Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez. Veracruz is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north, San Luis Potosí and Hidalgo to the west, Puebla to the southwest and Chiapas to the south, Tabasco to the southeast. On its east, Veracruz has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico; the state is noted for its mixed indigenous populations. Its cuisine reflects the many cultural influences that have come through the state because of the importance of the port of Veracruz. In addition to the capital city, the state's largest cities include Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos, Córdoba, Minatitlán, Poza Rica, Boca Del Río and Orizaba; the full name of the state is Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave. Veracruz was named after the city of Veracruz, called the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz.
The suffix is in honor of Ignacio de la Llave y Segura Zevallos, the governor of Veracruz from 1861 to 1862. The state's seal was authorized by the state legislature in 1954, adapting the one used for the port of Veracruz and created by the Spanish in the early 16th century; the state is a crescent-shaped strip of land wedged between the Sierra Madre Oriental to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east. Its total area is 78,815 km2, accounting for about 3.7% of Mexico's total territory. It stretches about 650 km north to south, but its width varies from between 212 km to 36 km, with an average of about 100 km in width. Veracruz shares common borders with the states of Tamaulipas and Chiapas, Puebla and San Luis Potosí. Veracruz has 690 km of coastline with the Gulf of Mexico; the natural geography can be categoried into nine regions: The Sierra de Zongolica, the Tecolutla Region, the Huayacocotla Region, the Metlac River area, the Tuxtlas Region, the Central Region, the Laguna del Castillo Region, the Pueblo Viejo-Tamiahua Region and the Laguna de Alvarado Region.
The topography changes drastically, rising from the narrow coastal plains to the highlands of the eastern Sierra Madre. Elevation varies from sea level to the Pico de Orizaba, Mexico's highest peak at 5,636 m above sea level; the coast consists of low sandy strips interspersed with tidewater lagoons. Most of the long coastline is narrow and sandy with unstable dunes, small shifting lagoons and points; the mountains are of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Mountain ranges include the Sierra de Topila, Sierra de Otontepec, Sierra de Huayacocotla, Sierra de Coxquihui, Sierra de Chiconquiaco, Sierra de Jalacingo, Sierra de Axocuapan, Sierra de Huatusco, Sierra de Zongolica and the Sierra de Los Tuxtla. Major peaks include Pico de Orizaba, Cofre de Perote, Cerro de Tecomates, Cerro del Vigía Alta and Cerro de 3 Tortas; the Pico de Orizaba is covered in snow year round. Major valleys include the Acultzingo, Córdoba, Maltrata and San Andrés. More than 40 rivers and tributaries provide water for irrigation and hydroelectric power.
All of the rivers and streams that cross the state begin in the Sierra Madre Oriental or in the Central Mesa, flowing east to the Gulf of Mexico. The important ones include: Actopan River, Acuatempan river, Río Blanco, Cazones River, Coatzacoalcos River, Río de La Antigua, Hueyapan River, Jamapa River, Nautla River, Pánuco River, Papaloapan River, Tecolutla River, Tonalá River, Tuxpan River and Xoloapa River; the largest in terms of water discharge are the Pánuco, Papaloapan and Uxpanapa. The Panuco, Tuxpan and Coatzacoalcos are navigable. Two of Mexico's most polluted rivers, the Coatzacoalcos and the Río Blanco are located in the state. Much of the pollution comes from industrial sources, but the discharge of sewerage and uncontrolled garbage disposal are major contributors; the state has few sewage treatment plants, with only 10% of sewage being treated before discharge. The state has ten major waterfalls and ten major coastal lagoons. There is only one significant lake, called Lake Catemaco.
Off the coast are the islands of Isla de Lobos, Isla de los Burros, Isla de Sacrificios, Isla de Salmendina, Isla del Idolo, Isladel Toro, Isla Frijoles, Isla Juan A Ramirez, Isla Pajaros and Isla Terrón and the ocean reefs called Blanquilla, Tangüillo, Gualleguilla, Anegada de Adento Anegada de Afuera and Cabezo. The large variation of altitude results in a large mixture of climates, from cold, snow-topped mountain peaks to warm wet tropical areas on the coast. 32% of the state is classified as hot and humid, 52% as hot and semi humid, 9% is warm and humid, 6% as temperate and humid and 1% is classified as cold. Hot and humid and hot and semi-humid climates dominate from sea level to about 1,000 m above sea level. Average annual temperature ranges from 22 to 26C with precipitation varying from 2,000 mm to just over 3,500 mm per year. Cooler and humid climates are found at elevations between 1,000 m and 1,600 m (5,249
Durango Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur; the city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria. With 123,451.2 km2 or 12.3 million ha, Durango accounts for about 6.3% of the entire territory of Mexico and is its fourth largest state. The state lies at the extreme northwest of the Central Mexican Plateau, where it meets the Sierra Madre Occidental, where the state's highest peaks are; the state has an average altitude of 1,775 meters above sea level, with a mean altitude of 1,750 in the Valleys region and 2,450 meters in the Sierra region. The city of Durango is on the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental with an elevation of 1,857 meters above sea level; the state of Durango is landlocked, bordering the states of Chihuahua, Zacatecas and Sinaloa. It is divided into 39 municipalities, based off the 1917 Constitution with various divisions since then.
One of the main determining factors in the state's regional environments is the barrier that the Sierra Madre Occidental presents, determining altitudes and blocking moisture from the Pacific. The Quebradas region west of the mountain chain has a semi tropical humid climate; the rest of the state has a semi-arid climate with the exception of the highest altitudes. Temperatures are cold depending on altitude; the eastern part of the state is hottest and driest, with some temperate areas in the highest altitudes. Most of the state is covered in mountains and forested, with the Sierra Madre Occidental covering two-thirds of the state alone. However, like much of the rest of northern Mexico, Durango has worked to reforest many of the degraded forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental. Much of this work is not related to forests used for wood production and focuses on the planting of native tree species. More work needs to be done as many areas still have tree densities that are too low on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental where tree poaching and clearing for agricultural activities is problematic.
Most of the state inclines from south to north, meaning most of the rivers empty into the Pacific. Most rivers lead into other Mexican states; those which do not flow into the Pacific lead into the lake area of La Comarca and one, the Florida, makes its way to the Gulf of Mexico. Ecologically the state is divided into four regions: La Quebrada, the Sierra, the Valleys and the Semi-desert; the Semi-desert is located in the northeast of the state and includes the municipalities of Hidalgo, Mapimí, San Pedro del Gallo, San Luis del Cordero, Lerdo, Gómez Palacio, Cuencamé, Santa Clara, General Simón Bolívar and San Juan de Guadalupe. Most of the terrain here is flat and its climate is dry. Temperatures are hot in the summer; these municipalities are classified as either part of the Chihuahua Desert or in the transition zone. The area is flat with some mountain ranges and a slight incline towards the interior of the country; the area was at one time under the sea, but today the vegetation consists of scrub, nopal cactus, maguey plants, barrel cactus and other arid zone plants.
It is defined by two rivers: the Aguanaval. The region has two reservoirs: the Lázaro Cárdenas and the Francisco Zarco, located between the Cuencamé and Lerdo municipalities. Animals that can be found here include coyotes, various snakes, chameleons and scorpions. Most of the economically important natural resources come from mining, including deposits of gold, silver and mercury. There are large deposits of marble; the La Laguna is short for La Comarca de la Laguna or La Comarca Lagunera, an arid and semi-arid region that covers a significant portion of northeastern Durango and southeastern Coahuila. The area was created by sediments from torrential river flows deposited over large valleys; these river flows created lagoons which served to recharge underground aquifers or remain as intermittent surface waters. The rivers supported habitat for native grasses and ditch reed which provided habitat for various water birds and fish; the area is home to Durango's only caverns, the Rosario Caves are located near Ciudad Lerdo, as well as the Mapimí Biosphere, noted for various plants and the desert tortoise.
It is a protected area centering on where the states of Chihuahua and Durango meet. The Valleys are located in the center of the state and include the municipalities of Nombre de Dios, Nuevo Ideal, Canatlán, Guadalupe Victoria, Pánuco de Coronado, Poanas, Súchil, Vicente Guerrero, San Bernardo, Indé, Coneto de Comonfort, El Oro, San Juan del Río and Peñón Blanco; the region consists principally in river llanuras located among small mountain ranges. The main peaks in this area include the San Jacinto in the Silla Mountains and Peñon Blanco, which many schoolchildren in the area take trips to. Other major geographical formations in the Valleys Region include cliffs called Las Catedrales, along with those called Malpaís and La Breña, which were formed by lava flows over 250,000 hectares; the area is home to the Cerro de Mercado, important for its large deposit of iron. The valleys proper are flat and apt for agriculture with irrigation from the Nazas and Tunal Rivers. Reservoirs for this purpos
Chihuahua the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U. S. adjacent to the U. S. states of New Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City. Although Chihuahua is identified with the Chihuahuan Desert for namesake, it has more forests than any other state in Mexico, with the exception of Durango. Due to its variant climate, the state has a large variety of flora; the state is characterized by rugged mountainous terrain and wide river valleys. The Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range, part of the continental spine that includes the Rocky Mountains, dominates the state's terrain and is home to the state's greatest attraction, Las Barrancas del Cobre, or Copper Canyon, a canyon system larger and deeper than the Grand Canyon. On the slope of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains, there are vast prairies of short yellow grass, the source of the bulk of the state's agricultural production.
Most of the inhabitants live along the Conchos River Valley. The etymology of the name Chihuahua has long been disputed by linguists; the most accepted theory explains that the name was derived from the Nahuatl language meaning "The place where the water of the rivers meet". Chihuahua is the largest state in Mexico by area, with an area of 247,455 square kilometres, it is larger than the United Kingdom and smaller than Wyoming, tenth US state in area; the state is known under the nickname El Estado Grande. Chihuahua has a diversified state economy; the three most important economic centers in the state are: Ciudad Juárez, an international manufacturing center. Today Chihuahua serves as an important commercial route prospering from billions of dollars from international trade as a result of NAFTA. On the other hand the state suffers the fallout of illicit trade and activities at the border; the earliest evidence of human inhabitants of modern day Chihuahua was discovered in the area of Samalayuca and Rancho Colorado.
Clovis points have been found in northeastern Chihuahua that have been dated from 12,000 BC to 7000 BC. It is thought. Inhabitants of the state developed farming with the domestication of corn. An archeological site in northern Chihuahua known as Cerro Juanaqueña revealed squash cultivation, irrigation techniques, ceramic artifacts dating to around 2000 BC. Between AD 300 and 1300 in the northern part of the state along the wide, fertile valley on the San Miguel River the Casas Grandes culture developed into an advanced civilization; the Casas Grandes civilization is part of a major prehistoric archaeological culture known as Mogollon, related to the Ancestral Pueblo culture. Paquime was the center of the Casas Grandes civilization. Extensive archaeological evidence shows commerce and hunting at Paquime and Cuarenta Casas. La Cueva De Las Ventanas, a series of cliff dwellings along an important trade route, Las Jarillas Cave scrambled along the canyons of the Sierra Madre in Northwestern Chihuahua date between AD 1205 and 1260 and belong to the Paquimé culture.
Cuarenta Casas is thought to have been a branch settlement from Paquime to protect the trade route from attack. Archaeologists believe the civilization began to decline during the 13th century and by the 15th century the inhabitants of Paquime sought refuge in the Sierra Madre Occidental while others are thought to have emigrated north and joined the Ancestral Pueblo peoples. According to anthropologist current natives tribes are descendants of the Casas Grandes culture. During the 14th century in the northeastern part of the state nomad tribes by the name of Jornado hunted bison along the Rio Grande; when the Spanish explorers reached this area they found their descendants and Manso tribes. In the southern part of the state, in a region known as Aridoamerica, Chichimeca people survived by hunting and farming between AD 300 and 1300; the Chichimeca are the ancestors of the Tepehuan people. Nueva Vizcaya was the first province of northern New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish. Around 1528, a group of Spaniard explorers, led by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, first entered the territory of what is now Chihuahua.
The conquest of the territory lasted nearly one century and encountered fierce resistance from the Conchos tribe, but the desire of the Spanish Crown to transform the region into a bustling mining center led to a strong strategy to control the area. In 1562 Francisco de Ibarra headed a personal expedition in search of the mythical cities of Cibola and Quivira. Francisco de Ibarra is thought to have been the first European to see the ruins of Paquime. In 1564 Rodrigo de Río de Loza, a lieutenant under Francisco de Ibarra, stayed behind after the expedition and found gold at the foot of the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
Aguascalientes the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes, it is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Zacatecas to Jalisco to the south, its name originated from the abundance of hot springs in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is aguascalentense. Pre-Columbian era arrowheads and rock paintings in the caverns of the Sierra del Laurel and near the present village of Las Negritas testify to the presence of man in this territory for more than 20,000 years. In the colonial times, Pedro Almíndez Chirino was the first Spaniard who entered the territory by the end of 1530 or the beginning of 1531, following the instructions given by Nuño de Guzmán. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the territory of what is now the State of Aguascalientes was inhabited by Chichimecas, who made the territory difficult to access.
In fact, the total occupation of the lands of El Bajío was a task that would take about two centuries. With respect to this, Viceroy Luis de Velasco offered municipal benefits to those who established settlements to confront the Chichimeca, and for his part, Viceroy Gastón de Peralta decided to confront them directly, which did not end with good results. It was in order to be in the territory, presently the state inhabited by Chichimecas, the so-called Guachichiles, that the conquistadors built several forts or presidios; this was a system devised by Martín Enríquez de Almanza following the strategy, developing in Spain throughout the Reconquista period. Therefore, in order to protect the Camino de la Plata, which stretched between Zacatecas and Mexico City, three presidios founded by the Indian fighter Juan Domínguez, were to be created, which were: the presidio at Las Bocas called Las Bocas de Gallardo, situated on the border of Aguascalientes, in what was the jurisdiction of the mayor of Teocaltiche, presently the border of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas.
The latter was located on what are now Moctezuma and Victoria Streets, although some historians place it on the Calle 5 de Mayo at Moctezuma, just in front of the Plaza de Armas. This was a fortress whose purpose was the protection of the Valle de los Romero and the road to Zacatecas, entering this way to secure the passage of convoys loaded with silver and other metals; the founding of Aguascalientes as a town came from the order that King Felipe II gave the judge of the court of Nueva Galicia, Don Gerónimo de Orozco, in which he stated that he should look for a rich man to settle in the territory with the purpose of expelling the Chichimecas and of assuring safe passage. Gerónimo de Orozco, following that order, looked for someone who would accept the king's order and found a man named Juan de Montoro in the city of Santa María de los Lagos, he accepted the assignment and, accompanied by eleven other people, headed to the territory and thus founded the town of Aguas Calientes on October 22, 1575.
It has been noted that it was called San Marcos changing its name on August 18, 1611, to the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. And from June 2, 1875, it was called the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. In the act of its establishment, the Villa de San Marcos was awarded the highest mayoral jurisdiction under the Kingdom of New Galicia; as of December 4, 1786, on the occasion of the issuance of the "Ordinance of Mayors," it became a quartermaster sub-delegation. On April 24, 1789, by order of the Superior Board of Royal Property, the sub-delegation of Aguascalientes became a dependency of Zacatecas. In the Mexican War of Independence, in the territory, today the state of Aguascalientes, the fires of independence were stoked by illustrious and courageous men such as Valentin Gómez Farías, Rafael Iriarte, Rafael Vázquez, Pedro Parga. Confusion has arisen regarding the exact date when Aguascalientes formally separated from the territory of Zacatecas. By virtue of having, de facto, defeated the liberal government of Zacatecas by rising against the central government, president Antonio López de Santa Anna passed through Aguascalientes, where he was well received by the people who had wanted to separate from Zacatecas for some time.
Taking advantage of the independent souls of the Aguascalentenses, by way of punishing Zacatecas for supporting the Revolution against them, by Federal Decree of General López de Santa Anna dated May 23, 1835, in the third article. With respect to this, it must be mentioned that said order was not made official as it did not meet the legal requirements to take effect, since it was necessary that two thirds of each house, both Senators and Representatives, approved the order; the second requirement not being completed, the constitutional congress convened again to develop the centralized constitution that would be known as the Seven Laws. The constitution did not acknowledge Aguascalientes