Boroughs of New York City
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: The Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island. All boroughs are part of New York City, each of the boroughs is coextensive with a respective county, the primary administrative subdivision within New York state. Queens and the Bronx are concurrent with the counties of the same name, while Manhattan and Staten Island correspond to New York and Richmond counties respectively. Boroughs have existed since the consolidation of the city in 1898, when the city and each borough assumed their current boundaries. However, the boroughs have not always been coextensive with their respective counties; the borough of the Bronx had earlier been in the southern part of Westchester County—which had been annexed to New York County in two stages in 1874 and 1895—and in 1914, the county was created to match the borough. Before 1899, the county of Queens included an eastern part, split-off during the consolidation to become Nassau County.
The term borough was adopted to describe a form of governmental administration for each of the five fundamental constituent parts of the newly consolidated city in 1898. Under the 1898 City Charter adopted by the New York State Legislature, a "borough" is a municipal corporation, created when a county is merged with populated areas within it; the limited powers of the borough governments are inferior to the authority of the Government of New York City, contrasting with other borough administrations of government used in Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, where a borough is an independent level of government, as well as borough forms used in other states and in Greater London. New York City is referred to collectively as the five boroughs; the term is used by politicians to counter a frequent focus on Manhattan and thereby to place all five boroughs on equal footing. In the same vein, the term outer boroughs refers to all of the boroughs excluding Manhattan though the geographic center of the city is along the Brooklyn–Queens border.
All five boroughs were created in 1898 during consolidation, when the city's current boundaries were established. The Bronx included parts of New York County outside of Manhattan, ceded by neighboring Westchester County in two stages. In 1914, the present-day separate Bronx County became the last county to be created in the State of New York; the borough of Queens consists of what was only the western part of a then-larger Queens County. In 1899, the three eastern towns of Queens County that had not joined the city the year before—the towns of Hempstead, North Hempstead, Oyster Bay—formally seceded from Queens County to form the new Nassau County; the borough of Staten Island, concurrent with Richmond County, was the borough of Richmond until the name was changed in 1975 to reflect its common appellation, while leaving the name of the county unchanged. There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs of New York City, many with a definable history and character to call their own.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough. Manhattan's population density of 72,033 people per square mile in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. Manhattan is the cultural and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, a number of important universities. Manhattan is described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world. Most of the borough is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands are part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, Roosevelt Island in the East River, Governors Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, above the park is Harlem; the borough includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill.
Marble Hill was part of Manhattan Island, but is now contiguous with the Bronx after having been severed from Manhattan Island by the construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal south of the neighborhood, having been connected to the mainland by the subsequent filling in of the Harlem River's original path to the neighborhood's north. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs. Brooklyn, on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs; the borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolv
Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, Morningside Park on the west, it is part of greater Harlem, an area that encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, south to 96th Street. A Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle. Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century, but African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers during the Great Migration in the 20th century. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American-black community. However, with job losses during the Great Depression of 1929–1933 and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased and from the second half of the 20th century to the early 2000s, most of greater Harlem's residents were black.
Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth. Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10026, 10027, 10030, 10037, 10039, it is patrolled by the 32nd Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan referred to as Uptown by locals. Greater Harlem stretches from the Harlem River and East River in the east, to the Hudson River to the west. Central Harlem is the name of Harlem proper; this section is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the north. A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary. On the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem.
The bulk of the area falls under Manhattan Community Board No. 10. In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, running along Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West 110th to West 138th Streets. Central Harlem includes the Mount Morris Park Historic District. West Harlem is composed of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, which collectively comprise Manhattan Community District 9 and are not part of Harlem proper; the two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway on the south. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the east. Manhattanville begins at 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street; the northernmost section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights. East Harlem called Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, within Manhattan Community Board 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 138th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the east, it is not part of Harlem proper. In the 2010s, some real estate professionals started called Morningside Heights "SoHa" in an attempt to gentrify the neighborhood.
New York City politicians have initiated legislative efforts to curtail this practice of neighborhood rebranding. Politically, central Harlem is in New York's 13th congressional district, it is in the New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, 9th districts. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become Harlem was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most Lenape, occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis; as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. Between 1637 and 1639, a few settlements were established. During the American Revolution, the British burned Harlem to the ground, it took a long time to rebuild, as Harlem grew more than the rest of Manhattan during the late 18th century. After the American Civil War, Harlem experienced an economic boom starting in 1868; the neighborhood continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but those coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian.
The New York and Harlem Railroad, as well as the Interborough Rapid Transit and elevated railway lines, helped Harlem's economic growth, as they connected Harlem to lower and midtown Manhattan. The Jewish and Italian demographic decreased, while the black and Puerto Rican population increased in this time; the early-20th century Great Migration of blacks to northern industrial cities was fueled by their desire to leave behind the Jim Crow South, seek better jobs and education for their children, escape a culture of lynching violence. In 1910, Central Harlem was about 10% black. By 1930, it had reached 70%. Starting around the time of the end of World War I, Harlem became associated with the New Negro movement, the artistic
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem, it is considered one of the most elegant streets in the world. A narrower thoroughfare, much of Fifth Avenue south of Central Park was widened in 1908, sacrificing its wide sidewalks to accommodate the increasing traffic; the midtown blocks, now famously commercial, were a residential district until the start of the 20th century. The first commercial building on Fifth Avenue was erected by Benjamin Altman who bought the corner lot on the northeast corner of 34th Street in 1896, demolished the "Marble Palace" of his arch-rival, A. T. Stewart. In 1906 his department store, B. Altman and Company, occupied the whole of its block front; the result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them. Lord & Taylor's flagship store was once located on Fifth Avenue near the Empire State Building and the New York Public Library, but has since closed.
In the 1920s, traffic towers controlled important intersections from 14th to 59th Streets. Fifth Avenue originates at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and runs northwards through the heart of Midtown, along the eastern side of Central Park, where it forms the boundary of the Upper East Side and through Harlem, where it terminates at the Harlem River at 142nd Street. Traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge. Fifth Avenue serves as the dividing line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan, just as Jerome Avenue does in the Bronx, it separates, for example, East 59th Street from West 59th Street. From this zero point for street addresses, numbers increase in both directions as one moves away from Fifth Avenue, The building lot numbering system worked on the East Side as well, before Madison & Lexington Aves. were retrofitted into the street grid, confusing the building numbers. Confusingly, an address on a cross street cannot be predicted at the intersection of Madison Ave. or Lexington Ave. as these were added decades after the building numbers.
It's. The "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the shopping district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the world's most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world; some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings. The American Planning Association compiled a list of "2012 Great Places in America" and declared Fifth Avenue to be one of the greatest streets to visit in America; this historic street has many world-renowned museums and stores, luxury apartments, historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future. By 2018 portions of Fifth Avenue had large numbers of vacant store fronts for long periods, part of a citywide trend of vacant store fronts attributed to high rental costs.
Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 135th Street to Washington Square North; the changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14, 1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown. From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West. Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City; the longest running parade is the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Parades held are distinct from the ticker-tape parades held on the "Canyon of Heroes" on lower Broadway, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held on Broadway from the Upper West Side downtown to Herald Square. Fifth Avenue parades proceed from south to north, with the exception of the LGBT Pride March, which goes north to south to end in Greenwich Village; the Latino literary classic by New Yorker Giannina Braschi, entitled "Empire of Dreams," takes place on the Puerto Rican Day Parade on Fifth Avenue.
Bicycling on Fifth Avenue ranges from segregated with a bike lane south of 23rd Street, to scenic along Central Park, to dangerous through Midtown with heavy traffic during rush hours. There is no dedicated bike lane along Fifth Avenue. In July 1987 New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned; when the trial was started on Monday, August 24, 1987 for 90 days to ban bicyclists from these three avenues from 31st Street to 59th Street between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on weekdays, mopeds would not be banned. On Monday, August 31, 1987, a state appeals court judge halted the ban for at least a week pending a ruling after opponents against the ban brought a lawsuit. Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a service more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk, at twice the fare. Double-decker buses were operated by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company until 1953, again by MTA Regional Bus Operations from 1976 to 1978.
Today, local bus service along Fifth Avenue is provided by the MTA's M1, M2, M3, M4 buses. The M5 and Q32 run on Fifth Avenue in Midtown, while the M55 runs on Fifth Avenue south of 44th Street
96th Street (Manhattan)
96th Street is a major two-way street on the Upper East Side and Upper West Side sections of the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from the East River at the FDR Drive to the Henry Hudson Parkway at the Hudson River. It is one of the 15 hundred-foot-wide crosstown streets mapped out in the Commissioner's Plan of 1811 that established the numbered street grid in Manhattan. East and West 96th Street are separated by Central Park, whose West 96th Street pedestrian gate is called "Gate of all Saints" and whose East 96th Street gate is called "Woodmans Gate". A sunken roadway through the park called the 97th Street Transverse road or Transverse Road #4, connects the East and West Sides via 96th and 97th Streets. On Manhattan's West Side, 96th Street is the northern boundary of the New York City steam system, the largest such system in the world, which pumps 30 billion pounds of steam into 100,000 buildings south of the street. From the FDR Drive to First Avenue, 96th Street is the northern border of Zone A, a flood evacuation zone.
When Hurricane Sandy hit New York City in 2012, residents on neighboring blocks found out they, were in a flood zone, the city revised its zone borders outward. Residents of the public housing projects as well as high rise apartments in the zone were left without power, although it was restored to most of the area after a day or two. 96th Street rises after Second Avenue, climbs from Third Avenue to Lexington Avenue – called "Carnegie Hill" – before leveling off at Central Park. The street is the traditional dividing line between Yorkville and the Upper East Side to the south and Spanish Harlem or East Harlem to the north. East 96th Street near Second and Third Avenues, underwent significant gentrification in the late 1980s. By 2005, a wave of speculation for Harlem real estate pushed a corridor of luxury condos and coops up First Avenue from 96th Street as well; the construction of the Second Avenue Subway, which built a station on the street, has disrupted lives and businesses along 96th Street, but its opening in 2017 is expected to further increase residential and commercial development in East Harlem, as well as increasing housing value in Yorkville.
The Islamic Cultural Center of New York opened at Third Avenue and East 96th Street in 1991. Like all mosques, it is oriented toward Mecca, which required a slight shift in orientation from the neighboring buildings. On the West Side, 96th Street runs through a natural valley passing under Riverside Drive and leading down to the former Stryker's Bay, it is regarded as the southern border of the nearby Manhattan Valley area. Broadway at West 96th Street was home to two ornate theaters – the Riverside and the Riviera / Japanese Gardens – each designed in the early 20th century, both gone by 1976. In the mid 1980s, parts of West 96th Street began to convert from rental units to cooperative housing. At the time, crime remained a problem; as late as the early 1990s, drug dealing was rampant on 96th Street between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue, Larry Hogue, a homeless crack addict known as the "Wild Man of 96th Street" terrorized the street for several years until being forced into treatment and extended state custody.
In 2009, Hogue escaped from custody and returned to West 96th Street before being found and returned to treatment. The decision by the city to continue locating homeless and drug addicted residents in large former Single Room Occupancy hotels within a several block radius of West 96th Street and Broadway continues to be controversial. Homelessness continues to be visible in the area; the rapid development of Columbus Avenue from 96th to 100th Street around 2009 resulted in a burgeoning concentration of large, national chain stores. New York City Subway service is available at these stations: 96th Street, serving the 1, 2, 3 trains at Broadway 96th Street, serving the A, B, C trains at Central Park West 96th Street, serving the 4, 6, <6> trains at Lexington Avenue 96th Street, serving the N, Q, R trains at Second AvenueThe M96 bus line serves a majority of the street, the M106 serves the western portion of the street and connects it with East 106th Street. In the 1989 film When Harry Met Sally...
Harry and Sally are seen buying their Christmas tree from The Plant Shed, a long-established neighborhood store on West 96th Street, near Broadway. A year no longer a couple, Sally is seen buying her tree there and trudging home alone with the tree dragging behind her. In the How I Met Your Mother episode "Last Time in New York", Ted references some misspelled graffiti on the intersection of 96th Street and Amsterdam Avenue; the graffiti read, "YOUR A P***S", which Ted corrects to "YOU'RE A P***S". In the 2008 musical "In the Heights"' opening song In the Heights, Usnavi references 96th street when he breaks the fourth wall, while describing how to get to Washington Heights, Manhattan. In the 1973 movie "The Seven-Ups" a famous car chase scene with actor Roy Scheider includes a sequence filmed on West 96th Street from Central Park West to West End Avenue. Notes Media related to 96th Street at Wikimedia Commons
First Avenue (Manhattan)
First Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan, running from Houston Street northbound for over 125 blocks before terminating at the Willis Avenue Bridge into The Bronx at the Harlem River near East 126th Street. South of Houston Street, the roadway continues as Allen Street south to Division Street. Traffic on First Avenue runs northbound only. Like most of Manhattan's major north-south Avenues, First Avenue was proposed as part of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 for Manhattan, which designated 12 broad north-south Avenues running the length of the island; the southern portions of the Avenue were laid out shortly after the plan was adopted. The northern sections of the Avenue would be graded and cut through at various intervals throughout the 19th century as the northward development of the island demanded; the IRT Second Avenue Line ran above First Avenue from Houston Street to 23rd Street before turning west at 23rd and north onto Second Avenue.
This elevated line was torn down in 1942. First Avenue has carried one-way traffic since June 4, 1951. A protected bike lane was established along the left side of the avenue south of 50th Street in 2011. First Avenue passes through a variety of residential neighborhoods. Between 42nd Street and 45th Street, it borders the United Nations headquarters complex, four lanes are underground. Starting in the south at Houston Street, First Avenue passes through the East Village, once a predominantly German and Jewish neighborhood, now a gentrified area populated by hipsters and yuppies. First Avenue runs by two large urban development projects, Stuyvesant Town and Peter Cooper Village, two middle-income housing developments that sit on what used to be the Gashouse District, an industrial area; these fill the east side of the avenue from 14th to 23rd Streets. The avenue is wide in this segment, is separated by a median; the New York Veterans Affairs Medical Center, the Bellevue Hospital, NYU Medical Center fill the blocks from there to 34th Street.
Between 42nd and 47th streets, the avenue runs past United Nations Headquarters. Here a local bypass, United Nations Plaza, splits from the main road, which runs through the First Avenue Tunnel, rejoining the local street at 49th Street. Crossing under the Queensboro Bridge and entering the Upper East Side, First Avenue runs through a number of residential areas, it serves as one of the main shopping streets of the Yorkville neighborhood a working class German and Hungarian neighborhood, today a wealthy enclave of upper-class residents. In this district, First Avenue is known as "Bedpan Alley" because of the large number of hospitals located nearby. Crossing 96th Street, First Avenue runs through Spanish Harlem, a Puerto Rican neighborhood. Before Puerto Rican migration in the 1950s, much of this district was populated by Italians and known as "Italian Harlem". First Avenue in Italian Harlem was the site of a major open-air pushcart market in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. There is still a small Italian enclave in the Pleasant Valley district of East Harlem, between 114th and 120th Streets.
The northern reaches of First Avenue, north of 110th Street have seen a significant increase in Mexican residents. First Avenue connects to the Willis Avenue Bridge, which crosses the Harlem River at 125th Street and connects to Willis Avenue in the Bronx; the opening scene of Ghostbusters II was filmed at the intersection of 77th Street. In the Seinfeld TV series, Kramer describes the intersection of First Avenue and 1st Street as the "nexus of the universe"; this provided. Media related to 1st Avenue at Wikimedia Commons New York Songlines: First Avenue, a virtual walking tour
Hudson Heights, Manhattan
Hudson Heights is a residential neighborhood of the Washington Heights area of Upper Manhattan, New York City. Most of the residences are in apartment buildings, many of which are cooperatives, most were constructed in the 1920s through 1940s; the Art Deco style is prominent, along with Tudor Revival. Notable complexes include Hudson View Gardens and Castle Village, which were both developed by Dr. Charles V. Paterno, were designed by George F. Pelham and his son, George F. Pelham, Jr. respectively. The neighborhood is located on a plateau on top of a high bluff overlooking both the Hudson River on the west and the Broadway valley of Washington Heights on the east, includes the highest natural point in Manhattan, located in Bennett Park. At 265 feet above sea level, it is a few dozen feet lower than the torch on the Statue of Liberty. At the northern end of the neighborhood, where Cabrini Boulevard meets Fort Washington Avenue at Margaret Corbin Circle, is Fort Tryon Park, conceived by John D. Rockefeller Jr. designed by the Olmsted Brothers, given to the city by Rockefeller in 1931.
The park contains within it The Cloisters – conceived of by Rockefeller – which houses the Medieval art collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Similar to many other neighborhoods that are undergoing gentrification in New York City, this Washington Heights area was renamed by real estate brokers in the 1990s to sound more appealing to a different type of community than was attracted to the main part of Washington Heights. Like many New York City neighborhoods, the boundaries of Hudson Heights are not precise. One definition has it bounded by the Hudson River to the west, Broadway to the east, 173rd Street to the south, Fort Tryon Park to the north, but another would limit the neighborhood to the top of the high ridge which physically separates it from the rest of Washington Heights. By this definition, Hudson Heights is bounded in the west by the Henry Hudson Parkway, in the east by Fort Washington Avenue, in the south by West 181st Street and in the north by Fort Tryon Park; the ridge the neighborhood sits on overlooks the river to the west and the Broadway valley to the east.
In 2018, The New York Times defined it as being bordered by 173rd Street in the south, Bennett Avenue in the east, the northern boundary of Fort Tryon Park in the north, the Hudson River in the west. Using the more restrictive boundaries, the neighborhood's main north-south thoroughfares are Fort Washington Avenue, Pinehurst Avenue and Cabrini Boulevard. Riverside Drive runs intermittently along the bottom of the ridge to the west, while Bennett Avenue and Overlook Terrace do the same on the east, with Overlook Avenue climbing to the top of the ridge at West 190th Street; the east-west streets are all numbered, from West 181st Street to West 190th Street, but none of those streets, with the exception of West 181st at the southern end of the ridge, cross all the way through the neighborhood: they are all interrupted at one point or another, which makes navigation of the area difficult for those not familiar with its peculiarities. Before European explorers and settlers, the Lenape Indians lived on the island.
Just to the north of Hudson Heights, in what is now Inwood Hill Park, the Lenape tribe exchanged the island for items worth about 60 Dutch Gilders in a deal with Peter Minuit in 1626. He named the island New Amsterdam; the area north of central Manhattan was called Niew Haarlem until the British gained control of the area during the Revolutionary War. They renamed the area Lancaster, gave it a northern border near what is now 129th Street The ridge that overlooks the Hudson River was once inhabited by the Chquaesgeck Indians, it was called Lange Bergh by Dutch settlers until the 17th century. In the 18th century, only the southern portion of the island was settled by Europeans, leaving the rest of Manhattan untouched. Among the many unspoiled tracts of land was the highest spot on the island, which provided unsurpassed views of what would become the New York metropolitan area; when the Revolutionary War came to New York, the British had the upper hand. General George Washington and troops from his Continental Army camped on the high ground, calling it Fort Washington, to monitor the advancing Redcoats.
The Continental Army retreated from its location after their defeat on November 16, 1776, in the Battle of Fort Washington. The British took the position and renamed it Fort Knyphausen in honor of the leader of the Hessians, who had taken a major part in the British victory, their location was in the spot now called Bennett Park. Fort Washington had been established as an offensive position to prevent British vessels from sailing north on the Hudson River. Fort Lee, across the river, was its twin, built to assist in the defense of the Hudson Valley. Not far from the fort was the Blue Bell Tavern, located on an intersection of Kingsbridge Road, where Broadway and West 181st Street intersect today, on the southeastern corner of modern-day Hudson Heights. On July 9, 1776, when New York's Provincial Congress assented to the Declaration of Independence, "A rowdy crowd of soldiers and civilians... marched down Broadway to Bowling Green, where they toppled the statue of George III erected in 1770. The head was put on a spike at the Blue Bell Tavern...
"The tavern was used by Washington and his staff when the British evacuated New York, standing in front of it as they watched the American troops march south to retake New York. By 1856 the first recorded home had been built on the site of Fort Washington; the Moorewood residence was there until the 1880s. The property was purchased by Richard Carman and sold to James
Upper East Side
The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park/Fifth Avenue, 59th Street, the East River, 96th Street. The area incorporates several smaller neighborhoods, including Lenox Hill, Carnegie Hill, Yorkville. Once known as the Silk Stocking District, it is now one of the most affluent neighborhoods in New York City; the Upper East Side is part of Manhattan Community District 8 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10021, 10028, 10065, 10075, 10128. It is patrolled by the 19th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Neighborhood boundaries in New York City are not set, but according to the Encyclopedia of New York City, the Upper East Side is bounded by 59th Street in the south, 96th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue to the west and the East River to the east; the AIA Guide to New York City extends the northern boundary to 106th Street near Fifth Avenue. The area's north-south avenues are Fifth, Park, Third, First and East End Avenues, with the latter running only from East 79th Street to East 90th Street.
The major east-west streets are 72nd Street, 79th Street, 86th Street and 96th Street. Some real estate agents use the term "Upper East Side" instead of "East Harlem" to describe areas that are north of 96th Street and near Fifth Avenue, in order to avoid associating these areas with the negative connotations of the latter, a neighborhood, perceived as less prestigious; the Upper East Side Historic District is one of New York City's largest districts, as is the neighborhood. This district runs from 59th to 78th Streets along Fifth Avenue, up to 3rd Avenue at some points. In the decades after the Civil War, the once decrepit district transitioned into a thriving middle class residential neighborhood. At the start of the 20th century, the neighborhood transformed again, but this time into a neighborhood of mansions and townhouses; as the century continued, living environments altered, a lot of these single-family homes were replaced by lavish apartment buildings. Before the arrival of Europeans, the mouths of streams that eroded gullies in the East River bluffs are conjectured to have been the sites of fishing camps used by the Lenape, whose controlled burns once a generation or so kept the dense canopy of oak–hickory forest open at ground level.
In the 19th century the farmland and market garden district of what was to be the Upper East Side was still traversed by the Boston Post Road and, from 1837, the New York and Harlem Railroad, which brought straggling commercial development around its one station in the neighborhood, at 86th Street, which became the heart of German Yorkville. The area was defined by the attractions of the bluff overlooking the East River, which ran without interruption from James William Beekman's "Mount Pleasant", north of the marshy squalor of Turtle Bay, to Gracie Mansion, north of which the land sloped steeply to the wetlands that separated this area from the suburban village of Harlem. Among the series of villas a Schermerhorn country house overlooked the river at the foot of present-day 73rd Street and another, Peter Schermerhorn's at 66th Street, the Riker homestead was sited at the foot of 75th Street. By the mid-19th century the farmland had been subdivided, with the exception of the 150 acres of Jones's Wood, stretching from 66th to 76th Streets and from the Old Post Road to the river and the farmland inherited by James Lenox, who divided it into blocks of houselots in the 1870s, built his Lenox Library on a Fifth Avenue lot at the farm's south-west corner, donated a full square block for the Presbyterian Hospital, between 70th and 71st Streets, Madison and Park Avenues.
At that time, along the Boston Post Road taverns stood at the mile-markers, Five-Mile House at 72nd Street and Six-Mile House at 97th, a New Yorker recalled in 1893. The fashionable future of the narrow strip between Central Park and the railroad cut was established at the outset by the nature of its entrance, in the southwest corner, north of the Vanderbilt family's favored stretch of Fifth Avenue from 50th to 59th Streets. A row of handsome townhouses was built on speculation by Mary Mason Jones, who owned the entire block bounded by 57th and 58th Streets and Fifth and Madison. In 1870 she occupied the prominent corner house at 57th and Fifth, though not in the isolation described by her niece, Edith Wharton, whose picture has been uncritically accepted as history, as Christopher Gray has pointed out, it was her habit to sit in a window of her sitting room on the ground floor, as if watching calmly for life and fashion to flow northward to her solitary door... She was sure that presently the quarries, the wooden greenhouses in ragged gardens, the rocks from which goats surveyed the scene, would vanish before the advance of residences as stately as her own.
Before the Park Avenue Tunnel was covered, fashionable New Yorkers shunned the smoky railroad trench up Fourth Avenue, to build stylish mansions and townhouses on the large lots along Fifth Avenue, facing Central Park, on the adjacent side streets. The latest arrivals were Henry Clay Frick; the classic phase of Gilded Age Fifth Avenue as a stretch of private mansions was not long-lasting: the first apartment house to replace a private mansion on upper Fifth Avenue was 907 Fifth Avenue, at 72nd Street, the neighborhood's grand carriage entrance to Central Park. Most members of New York's upper-class families have made residences on the Upper East Side, including the oil-rich Rockefellers, political Roosevelts, political dynastic Kennedys, thoroughbred racing moneyed Whitneys, tobacco and electric power fortuned Dukes. Construction of t