once the boys turned 12. Ruth became a shirtmaker and was proficient as a carpenter, he would adjust his own shirt collars, rather than having a tailor do so during his well-paid baseball career. The boys, aged 5 to 21, did most work around the facility, from cooking to shoemaking, renovated St. Mary's in 1912; the food was simple, the Xaverian Brothers who ran the school insisted on strict discipline. Ruth's nickname there was "Niggerlips", as he had large facial features and was darker than most boys at the all-whi
Joseph Start, nicknamed "Old Reliable", was one of the most durable regulars of baseball's earliest era, one of the top first basemen of his time. He started his career in 1859, before the advent of organized leagues and paid professionalism, continued to play until 1886, when he was 43. Writing in the SABR Nineteenth Century Committee's Nineteen Century Notes, baseball historian Bill Ryczek wrote: "There have been a number of 20th-century players who had long careers, but the game that Tommy John played during his rookie year was much like the game he played during his final season in 1989; when 16-year-old Joe Start began playing in 1859, pitchers threw underhand with a stiff wrist from behind a line 45 feet from home plate, a fly ball caught on one bounce was an out, gloves were unheard of, as were professional ballplayers. During his final season, pitchers threw over-hand or sidearm with velocity, unimaginable in 1859; the one-bounce out was 20 years in the grave, most players wore fielding gloves.
All of the top players were professionals, baseball had become big business, far removed from the amateur affair of 1859. Despite the dramatic changes in the game of baseball, Joe Start remained a steady, productive player, adapting to the changes as as they appeared, he was a regular until his final year." Born in New York City, he led the Brooklyn Atlantics, the team he joined in 1862, to undefeated seasons in 1864 and 1865. In 1871, he joined the new National Association's New York Mutuals, hitting a career-high.360 in his first season with the team, when he was age 28. When the National League was formed in 1876, the Mutuals joined. After spending 1877 with the Hartford Dark Blues and 1878 with the Chicago White Stockings. 1878 was Start's best season with the bat. He led the league with 125 total bases, he came close to the league lead with 12 doubles, 5 triples, one home run. His 58 runs; these statistics came in only 285 at bats, at the age of 35, long after most players have begun to decline.
From 1879 until 1885, when he was 42, Start held down first base for the Providence Grays and continued to hit well. 1885 was Providence's last season in the NL, so in 1886, he moved to the Washington Nationals for what would be his final season. Start only played 31 games for the Nationals, did not hit well, retired from professional play. After this final sub-par season, his lifetime Major League batting average dipped below.300, to.299. For the final nine seasons of Start's career, he was the oldest player on any major league roster. Over his full major league career Start amassed 1418 hits, 854 runs, 544 RBI in National League and National Association play, he logged a.299 batting average, a.322 on-base percentage, a.367 slugging percentage. These totals do not include his first 12 pre-league years, since they were achieved in much shorter seasons than today's professionals play, they only reflect a portion of his value to his teams. In addition, his career spanned many important rule changes that changed the game in pivotal ways, but Start continued to play at a high level through all of them.
Start's 1879 Providence team won the National League, in 1884 they won a championship, beating the New York Metropolitans. Writing at 19cBaseball.com, early game historian Eric Miklich asserted that "Start was reported to be an excellent fielder and may have been the first first baseman to play off of the bag when not receiving a throw, enabling him to increase the area of the infield that he covered. At that time first basemen played close to or on top of the base, waiting to take throws from the infielders."Start died in Providence, Rhode Island at the age of 84. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference
Ezra Ballou Sutton was an American third baseman in the National Association and Major League Baseball from 1871 to 1888. Sutton collected 1,574 hits during this time period. Like many players in an era when walks were more rare, Sutton did not walk a lot, only drawing 169 walks in more than 5,500 plate appearances. By all measures, Sutton had his 2 best seasons in 1883 and 1884 – he collected 203 runs and 296 hits during those 2 seasons. On May 8, 1871, Sutton hit the first home run in professional baseball history for the Cleveland Forest Citys against the Chicago White Stockings, he would go on to hit another home run in the game but Cleveland still lost the game 14–12. The Seneca Falls, New York born Sutton came to the Cleveland Forest Citys in 1870 from the Alert club of Rochester, New York, joined the Philadelphia Athletics in 1873 after the Cleveland club failed; as third baseman for each he had the unique distinction of playing in both the first National Association game on May 4, 1871 and the first National League game on April 22, 1876.
But his main team was the Boston Red Caps where he won pennants in 1877, 1878, 1883. After the National League's formation in 1876, he was one of the first several players to collect 1,000 hits in the major leagues. Sutton died at a private hospital in Massachusetts. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Baseball Almanac
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
John Clapp (baseball)
John Edgar Clapp, nicknamed "Honest John", was a professional baseball player-manager whose career spanned 12 seasons, 11 of which were spent with the Major League Baseball Middletown Mansfields, Philadelphia Athletics, St. Louis Brown Stockings, Indianapolis Blues, Buffalo Bisons, Cincinnati Stars, Cleveland Blues, New York Gothams. Clapp, who predominately played as a catcher played as an outfielder. Over his career, Clapp compiled a career batting average of.283 with 459 runs scored, 713 hits, 92 doubles, 35 triples, 7 home runs, 834 runs batted in. Over 1,188 games played, Clapp struck out 51 times. Although the majority of his career was spent in the major leagues, Clapp played two seasons of minor league baseball, he made his MLB debut at the age of 21 and was listed as standing 5 feet 7 inches and weighing 194 pounds. His brother, Aaron Clapp played one season of MLB for the Troy Trojans. John Edgar Clapp was born on July 1851, in Ithaca, New York. In 1872, Clapp began his professional career with the Middletown Mansfields of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players.
Over 19 games played, Clapp batted.278 with one home run and a team-high 30 runs scored while managing the team to a 5–19 record. After the team folded, Clapp joined the Philadelphia Athletics, his single home run tied him for the team-lead along with Wes Fisler, Cherokee Fisher, Tim Murnane. Next season, in 1874, Clapp led the NA in at bats per home run. In his final year with the club, Clapp batted.264 with 77 hits and 39 RBI. His putout total was second in the NA among catchers. In 1876, Clapp joined the St. Louis Brown Stockings of the National League, he finished the year tied for the team lead in games played and hits, while he led the NL in putouts as a catcher, with 333. Next season, Clapp batted a career high.318, while his on-base percentage and on-base plus slugging percentages were the second highest in his career. In the field, Clapp committed 40 errors as a catcher, second highest in the NL to Lew Brown's 49. After leaving the team, Clapp joined the Indianapolis Blues, where he served as a player-manager for the 1878 season.
Playing in the outfield, Clapp was tied for the MLB lead in games played along with Indianapolis teammates Silver Flint, Russ McKelvy, Orator Shafer, Ned Williamson. After his one-year stint with the Blues, Clapp joined the Buffalo Bisons. Playing in 70 games, Clapp managed the team to a 46–32 record, placing the Bisons third in the NL. On June 25 of that year, Clapp ended a streak of 212 consecutive games played, serving as a catcher. In 1880, now playing and managing for the Cincinnati Stars, Clapp played in a total of 80 games, a career high, while leading the team to a 21–59 record, he played for the Cleveland Blues in 1881, when he earned the nickname "Honest": in May, a Chicago bookmaker named James S. Woodruff offered Clapp $5,000 to allow a passed ball with runners on base, wanted to be informed which games to bet on when the moves would take place. Clapp reported him to the Chicago police. In 1882, after leading the NL in walks, Clapp made his minor-league debut for the New York Metropolitans of the League Alliance.
In 1883, his last MLB season, Clapp played for and managed the New York Gothams for their inaugural season. Clapp 34, spent his final professional season with the St. Paul Apostles, where he batted.180 with 11 hits and a double. After retiring from baseball, Clapp served as a night sergeant in his hometown of New York, he died at midnight on December 1904, of apoplexy. Clapp was interred at Lake View Cemetery in Ithaca. List of Major League Baseball player–managers General"John Clapp Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved September 10, 2011. "John Clapp Minor League Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved September 10, 2011. Specific Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference
Roger Connor was a 19th-century Major League Baseball player. He played for several teams, but his longest tenure was in New York, where he was responsible for the New York Gothams becoming known as the Giants, he was the player. Connor hit 138 home runs during his 18-year career, his career home run record stood for 23 years after his retirement in 1897. Connor managed minor league baseball teams after his playing days, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by its Veterans Committee in 1976. Forgotten after his retirement, Connor was buried in an unmarked grave until a group of citizens raised money for a grave marker in 2001. Connor was born in Connecticut, he was the son of Irish immigrants Mortimer Catherine Sullivan Connor. His father had arrived in the United States only five years before Roger's birth; the family lived in the Irish section of Waterbury, known as the Abrigador district, separated from the rest of the city by a large granite hill. Connor was the third of eleven children born to the family.
Connor left school around age 12 to work with his father at the local brass works. Connor entered professional baseball with the Waterbury Monitors of the Eastern League in 1876. Though he was left-handed, Connor was a third baseman, he came to the National League in 1880 as a member of the Troy Trojans. In Connor's first year with the Troy Trojans, he teamed with future Hall of Fame players Dan Brouthers, Buck Ewing, Tim Keefe and Mickey Welch, all of whom were just starting their careers. On that 1880 Trojans team, though much older, was player-manager Bob "Death to Flying Things" Ferguson. Though Connor and Welch were in the lineup, the other future stars each played in only a handful of the team's 83 games that season; the team finished in fourth place with a 41-42 win-loss record. Connor committed 60 errors in 83 games and sustained a shoulder injury, prompting a position change to first baseman for 1881, he played for the New York Gothams, due to his great stature, gave that team the enduring nickname "Giants".
Connor hit baseball's first grand slam on September 10, 1881. His grand slam came with two outs and his team down three runs in the bottom of the ninth inning, a situation known today as a walk-off home run. George Vecsey, in The New York Times wrote: "Roger Connor was a complete player — a deft first baseman and an agile base runner who hit 233 triples and stole 244 bases despite his size."He led the NL with a.371 average in 1885. On September 11, 1886, Connor hit a ball out of the Polo Grounds, a difficult park in which to hit home runs, he hit the pitch from Boston's Old Hoss Radbourn onto 112th Street. The New York Times reported of the feat, "He met it squarely and it soared up with the speed of a carrier pigeon. All eyes were turned on the tiny sphere as it soared over the head of Charlie Buffinton in right field." A group of fans with the New York Stock Exchange took up a collection for Connor and bought him a $500 gold watch in honor of the home run. Another New York baseball team known as the Giants, emerged with the founding of the Players' League in 1890.
Several players from the NL team left for the new league's Giants team, including future Hall of Famers Connor, Jim O'Rourke and Hank O'Day. In 123 games, Connor registered 169 hits, a.349 batting average, 14 home runs, 103 runs batted in and 22 stolen bases. His home run total led the league and it represented the only major league single-season home run title that he won. Connor experimented with some changes to his batting style that year, he hit more balls to the opposite field and he sometimes batted right-handed, though he did not have much success from the right side. Though Connor had success in his season with the PL, the league struggled; some of the teams ran into financial difficulties. National League teams rescheduled many of their games to conflict with PL games in the same cities, a high number of PL games were cancelled late in the season due to rainouts. Connor was optimistic that the league would be successful in 1891, but it broke up that January. Returning to the NL Giants for a season in 1891, Connor hit.294.
In the offseason before 1892, Connor signed with the Philadelphia Athletics. The team broke up shortly after Connor signed, his contract was awarded to the Philadelphia Phillies for that year, he returned to the Giants in 1893, hitting 11 home runs. During the 1894 season, the Giants looked toward the team's youth and Connor lost his starting position to Jack Doyle, he picked up by the St. Louis Browns; the next year, his brother Joe Connor made his major league debut with the same team. Joe played two games with St. Louis before being sent back down to the minor leagues; that year's St. Louis team finished 48 1⁄2 games out of first place. Connor was released by the Browns in May 1897 after starting the season with a.227 batting average. His major league playing career was over. While a major league player, Connor was among the league leaders in batting average and home runs. Connor's career mark of 138 was a benchmark not surpassed until 1921 by Babe Ruth, he finished his career with a.317 batting average.
Connor finished in the top ten in batting average ten times, all between 1880 and 1891. Over an 18-year career, Connor finished in the top ten for doubles ten times, finished in the top three for triples seven times and remains
George Hall (baseball)
George William Hall was a professional baseball player who played in the National Association and the National League. Born in Stepney, Hall immigrated to the U. S, he made his professional debut on May 5, 1871. Hall began his professional career with the Washington Olympics of the National Association in 1871, hitting.294 in 32 games. He moved onto the Baltimore Canaries for the 1872 and 1873 seasons, hitting.336 and.345 respectively. Playing center field up to this point, he moved around from center to right field the following year when he played for the 1874 Champions, the Boston Red Stockings. After just one season with the Red Stockings, he moved on to play for the Philadelphia Athletics where he had another good season at the plate, hitting.299, four home runs, good for second place behind Jim O'Rourke's six. After the 1875 season, the National Association folded. In 1876, the National League came into existence, the first official "Major League". Hall's team, the Athletics, followed that movement with little success, finishing seventh out of eight teams.
One of the bright spots that year for the Athletics was the hitting prowess of their star hitter, Hall. He led the team in all major hitting categories including a.366 batting average, 51 runs scored, a league leading five home runs. On June 17, 1876, he became the first Major League baseball player to hit two home runs in one game; those five home runs stood as the single season home run record until Charley Jones hit nine in 1879. For the 1877 baseball season, Philadelphia had been expelled from the league for refusing to go on a western road trip, late in the 1876 season, for financial reasons, so Hall moved on to play for the Louisville Grays. Again, he had an excellent season, hitting.323, scoring 51 runs, hitting 8 triples. After appearing in the league leaders for home runs the last two seasons, he did not hit one in 1877; some baseball researchers attribute Hall as being the first major league player to hit for the cycle. In a game against the Cincinnati Red Stockings on June 14, 1876, Hall had five hits.
Contemporary newspaper accounts agree that four of the hits were a home run, a single, two triples. The first undisputed major league cycle is attributed to Curry Foley of the Buffalo Bisons of the National League in 1882. On October 26, 1877, Louisville club vice president Charles Chase confronted Hall and fellow Gray Jim Devlin with charges that they threw some road games in August and September. Both admitted only to throwing non-league games, one of, an exhibition game in Lowell, Massachusetts, on August 30, another in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on September 3; the admissions implicated teammates Al Nichols and Bill Craver. Hall claimed that he and Devlin helped in losses to the Cincinnati Reds on September 6 and to the minor league Indianapolis Blues on September 24‚ but he argued that since the Reds were about to be suspended and the games nullified‚ it amounted to an exhibition game; as a result of the scandal, all four players were banned for life from Major League Baseball. Hall died in Ridgewood, New York, at the age of 74.
He was buried at Evergreen Cemetery in New York. List of people banned from Major League Baseball List of Major League Baseball annual home run leaders List of Major League Baseball players to hit for the cycle Albertson, Matt. "George Hall". SABR. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet George Hall at Find a Grave