Cabinet Söder II
The Bavarian State Government, Cabinet Söder II is the state government of the German state of Bavaria since 12 November 2018. The Cabinet is headed by Prime Minister Markus Söder and is a coalition government built by CSU and FW. Cabinet members hold the office of Ministers of their respective portfolio, except denoted otherwise
2013 Bavarian state election
The 2013 Bavarian state election was held on 15 September 2013 to elect the 180 members of the 17th Landtag of Bavaria. It was held one week before the 2013 German federal election; the CSU won an absolute majority, while the FDP, a coalition party in the outgoing Bavarian government, did not receive enough votes to enter the new parliament. Christian Social Union in Bavaria Social Democratic Party of Germany Free voters Alliance 90 / The Greens Free Democratic Party The left Ecological Democratic Party The Republicans Bavaria Party Pirate Party Germany The CSU regained an absolute majority of the seats, which they lost 5 years ago after about 50 years of one party government; the FDP fell below the 5% threshold for obtaining seats. SPD, Grünen and FW stayed in opposition. A record number of 14.1% of the votes cast are not represented in the Landtag because of the 5% threshold
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany was a short-lived political party in Germany during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. The organization was established in 1917 as the result of a split of left wing members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the organization attempted to chart a centrist course between electorally oriented revisionism on the one hand and bolshevism on the other. The organization was terminated in 1931 through merger with the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany. On December 21, 1915, several SPD members in the Reichstag, the German parliament, voted against the authorization of further credits to finance World War I, an incident that emphasized existing tensions between the party's leadership and the left-wing pacifists surrounding Hugo Haase and led to the expulsion of the group from the SPD on March 24, 1916. To be able to continue their parliamentary work, the group formed the Sozialdemokratische Arbeitsgemeinschaft. On April 6, 1917, the USPD was founded at a conference in Gotha, with Hugo Haase as the party's first chairman.
To avoid confusion, the existing SPD was called the Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany from on. Luise Zietz was one of the main agitators in favor of a split in the party in 1917, she became a leader in the creation of the USPD's women's movement. Following the Januarstreik in January 1918, a strike demanding an end to the war and better food provisioning, organized by revolutionaries affiliated with the USPD and supported by the party, the USPD rose to about 120,000 members; the agreement did not last long, for on December 29, 1918, Wilhelm Dittmann and Emil Barth left the council again to protest the SPD's actions during the soldier mutiny in Berlin on November 23, 1918. At the same time, the Spartakusbund, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, separated from the USPD again as well to merge with other left wing groups and form the KPD. During the elections for the national assembly on January 19, 1919, from which the SPD emerged as the strongest party with 37.9% of the votes, the USPD only managed to attract 7.6%.
In 1920, four delegates from the USPD attended the 2nd World Congress of the Comintern, Ernst Däumig, Arthur Crispien, Walter Stoecker and Wilhelm Dittmann to discuss participating in the Comintern. Whilst Däumig and Stoecker agreed with the International's 21 conditions of entry and Dittmann opposed them, leading to a controversial debate over joining the Comintern to break out in the USPD; the proposition to join the Comintern was approved at a party convention in Halle in October 1920 by 237 votes to 156, with various international speakers including Julius Martov, Jean Longuet and Grigory Zinoviev. The USPD split up in the process, with both groups seeing themselves as the rightful USPD and the other one as being outcast. On December 4, 1920, the left wing of the USPD, with about 400,000 members, merged into the KPD, forming the VKPD, while the other half of the party, with about 340,000 members and including three quarters of the 81 Reichstag members, continued under the name USPD; the USPD was instrumental in the creation of the 2½ International in 1921.
Over time, the political differences between SPD and USPD dwindled, following the assassination of foreign minister Walther Rathenau by right-wing extremists in June 1922, the two parties' factions in the Reichstag formed a common working group on July 14, 1922. The USPD continued as an independent party by Georg Ledebour and Theodor Liebknecht, who refused to work with the SPD, but it never attained any significance again and merged into the Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschland in 1
2018 Bavarian state election
The 2018 Bavarian state election took place on 14 October 2018 to elect the 180 members of the 18th Landtag of Bavaria. The parties of the CDU/CSU-SPD federal-government grand coalition suffered heavy losses; the CSU and the SPD both lost more than 10 percentage points compared to the 2013 election, finishing at 37.2% and 9.7% respectively. AfD, which ran in Bavaria for the first time, made double-digit gains and won 10.2% of the total vote. The Greens gained 8.9pp and hence finished as the second strongest party, at 17.5%, replacing the SPD. The FDP, which failed to enter the Landtag in 2013 made it with 5.1% as the smallest party in the new legislature. All other parties failed to cross the 5% threshold required to make it into the Bavarian Landtag. Turnout increased by 8.7%, from 63.6% in the last election in 2013 to 72.3% in 2018. The election in Bavaria was overshadowed by federal politics and the condition of the German coalition government after two government crises, the "asylum quarrel" in June/July, the crisis around Hans-Georg Maaßen in September, in both of which CSU chief Horst Seehofer played a leading role.
Four days before the election, SPD leader Andrea Nahles had criticised German Chancellor Angela Merkel and accused her of a "lack of leadership". According to the Bavarian Constitution, the election must be held on a Sunday "at the earliest 59 months, at the latest 62 months" after the preceding state elections which took place on 15 September 2013; this would theoretically allow an election date between 19 August and 11 November 2018, but in practice the elections since 1978 have always taken place between mid-September and mid-October. The Bavarian state government proposed 14 October 2018 as the election date on 9 January 2018 and set it on 20 February after hearing the parties to the state parliament; the deadline for determining the population figures, which are decisive for the distribution of the 180 Landtag mandates among the seven Bavarian administrative districts and a possible new division of the constituencies, was 15 June 2016. On this basis, the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior had to submit a constituency report to the Landtag until 36 months after the election This was done on 6 September 2016.
Delegates to the internal constituency meetings could be appointed at the earliest 43 months after the preceding election, i.e. since 16 April 2017. The actual constituency candidates had been eligible since 16 July 2017; the parties and other organised electoral groups which had not been represented continuously in the Bavarian Land Parliament or in the German Bundestag since their last election on the basis of their own election proposals had to notify their intention to participate to the State Election Commissioner by the 90th day before the election, i.e. by 16 July 2018 at the latest. The actual election proposals and any necessary signatures had to be submitted by 2 August 2018. Bavaria, in line with the rest of the country, uses mixed-member proportional representation to elect its members of the Landtag. Party representation is not apportioned statewide, the distribution of seats takes place separately within the seven administrative districts, which are referred to in the electoral law as constituencies.
The constituencies are divided into districts. The number of single member districts is about half the number of seats in the constituency. In contrast to the Bundestag election law, the distribution of seats by proportional representation takes into account the parties' aggregate first votes combined with their second votes, i.e. both the first and second votes affect the distribution of seats in the Landtag, as opposed to just the second votes, the norm elsewhere in the country. Only Parties and groups of voters who obtain at least 5% of the total votes in Bavaria participate in the distribution of seats; this threshold applies to winning single-member districts. Unlike the other German states, Bavaria uses an open-list system for its party-list seats. Voters not only cast a vote for a candidate in their district, but they cast a vote for a list candidate in their region. For the distribution of list seats, all district candidates are constituency candidates with their parties; the party may nominate regional-only candidates to account for the possibility of overhangs and expansion of the Landtag.
A candidate is ranked within his or her list by the number of first votes he or she receives within the district plus the number of second votes he or she receives from voters elsewhere in the region. In this manner, voters collectively can produce a list, different from what the party submitted, which can result in the defeat of candidates that would have been elected had the election taken place under a closed-list system. In the statutory constituency report of September 2016, the state government stated that the numerical distribution of the 180 state parliament seats among the constituencies would have to be changed due to changes in the number of inhabitants, it was recommended that a seat to be awarded in the Lower Franconia constituency be allocated to the Upper Bavaria constituency. Within Upper Bavaria, the additional seat was used to reshape the single member districts in the state capital of Munich
Ilse Aigner is a German politician and member of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria. Aigner was born in Feldkirchen-Westerham, Rosenheim and entered Angela Merkel's grand coalition cabinet as Federal Minister of Food and Consumer Protection on 31 October 2008, she succeeded Horst Seehofer. She left her position on 30 September 2013 after being elected as a member of the Bavarian parliament. From 2013 she served as Deputy Minister-President of Bavaria. In addition, she served as State Minister of Economic Affairs. After Horst Seehofer resigned as Minister President in order to become Federal Minister of the Interior on 14 March 2018, Aigner became acting Minister President until the election of Markus Söder as Minister President. After the 2018 Bavarian State elections, she was elected as President of the Bavarian Landtag, succeeding longterm president Barbara Stamm who lost her seat in the election. Aigner completed a professional training as a telecommunications technician in 1985 and joined the electrical installation business of her parents.
In 1990 she graduated from the technical academy with the degree of a State Certified Engineer and worked for several years for Eurocopter in the development of helicopter electric systems. Aigner was elected first in 1994 to the Bavarian State Parliament. From 1998 Aigner was a member of the German Bundestag, winning always an absolute majority of the votes in her electoral district. From 2002 to 2005, she was a member of the Budget Committee, where she served as her parliamentary group's rapporteur on the budgets of the Federal Ministry for Consumer Protection and Agriculture and the aerospace technology portfolio of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. From 2005 to 2008, she served as her parliamentary group’s spokesperson for education and research policy. Aigner was a little-known member of parliament with no previous ministerial experience when she took over as Federal Minister for Consumer Protection and Agriculture in the cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2008, replacing Horst Seehofer.
During her time in office, Aigner steered through a 2011 dioxins scare that saw contaminated eggs and meat from Germany going to six neighbouring countries. In response, she imposed tough new safety standards for animal feed manufacturers, a move supported in the market to retain public confidence, she took a tough line against cultivation of genetically modified organisms in Germany but received praise from commodity traders when she supported imports of GMOs approved in the United States and South America to secure German supplies of soybeans for animal feed. Meanwhile, she expressed concern that outside financial investment in agricultural commodity markets distorts prices, instead calling for more transparency in commodity markets and clear visibility of the difference between futures investment by industrial food buyers and financial investors. In 2009, Aigner caused a controversy when she called for requirements to publish the names and location of recipients of Common Agricultural Policy subsidies to be “suspended” until the implications for data protection have been assessed.
In response, the European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development Mariann Fischer Boel threatened Germany with legal action. Aigner has been outspoken in her criticisms of Facebook, she feels. For years, she has been fighting for higher privacy standards in Facebook and other social networks. In September 2011, she asked all federal ministers in Germany not to use Facebook for public relations and communication. In 2010, she criticized Google over plans to give property owners a four-week deadline to stop their buildings from showing up on the company’s newly launched Street View mapping service, demanding that all requests be considered instead. Amid the German debate on the country’s energy transition to an energy portfolio dominated by renewable energy, Aigner called in 2012 for the partial nationalization of the country's electrical grid in order to ensure that high-voltage power lines required to transport green energy from offshore windfarms and other sources to the industry-heavy regions of southern Germany are built.
In 2012, Aigner announced she would leave her post to return to local politics in her home state of Bavaria following the 2013 national elections, prompting speculation that she was eyeing the post of Bavarian Minister-President Horst Seehofer. Following her return to Bavaria after the state's 2013 elections, Aigner was named Minister-President Horst Seehofer's deputy as well as Bavarian Minister for Economic Affairs, Media and Technology; as one of Bavaria's representatives at the Bundesrat, she served on the Committee on Cultural Affairs. In the negotiations to form a grand coalition following the 2013 national elections, Aigner led the CDU/CSU delegation in the working group on economic affairs. On 17 December 2013 she became the first woman to chair a meeting of the Bavarian State Government. In the cabinet of Minister-President Markus Söder, Aigner served as State Minister of Construction and Transport in 2018. On the Bundesrat, she became a member of the Committee on Transport and of the Committee on Urban Development and Regional Planning.
On 5 November 2018, Aigner was elected with 198 of 205 votes as new President of the Bavarian Landtag. Bavarian Regulatory Authority for Commercial Broadcastin
Landtag of Bavaria
The Landtag of Bavaria is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany. The parliament meets in the Maximilianeum in Munich. Elections to the Landtag are held every five years and have to be conducted on a Sunday or public holiday; the following elections have to be held no earlier than 59 months and no than 62 months after the previous one, unless the Landtag is dissolved. The most recent elections to the Bavarian Landtag were held on 14 October 2018; the Landtag of Bavaria was founded in the Kingdom of Bavaria. It was called the Ständeversammlung and was divided into an upper house, the Kammer der Reichsräte, a lower house, the Kammer der Abgeordneten. In 1834 the Ständeversammlung was renamed the Landtag. In the Weimar Republic, from 1919 on, under the Bamberg Constitution, the upper house of the Landtag was abolished and its lower house became a unicameral democratic elected assembly. In 1933, in Nazi Germany, the Landtag suffered Gleichschaltung like all German state parliaments.
It was dissolved on 30 January 1934. After the Second World War, the new Constitution of Bavaria was enacted and the first new Landtag elections took place on 1 December 1946. Between 1946 and 1999 there was again the Senate of Bavaria; the Bavarian Landtag is elected through personalized proportional representation with 90 Constituencies, but unlike the Bundestag, the seven Administrative Districts are serving as "Electoral Regions" with a fixed number of seats allocated, flexible regional lists are used and both votes count regarding the proportional results so that the "lost" Constituency votes count. Constituency candidates are also List candidates of their Party and thus able to gain enough votes to have a chance of entering the Landtag through their list though they could not win their Constituency; the state government is formed by the CSU. Markus Söder has been Minister-President of Bavaria since March 2018, when he succeeded Horst Seehofer; the CSU has dominated the Bavarian Landtag for nearly the entire post-war period.
The CSU's 2003 election victory was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany that any party had won a two-thirds majority of seats in an assembly at any level. Five years in 2008, the CSU saw a stunning reversal of fortunes, failed to win a majority of seats in Bavaria for the first time in 46 years. In the aftermath of this result, the SPD floated the idea that the four other parties should all unite to form a government excluding the CSU, as it had "lost its mandate to lead": however, the FDP were not interested. Source:"Wahlergebnisse seit 1946". Bavarian Landtag. Retrieved 6 June 2008. Parties: AfD: Alternative for Germany – Alternative für Deutschland BP: Bavaria Party – Bayernpartei CSU: Christian Social Union of Bavaria – Christlich Soziale Union Bayerns FDP: Free Democratic Party – Freie Demokratische Partei FW: Independents – Freie Wähler GB/BHE: All-German Bloc/League of Expellees and Deprived of Rights – Gesamtdeutscher Block/Block der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten B'90/Grüne: Alliance'90/The Greens – Bündnis 90/Die Grünen KPD: Communist Party of Germany – Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands NPD: National Democratic Party of Germany – Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands ÖDP: Ecological Democratic Party – Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei REP: The Republicans – Die Republikaner SPD: Social Democratic Party of Germany – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschland WAV: Wirtschaftliche Aufbau Vereinigung Bavarian Landtag elections in the Weimar Republic Bavarian state election, 1998 Bavarian state election, 2003 Bavarian state election, 2008 Bavarian state election, 2013 Bavarian state election, 2018 Official website of the Bavarian Landtag Official website of the Bavarian Landtag Landeswahlgesetz – Laws and regulations governing elections in Bavaria Website of the Bavarian government Website of the Bavarian government