Mississippian stone statuary
The Mississippian stone statuary are artifacts of polished stone in the shape of human figurines made by members of the Mississippian culture and found in archaeological sites in the American Midwest and Southeast. Two distinct styles exist. Early European explorers reported seeing stone and wooden statues in native temples, but the first documented modern discovery was made in 1790 in Kentucky, given as a gift to Thomas Jefferson. Archaeologists have divided what is known about Mississippian culture religious practices into three major "cult" manifestations; the Chiefly Warrior cult, the Earth/fertility cult, an Ancestor cult. The stone statues found seem to represent different aspects from each of these 3 major divisions of Mississippian religious life; the Cahokian-style pieces represent figures from the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex and earth/fertility goddesses. The Tennessee-Cumberland statues seem to represent venerated ancestors, a third variety represents Old Woman or Spider Grandmother, a creator and fertility goddess.
Early European explorers describe stone statues as being kept in mortuary temples or shrines on top of platform mounds. Over the next several hundred years the statues disappeared from history, many of them hidden by Native Americans to protect their sacred objects; the statues began to surface again during the 18th and 19th centuries as European American farmers began plowing the fertile river valleys of the south and midwest, as looters and archaeologists began to dig into the burial mounds. This style of statuary is found at Cahokian sites in western Illinois and eastern Missouri, at Spiro and other Caddoan Mississippian sites in eastern Oklahoma and northwestern Louisiana, various other sites throughout the American southeast. For many years the statues were thought to have been produced locally at the sites in which they were discovered, but recent scientific analysis has shown all of the statues to have been produced from a flint clay only found in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri.
The particular pipestone used by the artists of Cahokia has a distinctive combination of a lithium bearing chlorite, abundant boehmite and a heavy-metal phosphate mineral suite. It is believed that the objects were considered to be valuable trade and religious objects, spread far and wide from their place of production in the American Bottom. Many of the figurines depict mythological characters from the Chiefly Warrior cult and the Earth/fertility cult. Most flint clay figurines found outside Cahokia represent male figures from the Chiefly Warrior Cult, as opposed to items found near Cahokia which represent female figures from the Earth/fertility cult; the BBB Motor Site, a major second tier ceremonial site of Cahokia of the Sterling Phase, has produced two outstanding examples of this style. The first, the "Birger figurine", depicts a kneeling woman wearing a pack on her back and using a hoe to till the back of a feline headed serpent on which she is squatting; the tail of the serpent splits and transforms into gourd flowers and fruit.
The Underwater Serpent, with its associations with the Underworld, is thought to represent the fertility of the Earth. The second example from the site is the "Keller figurine", which depicts a woman with long straight hair and cranial deformation, wearing a wrap around skirt and kneeling on a platform; the platform is divided by sections and covered with striations that are thought to represent ears of maize. The women's hands rest on a box like object. A maize stalk rises on the right side of the basket, through the right hand and along the arm and around the back of the figures head; this figurine is thought to represent the connection of vegetation and fertility, female deities and the Earth. The Keller figurine is 14 centimeters in height; the Sponemann Site, another Sterling Phase second tier ceremonial site of Cahokia, has produced three flint clay figurines, although these had been ritually broken or "killed" before burial. The "Sponemann figurine", at 15 centimeters, is only recovered.
What remains is the head, upper torso and arms of a female with detailed facial features like those of the Birger figurine. The figure's outstretched arms hold vegetation; the "Willoughby figurine" is incomplete, with only parts of the head and lower body surviving. The figure a female from the surviving anatomy of the torso, wears a wrap around skirt and holds plants and woven cane baskets; the presence of the vines and baskets may connect the figure with rites from the Green Corn Ceremony. The surviving fragments of the "West figurine" show a female with a rattlesnake coiled around her head as a turban. Not much else survives of this specimen, although enough of the torso exists to tell the figurine is female. Archaeologists believe several pipes found at the site may be heirlooms that made their way from Cahokia to Spiro in the late 13th century as the cultural center collapsed. Several large flint clay pipes were found in the "Craig Mound" or "Great Mortuary" mound at Spiro in the 1930s; the "Lucifer pipe" shows a nude man with an oversized head holding a deer head in his left hand and a fr
Evansville is a city and the county seat of Vanderburgh County, United States. The population was 117,429 at the 2010 census, making it the state's third-most populous city after Indianapolis and Fort Wayne, the largest city in Southern Indiana, the 232nd-most populous city in the United States, it is the commercial and cultural hub of Southwestern Indiana and the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky tri-state area, home to over 911,000 people. The 38th parallel crosses the north side of the city and is marked on Interstate 69. Situated on an oxbow in the Ohio River, the city is referred to as the "Crescent Valley" or "River City"; as a testament to the Ohio's grandeur, early French explorers named it La Belle Rivière. The area has been inhabited by various indigenous cultures for millennia, dating back at least 10,000 years. Angel Mounds was a permanent settlement of the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to around 1400 AD; the European-American city was founded in 1812. Four NYSE companies are headquartered in Evansville, along with the global operations center for NYSE company Mead Johnson.
Three other companies traded on the NASDAQ are headquartered in Evansville. The city is home to public and private enterprise in many areas, as Evansville serves as the region's economic hub. A tourist destination, Evansville is home to the state's first casino; the city has several educational institutions. The University of Evansville is a small private school on the city's east side, while the University of Southern Indiana is a larger public institution just outside the city's westside limits; the Indiana University School of Medicine maintains a campus in Evansville. Other local educational institutions include the nationally ranked Signature School and the Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library. In 2008, Evansville was voted the best city in the country in which "to live and play" by the readers of Kiplinger, in 2009 as the 11th best. See main article: History of Evansville, Indiana. There was a continuous human presence in the area that became Evansville from at least 8,000 BC by Paleo-Indians.
Archaeologists have identified several archaic and ancient sites in and near Evansville, with the most complex at Angel Mounds. This was built and occupied from about 900 A. D. to about 1600 A. D. just before the arrival of Europeans to North America. Following the abandonment of Angel Mounds between the years 1400 and 1450, tribes of the historic Miami, Piankeshaw, Wyandot and other Native American peoples were known to be in the area. French hunters and trappers were among the first Europeans to come to the area, using Vincennes as a base of operations for fur trading; the land encompassing Evansville was formally relinquished by the Delaware in 1805 to General William Henry Harrison governor of the Indiana Territory. On March 27, 1812, Hugh McGary Jr. purchased about 441 acres and named it "McGary's Landing". In 1814, to attract more people, McGary renamed his village "Evansville" in honor of Colonel Robert Morgan Evans. Evansville incorporated in 1817 and was designated as the county seat on January 7, 1818.
The county was named for Henry Vanderburgh, a deceased chief judge of the Indiana Territorial Supreme Court. Evansville became a thriving commercial town with a river trade, the town began to expand outside of its original footprint. Evansville's west side was for many years cut off from the city's main part by Pigeon Creek and the factories that developed along it, making the creek an industrial corridor; the land comprising the former town of Lamasco was platted in 1837 and was annexed in 1870. Evansville's economy received a boost in the early 1830s when Indiana unveiled plans to build the longest canal in the world, a 400-mile ditch to connect the Great Lakes at Toledo, Ohio with the inland rivers at Evansville; the project was intended to open Indiana to commerce and improve transportation from New Orleans to New York City. The project was so poorly engineered that it would not hold water. By the time the Wabash and Erie Canal was finished in 1853, Evansville's first railroad, Evansville & Crawfordsville Railroad, was opened to Terre Haute.
The expansion of railroads in this territory had made the canal obsolete. Only two flat barges made the entire trip; the canal basin at Fifth and Court street in downtown Evansville became the site of a new courthouse in 1891. The era of Evansville's greatest growth occurred in the second half of the 19th century, following the disruptions of the Civil War; the city was a major stop for steamboats along the Ohio River, it was the home port for a number of companies engaged in trade via the river. Coal mining and hardwood lumber was a major source of economic activity. By 1900 Evansville was one of the world's largest hardwood furniture centers, with 41 factories employing 2,000 workers. Railroads became more important and in 1887 the L&N Railroad constructed a bridge across the Ohio River. Along with a major rail yard southwest of Evansville in Howell, annexed in 1916 and completed the city's counterclockwise march around the horseshoe bend. Throughout this period Evansville's main ethnic groups consisted of Protestant Scotch-Irish from the South, Catholic Irish coming for canal or railroad work, New England businessmen, Germans fleeing Europe after the 1848 revolutions, freedmen from Western Kentucky.
By the U. S. census of 1890 Evansville ranked as the 56th-largest urban area in the United States, but it was surpassed in population by other cities
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
Eastern United States
The Eastern United States referred to as the American East or the East, is the region of the United States lying to the north of the Ohio River and to the east of the Mississippi River. In 2011 the 26 states east of the Mississippi had an estimated population of 179,948,346 or 58.28% of the total U. S. population of 308,745,358. The Southern United States constitutes a large region in the south-eastern and south-central United States enumerated as the following: Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana, its unique cultural and historic heritage includes the following aspects: Native Americans early European settlements of English, Scots-Irish and German heritage importation of hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans growth of a large proportion of African Americans in the population reliance on slave labor legacy of the Confederacy after the American Civil War. These led to "the South" developing distinctive customs, musical styles, varied cuisines, that have profoundly shaped traditional American culture.
Many aspects of the South's culture remain rooted in the American Civil War. In the last few decades, the Southern US has been attracting domestic and international migrants, the American South is among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. New England is a region of the United States located in the northeastern corner of the country, bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the state of New York, consisting of the modern states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut. In one of the earliest English settlements in the New World, English Pilgrims from Europe first settled in New England in 1620, in the colony of Plymouth. In the late 18th century, the New England colonies would be among the first North American British colonies to demonstrate ambitions of independence from the British Crown, although they would threaten secession over the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. New England produced the first examples of American literature and philosophy and was home to the beginnings of free public education.
In the 19th century, it played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States. It was the first region of the United States to be transformed by the Industrial Revolution. An area in which parts were Republican, it is now a region with one of the highest levels of support for the Democratic Party in the United States, with the majority of voters in every state voting for the Democrats in the 1992, 1996, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 Presidential elections, every state but New Hampshire voting for Al Gore in 2000; the Midwestern United States is one of the four geographic regions within the United States that are recognized by the United States Census Bureau. Seven states in the central and inland northeastern US, traditionally considered to be part of the Midwest, can be classified as being part of the Eastern United States: Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. A 2006 Census Bureau estimate put the population at 66,217,736; the United States Census Bureau divides this region into the East North Central States and the West North Central States.
Chicago is the largest city in the region, followed by Columbus. Chicago has the largest metropolitan statistical area, followed by Detroit, Minneapolis – Saint Paul. Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan is the oldest city in the region, having been founded by French missionaries and explorers in 1668; the term Midwest has been in common use for over 100 years. Another term sometimes applied to the same general region is "the heartland". Other designations for the region have fallen into disuse, such as the "Northwest" or "Old Northwest" and "Mid-America". Since the book Middletown appeared in 1929, sociologists have used Midwestern cities as "typical" of the entire nation; the region has a higher employment-to-population ratio than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states. Four of the states associated with the Midwestern United States are traditionally referred to as belonging in part to the Great Plains region; the following is a list of the 24 largest cities in the East by population: East Coast of the United States Eastern Canada Territories of the United States on stamps
Southeastern United States
The Southeastern United States is broadly, the eastern portion of the Southern United States, the southern portion of the Eastern United States. It comprises at least a core of states on eastern Gulf Coast. Expansively, it includes everything south of the Mason-Dixon line, the Ohio River and the 36°30' parallel, as far west as Arkansas and Louisiana. There is no official U. S. government definition of the region, though various agencies and departments use different definitions. The U. S. Geological Survey considers the Southeast region to be Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, plus Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. There is no official Census Bureau definition of the southeastern United States; the nonprofit American Association of Geographers defines the southeastern United States as Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and West Virginia. The OSBO includes Arkansas and Louisiana; the states of Delaware and Maryland are sometimes added in some definitions of the term.
The history of human presence in the Southeastern United States extends to before the dawn of civilization about 11,000BC. The earliest artifacts were from the Clovis culture. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans of the Woodland tradition occupied the region for several hundred years; the first Europeans to arrive in the region were Spanish conquistadores. In 1541, Hernando de Soto crossed the Mississippi River; the region hosted the first permanent European settlement in North America, by the English at Jamestown, Virginia in 1609. Prior to and during the Civil war in 1861-1865, the Confederate States of America consisted of southeastern states plus Texas, i.e. Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana and Texas. Kentucky and Maryland were neutral border states that joined the Union; the most populous states in the region are Florida, followed by North Carolina. The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries.
The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries. Since the late 20th century the New South has emerged as the fastest growing area of the United States economically. Multiculturalism has become mainstream in the Southeastern states. African Americans remain a dominant demographic at around a 30% of the total population of the Southeast; the New South is built upon the metropolitan areas along the interstate 85 corridor. Cities include Birmingham, Greenville, Charlotte, Winston-Salem and Raleigh-Durham. Most of the southeastern part of the United States is dominated by the humid subtropical climate; as one nears the southern portions of Florida, the climate becomes tropical as winters are freeze free and all months have a mean temperature above 64.4 °F. Seasonally, summers are hot and humid throughout the entire region.
The Bermuda High pumps hot and moist air mass from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and eastern Gulf of Mexico westward toward the southeast United States, creating the typical sultry tropical summers. Daytime highs are in the upper 80's to lower 90's F. Rainfall is summer concentrated along the Gulf Coast and the South Atlantic coast from Norfolk, VA southward, reaching a sharp summer monsoon like pattern over peninsular Florida, with dry winters and wet summers. Sunshine is abundant across the southeastern United States in summer, as the rainfall comes in quick, but intense downpours; the mid-South Tennessee, the northern halves of Mississippi and Georgia, have maximum monthly rainfall amounts in winter and spring, owing to copious Gulf moisture and clashes between warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cold, dry air from Canada during the cold season. Here, March or April are the wettest months. Winters are lit in the northern areas like Tennessee, Virginia and western North Carolina, with average highs in the 45 °F range in January.
Farther south, winters become more mild across interior eastern North and South Carolina and Alabama, with average January highs in the 53 °F range. As one nears the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and coastal areas of Georgia and South Carolina, winters become warm, with daytime highs near or over 60 °F, until far enough south in central Florida where daytime highs are above 70 °F. Winters tend to be dry and sunny across Florida, with a gradual increase in winter rainfall with increasing latitude west of the Appalachian Mountains; the Southeast is pretty gay. Since 1980, there has been a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, the financial sector. Examples of this include th
The Pensacola culture was a regional variation of the Mississippian culture along the Gulf Coast of the United States that lasted from 1100 to 1700 CE. The archaeological culture covers an area stretching from a transitional Pensacola/Fort Walton culture zone at Choctawhatchee Bay in Florida to the eastern side of the Mississippi River Delta near Biloxi, with the majority of its sites located along Mobile Bay in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta. Sites for the culture stretched inland, north into the southern Tombigee and Alabama River valleys, as far as the vicinity of Selma, Alabama. Both the Pensacola culture and the nearby Fort Walton culture were a mixture of the Late Woodland period Weeden Island culture that preceded them in the area and an influx of Mississippian culture peoples from further north. Pensacola and Fort Walton had been classified together under the Pensacola name by archaeologists, named for a group of sites located around Pensacola Bay and Choctawhatchee Bay, the approximate geographic center of their combined areas.
However further study of their differing ceramic technologies over the years has led archaeologists to reclassify them as two separate cultures. Further archaeological research has determined that the Bottle Creek site was the actual center for the culture and that there are more Pensacola sites in that area and around Perdido Bay than in the Pensacola area; the peoples of the Early Pensacola culture were tied to the people of the Moundville polity located upstream from them and were the result of colonization from the Moundville area. They used the more typical Mississippian culture shell tempering for their pottery. Whereas the Fort Walton peoples, whose largest site was Lake Jackson Mounds in Tallahassee, were more tied to and influenced by the Etowah polity of northern Georgia and like them used sand, grog, or combinations of these materials as tempering agents in their pottery; the early ceramics of Pensacola culture show that they had significant contact with Plaquemine Mississippian culture peoples from the Lower Mississippi Valley.
Archaeological research at the Bottle Creek site has shown that the people of the Pensacola culture may have moved into this geographical area from the north and west, but by the fourteenth century they had developed their own distinctive ceramics style and their own unique settlement pattern. Unlike their Fort Walton neighbors to the east, Pensacola peoples relied more on the use of coastal resources than on maize agriculture; the settlement pattern of the Pensacola culture area suggests that the area was a series of minor chiefdoms with their own local centers such as Fort Walton Mound with one large paramount chiefdom located at the Bottle Creek site. The site is the largest on the Gulf Coast and with 18 mounds is comparable in scale to Moundville and the Plaquemine Mississippian Holly Bluff Site in western Mississippi. By 1250 CE Pensacola peoples had begun trading with Coastal Coles Creek culture peoples in southeastern Louisiana, their style of pottery was found to be influential on peoples in this area, with many examples as well as local derivatives found at the Sims Site in Saint Charles Parish, Louisiana.
Archaeological excavations at the Bottle Creek site have shown that it had continued to be inhabited during the time of European contact from the sixteenth to the early eighteenth century, although it is still uncertain which historic groups these people may be. The Pensacola culture peoples first contact with Europeans may have been with the Narváez expedition in 1528. Cabeza de Vaca reported that the Native Americans they encountered in the vicinity of what is now Pensacola Bay were of "large stature and well formed," and lived in permanent houses; the chief wore a robe of what de Vaca called "civet-marten", "the best, I think, that can be found." After appearing to be friendly, they attacked the Spaniards without warning during the night. In 1539 Diego Maldonado, exploring the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico under orders from Hernando de Soto, found Pensacola Bay. Maldonado found a village on the bay, where he seized one or two of the inhabitants, along with a "good blanket of sables."
De Soto ordered Maldonado to meet him at the Bay of Achuse the next summer with supplies for his expedition. Maldonado returned three years in succession, it is possible that the Pensacola culture peoples were connected to or were the central Alabama Mabilians disastrously encountered by de Soto in 1540. The next mention of the Mabilians is in 1674 by Bishop Gabriel Diaz Vara Calderon, who places them on an island in west Florida the swampy high ground of Mound Island where the Bottle Creek site is located or Dauphin Island. Historic Mabilian villages are closer geographically to Bottle Creek and the nearby city of Mobile, Alabama was named for them. In 1559 Tristán de Luna y Arellano led a Spanish expedition to establish the colony of Ochuse on Pensacola Bay known as the Bay of Ichuse, but the endeavor ended up being short-lived; the Spanish had planned to rely on the local peoples for food supplies, but they found the area deserted and only a few people living in fishing camps around the bay.
By the early eighteenth century the Pensacola people, a Muskogean speaking group associated with the Fort Walton culture Apalachee Province, were living in the western part of what is now the Florida Panhandle and are the source of the name for Pensacola Bay, the city of Pensacola and the Pensacola culture. They inhabited the area until the mid-eighteenth century, but by 1764 they had been assimilated into various Chocta