The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American family-owned and operated business venture that sanctions and governs multiple auto-racing sports events. Bill France Sr. founded the company in 1948 and his grandson Brian France became its CEO in 2003, NASCAR is motorsports preeminent stock-car racing organization. The three largest racing-series sanctioned by this company are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the company also oversees NASCAR Local Racing, the Whelen Modified Tour, the Whelen All-American Series, and the NASCAR iRacing. com Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 39 of the 50 US states as well as in Canada. NASCAR has presented exhibition races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez in Mexico, NASCAR has its official headquarters in Daytona Beach, Florida, and also maintains offices in the North Carolina cities of Charlotte, Concord, and Conover. Regional offices are located in New York City and Los Angeles, with offices in Mexico City. Owing to NASCARs Southern roots, all but a handful of NASCAR teams are based in North Carolina. NASCAR is second to the National Football League among professional sports franchises in terms of television viewers, internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In 2004, NASCARs Director of Security stated that the company holds 17 of the Top 20 regularly attended single-day sporting events in the world, fortune 500 companies sponsor NASCAR more than any other motor sport, although this sponsorship has declined since the early-2000s. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the location for pursuit of land speed records. Drivers raced on a 4. 1-mile course, consisting of a 1. 5–2. 0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, the two straights were connected by two tight, deeply rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, and they typically used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, the cars continued to improve, and by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit. These races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced, mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, finishing fifth and he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II, France had the notion that people would enjoy watching stock cars race
Gran Turismo 5
Gran Turismo 5 is the fifth game in the Gran Turismo racing video game series. Developed by Polyphony Digital and published by Sony Computer Entertainment, it was released for PlayStation 3 on November 24,2010 and it expands on the games Prologue version and is the first entry of the series to be developed for PlayStation 3. As of 2013, it is one of the best-selling PS3 games. The game marks the first entry in the series with online races with support for up to 16 players, a damage model has been included with variations of damage depending on whether the vehicle falls into the standard or premium category. Over 1,000 cars,26 different locations, and 71 different tracks are available in the game, World Rally Championship, NASCAR and Super GT licenses are utilized for the first time in the Gran Turismo series. Gran Turismo 5 is the first game in the franchise to provide a damage model, the game also features weather effects, however they are only available on certain circuits. Optional Stereoscopic-3D resolution and Karting found a place in the game, furthermore, new visual effects have been introduced, including dynamic skid marks, dust and the ability for drivers to flash their headlights. There are a variety of themes the player can choose from to act as a base for each circuit design, themes also have an effect on track length and highest elevation. The physics is significantly revised compared with GT4, cars no longer instantly turn-in but realistically must load up the wheel first. It is also possible to overturn cars for the first time in the series, the cars in GT5 are separated into standard- and premium-vehicles. Standard vehicles have a less detailed damage model with dirt, scratches, in addition, standard cars initially could not receive aftermarket wheels - among other aesthetic upgrades, such as wheel paint. However, as of the version 2.02 update this is no longer the case, Premium vehicles feature a slightly more advanced damage model. Gran Turismo 2 previously included damage, but was limited to mechanical failures only, Gran Turismo 5 allows players to drive 31 different locations or scenery and 81 different track layouts. Dunsfold Aerodrome, located in the United Kingdom – the test track of the British automotive television show Top Gear – is included in the game, the playable demo of Gran Turismo 5 at Gamescom 2009 featured the Tokyo Route 246 track, seen in previous incarnations of the game. Various real-life circuits return from previous games in the series and these include Nürburgring, Circuit de la Sarthe, Tsukuba Circuit, Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca and Suzuka Circuit. New real-life circuits included in the game include Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Monza Circuit, Daytona International Speedway, many fictional circuits return from previous games in the series including Trial Mountain, Deep Forest Raceway and Autumn Ring. An official list of all available in the game has been released by Polyphony Digital. Unfortunately, a glitch was discovered on the Nurburgring track that allowed players to finish a lap or race faster than normal, other tracks known for glitching are Special Stage Route 7, Daytona International Speedway, and Laguna Seca
The PlayStation 3 is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, and is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles and it was first released on November 11,2006, in Japan, November 17,2006, in North America, and March 23,2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 mainly competes against consoles such as Microsofts Xbox 360, the console was first officially announced at E32005, and was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its storage medium. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released and it no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the version, and featured a redesigned logo and marketing design. A Super Slim variation was released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console. The system had a start in the market but managed to recover. As of March 2016, PlayStation 3 has sold 85 million units worldwide, putting it about on par with Xbox 360 and its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released later in November 2013. On September 29,2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, in March 2017, the official site for PlayStation 3 in Japan was updated to state that it would be discontinued soon. Sony officially unveiled PlayStation 3 to the public on May 16,2005, at E32005, Video footage based on the predicted PlayStation 3 specifications was also shown. Two hardware configurations were also announced for the console, a 20 GB model, the 60 GB model was to be the only configuration to feature an HDMI port, Wi-Fi internet, flash card readers and a chrome trim with the logo in silver. Both models were announced for a worldwide release, November 11,2006, for Japan and November 17,2006, for North America. On September 6,2006, Sony announced that PAL region PlayStation 3 launch would be delayed until March 2007, because of a shortage of materials used in the Blu-ray drive. Also, the price of the Japanese 20 GB model was reduced by over 20%. During the event, Sony showed 27 playable PS3 games running on final hardware, PlayStation 3 was first released in Japan on November 11,2006, at 07,00. According to Media Create,81,639 PS3 systems were sold within 24 hours of its introduction in Japan, soon after its release in Japan, PS3 was released in North America on November 17,2006. Reports of violence surrounded the release of PS3, a customer was shot, campers were robbed at gunpoint, customers were shot in a drive-by shooting with BB guns, and 60 campers fought over 10 systems
The NASCAR Xfinity Series is a stock car racing series owned and operated by The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing. It is promoted as NASCARs minor league circuit, and is considered a ground for drivers who wish to step up to the organizations top level circuit. Xfinity Series races are held in the same venue as, and a day prior to. The series emerged from NASCARs Sportsman division, which had formed in 1950 as NASCARs short track race division. The sportsman cars were not current model cars and could be modified more and it became the Late Model Sportsman Series in 1968, and soon featured races on larger tracks such as Daytona International Speedway. Drivers used obsolete Grand National cars on larger tracks but by the inception of the format in 1982. Short track cars with relatively small 300 cubic inch V-8 motors were used, drivers used smaller current year models featuring V6 motors. The modern-day Xfinity Series was formed in 1982, when Anheuser-Busch sponsored a newly reformed late-model sportsman series with its Budweiser brand, the series switched sponsorship to Busch in 1984. It was renamed in 1986 to the Busch Grand National Series, Grand National was dropped from the series title in 2003 as part of NASCARs brand identity. Anheuser-Busch dropped the sponsorship in 2007, Nationwide Insurance took over the sponsorship for the 2008 season, the Nationwide sponsorship was a seven-year contract, and did not include the banking and mortgage departments of Nationwide. The sponsorship reportedly carried a $10 million commitment for 2008, with 6% annual escalations thereafter, on September 3,2014, it was announced that Comcast would become the new title sponsor of the series via its cable television and internet brand Xfinity, renaming it the Xfinity Series. In 2016, NASCAR implemented a seven-race Chase system similar to the one used in the NASCAR Cup Series, on March 6,2005, the series held its first race outside the United States, the Telcel-Motorola 200. The race was held in Mexico City, Mexico at the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez and it was won by Martin Truex Jr. On August 4,2007, the series held its second race outside of the United States, at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Montreal, Quebec and it was won by Kevin Harvick, while Quebec native Patrick Carpentier finished second. In July 2008, NASCAR announced that the Nationwide Series would not return to Mexico City in 2009, in 2016, the NASCAR Xfinity Series and the Camping World Truck Series adopted a playoff format similar to the NASCAR Cup Series Chase for the Championship. Unlike the NASCAR Cup Series, whose Chase consists of four rounds, after each of the first two rounds, the four Chase grid drivers with the fewest season points are eliminated from the grid and Chase contention. The best-placed driver overall from the four Dash 4 Cash races advances to the Chase, until 2000, the Busch Grand National Series was carried on a number of both cable and broadcast networks that had deals with the series tracks. Most standalone races were aired on TNN, while races that were companion races with Winston Cup dates aired on the airing the Cup race
Dale Earnhardt Jr.
Ralph Dale Earnhardt Jr. known professionally as Dale Earnhardt Jr. Dale Jr. or just Junior, is an American professional stock car racing driver and champion team owner. He is the son of NASCAR Hall of Fame member Dale Earnhardt Sr. Earnhardts success at Daytona International Speedway throughout his career has earned him the nickname Pied Piper of Daytona. He is a two-time Daytona 500 winner, having won the races exactly 10 years apart and he has an estimated net worth of $300 million. He had previously driven the No.8 Chevrolet for Dale Earnhardt, Earnhardt was born and raised in Kannapolis, North Carolina, the son of Brenda Lorraine and Dale Earnhardt Sr. His maternal grandfather, Robert Gee Sr. was a NASCAR car builder and his first race car was a 1979 Monte Carlo that he co-owned with his older half-brother, Kerry Earnhardt. By age 19 after two seasons of driving Street Stock Division, Earnhardt had honed his abilities to the point of joining the Late Model Stock Car Division. He competed on the North and South Carolina short tracks driving a No.3 Chevrolet, there he developed an in-depth knowledge of chassis setup and car preparation, while racing against his older brother Kerry and his sister Kelley. He worked at his fathers dealership as a mechanic while he went to Mitchell Community College to earn a degree in automotive technology. Earnhardt ran nine Busch Series races between 1996 and 1997 for Dale Earnhardt, Inc, Earnhardt won consecutive NASCAR Busch Series Championships in 1998 and 1999 barely edging Matt Kenseth. In 1998, he made his first start in the Winston Cup Series, at the race held in Motegi. Also in 1999, he drove in 5 Winston Cup races in the No.8 Budweiser-sponsored Chevrolet for Dale Earnhardt, Inc. and then in 2000,2000 was Earnhardts breakout year in the Cup Series. He competed for the Raybestos NASCAR Rookie of the Year Award in 2000 and his primary competitor for the award was Matt Kenseth. Kenseth outran Earnhardt in the season-opening Daytona 500 and he became the first rookie to win the All-Star exhibition race. Earnhardt played a part in recreating one Winston Cup milestone in 2000 when he competed with his father and half-brother Kerry in the Pepsi 400 at Michigan International Speedway. That occasion was only the time that a father had raced against two sons – Lee Petty and his two sons Richard and Maurice had previously accomplished the feat. Earnhardt ended the year with two wins, three top-5s, five top-10s, and two poles, in 2001, the major event of the season occurred on February 18, in the final corner of the final lap of the 2001 Daytona 500. As Earnhardt and his teammate Michael Waltrip raced to the finish line and his father had crashed in turn 4 after Sterling Marlin made contact with his left rear bumper. Earnhardt Sr. shot up the track into the wall behind Waltrip and his son
James Dennis Alan Denny Hamlin is an American professional stock car racing driver. Hamlin was born in Tampa, Florida, but lived in Chesterfield and he began racing go-karts at the age of seven. Afterward, he worked his way up to Late Models by 2004, after running briefly in the Craftsman Truck Series, Hamlin drove a full season in the Busch Series in 2005, while running a few Nextel Cup races. After having strong race finishes, Hamlin was given a ride with JGR. Hamlin began his career in 1988, at the age of 7 years old. By 1997 at 15, he won the WKA manufacturers cup, at the age of 16, he was racing Ministocks. In his first stock car race, at Langley Speedway, Hamlin won the pole position and he then progressed to the Grand Stock division in 1998, and moved on to Late Model Stock Cars in 2000. In 2002, he won ten Late Model races, and surpassed that in 2003 with 25 wins, in 2004, while competing full-time in Late Model Stock Cars, Hamlin was signed to a driver development contract with Joe Gibbs Racing. In 2004, Hamlin competed in five NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series races with EJP Racing and he later ran his first career ARCA RE/MAX Series race at Talladega Superspeedway, finishing third in the No.10 Pontiac owned by Andy Hillenburg. His final start of the year came at Darlington Raceway, when he made his Busch Series debut and he started twenty-seventh but finished eighth in the No.18 Joe Gibbs Driven Performance Oil Chevrolet. Hamlin ran the season in 2005 after he replaced Mike Bliss in the No.20 Rockwell Automation Chevrolet in the Busch Series. He ended up finishing 5th in the championship points standings as a rookie in that series, with 11 top 10s. He finished the Cup season with three top 10 finishes in seven starts and one pole at Phoenix International Raceway. His performance in 2005 was impressive, as Leffler had performed embarrassingly in the car earlier in the season. In 2006, Hamlin ran his first full season in the NASCAR Nextel Cup Series, in Hamlins first restrictor plate race as a Nextel Cup driver, he beat all the previous years pole winners in the 70-lap 2006 Budweiser Shootout. Hamlin became the first Rookie of the Year candidate to take home the Shootout victory, Hamlin achieved his first career Busch Series victory at Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez. On June 11, Hamlin scored his first career Cup Series win at the Pocono 500, Hamlin thus became the first ever rookie to make the Chase for the NEXTEL Cup, which he finished third in points. Hamlin started the 2007 Cup season by finishing 28th in the Daytona 500 and he won his third career Cup race at the Lenox Industrial Tools 300 at New Hampshire International Speedway
Martin Truex Jr.
Martin Lee Truex Jr. is an American professional stock car racing driver. He currently competes full-time in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, Truex is a two-time Xfinity Series champion, having won the title in 2004 and 2005. His younger brother, Ryan is a champion in the K&N Pro Series East division and currently races in the Camping World Truck Series, Truex was born in Trenton, New Jersey, and grew up in the Mayetta section of Stafford Township, New Jersey. He graduated from Southern Regional High School in 1998 and his father, Martin Truex, Sr. was a former race winner in the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East, then called the NASCAR Busch North Series. His younger brother, Ryan, is a champion in the K&N Pro Series East. Truex is a fan of the Philadelphia Flyers of the NHL. Truex and his girlfriend Sherry Pollex have been together since 2005, in 2007, they started the Martin Truex Jr. Foundation to support children with pediatric cancer. In 2014, Pollex was diagnosed with Stage III ovarian cancer, Martin began his driving career racing go-karts at the New Egypt Speedway located in Central New Jersey before the speedway was switched to dirt. Truex would make his move to the Modified division at Wall Stadium as soon as he was old enough to race a modified at the age of 18 in 1998. The younger Truex began racing in the NASCAR Camping World East Series in 2000, after moving south, Truex rented a home from Dale Earnhardt Jr. in Mooresville, North Carolina, before he purchased his own home. In 2000, Truex, following in his fathers footsteps, began racing in the Busch North Series (now the K&N Pro Series East and he ran three full seasons and made limited starts in 2003. During his time in the Busch North Series, Truex claimed 13 poles and 5 wins driving his family-owned No.56 SeaWatch Chevy, Truex made his first Busch Series start in 2001 at Dover International Speedway in his fathers No.56 Chevy. He started 19th but finished 38th after an early wreck, in 2002, Truex drove one race for Phoenix Racing at New Hampshire International Speedway, starting thirteenth and finishing twenty-ninth. He ran three races the rest of season for his father, his best finish seventeenth at Dover. In 2003, he began the season with his fathers team and he made his debut with Chance 2 at Richmond International Raceway, where he qualified sixth and led eleven laps before transmission failure forced him to a 31st-place finish. He split time between Chance 2 and his fathers team for the balance of the season, except at Dover and he had a sixth-place run at Bristol Motor Speedway, and ended the season with two consecutive second-place finishes. He ran a total of ten races that season, Truex raced full-time for Chance 2 in 2004. At Bristol Motor Speedway, he would earn his first career victory and he took the lead in the championship after Nazareth, but lost it to rookie Kyle Busch a few races later
It is created and owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment since December 3,1994, with the launch of the original PlayStation console in Japan. The original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units,9 years and 6 months after its initial launch and its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000. The PlayStation 2 is the home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28,2012. Sonys next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sonys latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, the first handheld game console in the PlayStation series, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013. Its successor, the PlayStation Vita, which launched in Japan on December 17,2011, PlayStation TV is a microconsole and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. The main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the DualShock, the PlayStation Network is an online service with over 110 million users worldwide. PlayStation Mobile is a framework that provides PlayStation content on mobile devices. Content set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently, 7th generation PlayStation products also use the XrossMediaBar, which is an award-winning graphical user interface. A new touch screen-based user interface called LiveArea was launched for the PlayStation Vita, additionally, PlayStation 2 and original PlayStation 3 consoles also featured support for Linux-based operating systems, though this has since been discontinued. The series has also known for its numerous marketing campaigns. The consoles origins date back to 1988 where it was originally a joint project between Nintendo and Sony to create a CD-ROM for the Super Famicom. However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with Philips instead but using the same technology. The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President Norio Ohga, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a non-gaming role regarding their new partnership with Philips. This proposal was rejected by Kutaragi who was facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a proprietary CD-ROM-based system he had working on which involved playing video games with 3D graphics to the board
The Saturn has a dual-CPU architecture and eight processors. Its games are in CD-ROM format, and its library contains several arcade ports as well as original titles. Development of the Saturn began in 1992, the same year Segas groundbreaking 3D Model 1 arcade hardware debuted. The Saturn was initially successful in Japan, but failed to sell in numbers in the United States after its surprise May 1995 launch. After the debut of the Nintendo 64 in late 1996, the Saturn rapidly lost market share in the U. S. where it was discontinued in 1998, having sold 9.26 million units worldwide, the Saturn is considered a commercial failure. The failure of Segas development teams to release a game in the Sonic the Hedgehog series, although the Saturn is remembered for several well-regarded games, including Nights into Dreams. The Panzer Dragoon series, and the Virtua Fighter series, its reputation is mixed due to its hardware design. Segas management has been criticized for its decision-making during the systems development, released in 1988, the Genesis was Segas entry into the fourth generation of video game consoles. In mid-1990, Sega CEO Hayao Nakayama hired Tom Kalinske as president, however, the release of a CD-based add-on for the Genesis, the Sega CD, had been commercially disappointing. Sega also experienced success with arcade games, in 1992 and 1993, the companys new Sega Model 1 arcade system board showcased Sega AM2s Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter, which played a crucial role in popularizing 3D polygonal graphics. The Model 1 was a system board, and bringing home releases of its games to the Genesis required more than its hardware could handle. Several alternatives helped to bring Segas newest arcade games to the console, such as the Sega Virtua Processor chip used for Virtua Racing, development of the Saturn was supervised by Hideki Sato, Segas director and deputy general manager of research and development. According to Sega project manager Hideki Okamura, the Saturn project started over two years before the system was showcased at the Tokyo Toy Show in June 1994, the name Saturn was initially the systems codename during development in Japan, but was eventually chosen as the official product name. In 1993, Sega and Japanese electronics company Hitachi formed a joint venture to develop a new CPU for the Saturn, the Saturn was ultimately designed around a dual-SH2 configuration. According to Kazuhiro Hamada, Segas section chief for Saturn development during the systems conception, the chip has a calculation system similar to a DSP, but we realized that a single CPU would not be enough to calculate a 3D world. According to Kalinske, Sega of America fought against the architecture of Saturn for quite some time, seeking an alternative graphics chip for the Saturn, Kalinske attempted to broker a deal with Silicon Graphics, but Sega of Japan rejected the proposal. Silicon Graphics subsequently collaborated with Nintendo on the Nintendo 64, publicly, Kalinske defended the Saturns design, Our people feel that they need the multiprocessing to be able to bring to the home what were doing next year in the arcades. In 1993, Sega restructured its internal studios in preparation for the Saturns launch, New teams, such as Panzer Dragoon developer Team Andromeda, were formed during this time
The Nintendo 64, stylized as the NINTENDO64 and often referred to as the N64, is Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. It was the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until Nintendos seventh console, while the Nintendo 64 was succeeded by Nintendos MiniDVD-based GameCube in September 2001, the consoles remained available until the system was retired in late 2003. Codenamed Project Reality, the the N64 design was complete by mid-1995, but its launch was delayed until 1996. It launched with three games, Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64, released worldwide, and Saikyō Habu Shōgi, as part of the fifth generation of gaming, the system competed primarily with the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn. The suggested retail price at its United States launch was US$199.99, the console was released in a range of colors and designs over its lifetime. In 2015, IGN named it the 9th greatest video game console of all time, as of 2016, the system remains a popular retro console in North America. At the beginning of the 1990s, Nintendo led the game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System. Although the NES follow-up console, the Super NES, was successful, competition from long-time rival Sega, and relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendos need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its competitors. Further complicating matters, Nintendo also faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendos strict licensing policies, the company created a design proposal for a video game system, seeking an already well established partner in that market. James H. Clark, founder of SGI, initially offered the proposal to Tom Kalinske, the historical details of these preliminary negotiations were controversial between the two competing suitors. Tom Kalinske said that he and Joe Miller of Sega of America were quite impressed with SGIs prototype, the engineers from Sega Enterprises claimed that their evaluation of the early prototype had uncovered several unresolved hardware issues and deficiencies. Those were subsequently resolved, but Sega had already decided against SGIs design, Nintendo resisted that summary conclusion, arguing that the reason for SGIs ultimate choice of partner is due to Nintendo having been a more appealing business partner than Sega. While Sega demanded exclusive rights to the chip, Nintendo was willing to license the technology on a non-exclusive basis, michael Slater, publisher of Microprocessor Report said, The mere fact of a business relationship there is significant because of Nintendos phenomenal ability to drive volume. If it works at all, it could bring MIPS to levels of volume never dreamed of, james Clark met with Nintendo CEO Hiroshi Yamauchi in early 1993, thus initiating Project Reality. This announcement coincided with Nintendos August 1993 Shoshinkai trade show, as with most of the computing industry, Nintendo had limited experience with 3D graphics, and worked with several outside companies to develop the technology comprising the console. Some chip technology was provided by NEC, Toshiba, and Sharp, SGI had recently acquired MIPS Computer Systems, and the two worked together toward a low-cost realtime 3D graphics hardware system. SGI and its subsidiary MIPS Technologies were responsible for the R4300i microprocessor and that software-based console prototype platform was later supplanted by a workstation-hosted console simulation board, representing the finalized console hardware. SGIs performance estimates based upon their RealityEngine supercomputing platform were ultimately reported to be accurate to the final consumer console product