The Novator KS-172 is a Russian air-to-air missile designed as an "AWACS killer" at ranges up to 400 km. The missile has had various names during its troubled history, including K-100, Izdeliye 172, AAM-L, KS–172, KS-1, 172S-1 and R-172; the airframe appears to have been derived from the 9K37 Buk surface-to-air missile but development stalled in the mid-1990s for lack of funds. It appears to have restarted in 2004 after a deal with India, who wants to produce the missile in India for their Su-30MKI fighters, it is the heaviest air-to-air missile produced. Modern airforces have become dependent on airborne radars carried by converted airliners and transport aircraft such as the E-3 Sentry and A-50'Mainstay', they depend on similar aircraft for inflight refuelling, maritime patrol and electronic warfare and C4ISTAR. The loss of just one of these aircraft can have a significant effect on fighting capability, they are heavily defended by fighter escorts. A long-range air-to-air missile offers the prospect of bringing down the target without having to fight a way through the fighter screen.
Given the potential importance of "blinding" Western AWACS, Russia has devoted considerable resources to this area. The R-37 is an evolution of their R-33 with a range of up to 400 km, there have been persistent rumours – if little hard evidence – of an air-to-air missile with a range of 200 km based on Zvezda's Kh-31 anti-radar/anti-shipping missile or its Chinese derivative, the YJ-91. NPO Novator started work in 1991 on a long-range air-to-air missile with the Russian project designation Izdeliye 172. Called the AAM-L, it made its first public appearance at the International Defence Exhibition in Abu Dhabi in early 1993, followed by the Moscow Air Show that year, it was described as having a range of 400 km. Some flight-testing was done on a Su-27, but it appears that the Russians withdrew funding for the project soon afterwards; the missile resurfaced as the KS–172 in 1999, as part of a new export-led strategy whereby foreign investment in a 300 km -range export model would fund a version for the Russian airforce.
Again it appears. In late 2003, the missile was offered again on the export market as the 172S-1. In March 2004, India was reported to have invested in the project and to be "negotiating a partnership" to develop the "R-172". In May 2005 the Indians were said to have finalised "an arrangement to fund final development and licence produce the weapon" in a joint venture similar to that which produced the successful BrahMos cruise missile. Since the missile has had a higher profile, appearing at the 2005 Moscow Air Show on a Su-30 as the K-172, a modified version being shown at the 2007 Moscow Air Show designated as the K-100-1; this name first appeared in a Sukhoi document in 2006, sources such as Jane's now refer to the missile as the K-100. The mockup shown in 1993 had a strong resemblance to the Buk airframe, but since the Indians became involved there have been some changes. An Indian magazine gave the specifications of the KS–172 in April 2004 as a core 6.01 m long and 40 cm in diameter with a wingspan of 61 cm, with a booster of 1.4 m, 748 kg total weight.
It had a solid fuel tandem rocket booster capable of speeds up to 4,000 km/h, 12g manoevring, an adaptive HE fragmentation warhead. Development would concentrate on the seeker head, resistance to jamming and a steering system with 3D thrust vector control. In May 2005 it was reported that there were two versions and without a rocket booster, with ranges of 400 km and 300 km respectively. At the MAKS in August 2005, a range of 300 km was quoted for a streamlined missile with a small booster and fins on both booster and fuselage; however the model shown at the 2007 MAKS airshow under the name K-100 was closer to the original 1993 mockup in the photo above, with different-shaped fins that were further up the fuselage, an larger booster with TVC vents. At the same show it was shown under the wing of a Su-35BM, implying that at least two could be carried by Flanker-class aircraft rather than just one on the centreline. Guidance is by inertial navigation until the missile is close enough to the target to use active radar for terminal homing.
The K-100 has an enlarged derivative of the Agat 9B-1103M seeker used in the R-27. It has a lock-on range of 40 km, described by an Agat designer as "one fifth or less of the overall range". KS-172 Prototype in 1993. KS-172S-1 Prototype in 2003. R-37 was developed from the R-33 and is intended for the Sukhoi Su-35 Flanker-E, Sukhoi Su-37 Flanker-F, MiG 1.42 MFI and other future fighters. According to Defence Today the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles for a direct shot to 215 nautical miles for a cruise glide profile. Jane's reports two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M. Work on the missile appears to have restarted in late 2006, as part of the MiG-31BM programme to update the Foxhound with a new radar and ground attack capability. Kh-31 – the Chinese have licensed the anti-radar version of this Russian air-to-surface missile, may be working on an "AWACS killer" variant of their YJ-91 derivative; the Russians claim the anti-sh
The Zvezda Kh-35 is a Russian turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile. The same missile can be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran or Bal, it is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes. Zvezda started work on the Kh-35 in 1983 by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers and the USSR CPSU Central Committee to arm ships of medium tonnage; the Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine; the missile is guided to its target at the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter. Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area.
At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained; the Kh-35 can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5-6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Its aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile; the missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring secure operational modes of the active radar seeker. Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single and multiple missile launch modes and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km. A new radar seeker, Gran-KE has been developed by SPE Radar MMS and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker.
The Kh-35 missile entered service in 2003. In July 2003, the system created by the "Tactical Missiles Corporation" passed the state tests and began to come into service of ships of the Russian Navy. Today it is accepted that in the criterion of "cost-effectiveness", "Uran-E" is one of the best systems in the world, it has been acquired by India. The Bal coastal missile system in the fall of 2004 showed excellent results in the state tests and entered service in 2008. A Bal system has four self-propelled launcher vehicles each carrying eight missiles for a total of 32 missiles in a salvo, plus reloads for another wave; the launchers can hit targets at ranges up to 120 km. In 2015, plans were announced to equip the Bal system with an upgraded version of the Kh-35E to increase range to 300 km. From 2001-2015, Russia supplied Vietnam with 198 Kh-35E missiles for sea-based use. By June 2016, Vietnam was planning to start serial production of their indigenous KCT-15 anti-ship missile based on the Kh-35E, covering three types of Kh-35E missiles for sea-launched, air-launched, coastal defense as part of the 3K60 Bal/SSC-6 Sennight mobile coastal defense system.
Kh-35 - Base naval version for Russia. Kh-35E - Export version of Kh-35. Kh-35U - Base upgrade unified missile, version for Russia in production. Capable of striking land targets. Kh-35UE - Export version of Kh-35U, in production. Kh-35V - Version for Russia, launched from a helicopter. 3M-24EMV - Export version of Kh-35 missile-target without warhead for Vietnam. Kh-35 Uran/Uran-E - Shipborne equipment of the control system with a missile Kh-35/Kh-35E. Bal/Bal-E - Coastal missile complex with Kh-35/Kh-35E missiles. KN-09 Kumsong-3 - Reported North Korean copy of the Kh-35U. Kumsong-3 is North Korean domestic variant/clone of Kh-35 based on Kh-35U due to range. Demonstrated range in 2017, June 8 test is 240 km. KN0v 0x 01, KN19. Kh-37 or Kh-39 - possible name for nuclear-tipped variant. KCT-15 - License-produced Kh-35E by Vietnam. Neptune - Ukranian derivative Algeria Azerbaijan – Bal Coastal missile complex suspended India Iran Russia – 112 Kh-35 delivered in 2009-2010; the Russian Navy has deployed 4 Bal coastal missile brigades, each of 16 mobile launch systems as of October 2016.11th Black Sea Fleet Brigade, Krasnodar 46th Separate Division of the Caspian Flotilla, Dagestan 15th Black Sea Fleet Brigade, Crimea 72nd Pacific Fleet Regiment, Primorsky Krai.
At least one more complex was delivered to the Western Military District in mid-2016. Two Bal missile systems delivered in 2017 and one more in November 2018 for the BSF. One more system in 2019 for the PF; the Russian Air Force has acquired since 2014 an unknown number of Kh-35U missiles integrated with the Sukhoi Su-35S fighter aircraft and the Sukhoi Su-34 fighter-bombers. Venezuela – Bal Coastal missile complex being delivered. Vietnam – 198 Kh-35E missiles delivered in 2001-2015; the missile is license-produced as KCT-15 by Vietnam. Myanmar Navy North Korea – Kh-35U derivative Kumsong-3 금성3호 金星3号mobile coastal defence KN-19 on a tracked chassis Ukraine – Kh-35 derivative Neptune Harpoon AGM-158C LRASM Exocet Sea Eagle Naval Strike Missile RBS-15 C-802 Type 80 Air-to-Ship Missil
The Bisnovat R-4 was an early Soviet long-range air-to-air missile. It was used as the sole weapon of the Tupolev Tu-128 interceptor, matching its RP-S Smerch radar. Development of the R-4 began in 1959 designated as K-80 or R-80, entering operational service around 1963, together with Tu-128. Like many Soviet weapons, it was made in infrared-homing versions. Standard Soviet doctrine was to fire the weapons in SARH/IR pairs to increase the odds of a hit. Target altitude was from 8 to 21 km. For the slow-climbing Tu-128, the missile could be fired from 8 km below the target. In 1973 the weapon was modernized to R-4MR / MT standard, with lower minimal target altitude, improved seeker performance, compatibility with the upgraded RP-SM Smerch-M radar; the R-4 survived in limited service until 1990. Soviet UnionSoviet Air Defence Forces Length: 5.2 m. Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-188-1. К-80, Р-4 - description in Russian, with pictures
The Kh-22 is a large, long-range anti-ship missile developed by MKB Raduga in the Soviet Union. It was intended for use against US Navy aircraft carriers and carrier battle groups, with either a conventional or nuclear warhead. After analyzing World War II naval battles and encounters in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Soviet military thinkers concluded that the era of large seaborne battles was over, that stand-off attacks would be the way to neutralize and incapacitate large battle groups without having to field a similar force against them. Substituting cruise missiles for air attacks, Soviet Air Forces and Soviet Naval Aviation commanders set about to convert their heavy bombers to raketonosets, or missile carriers, which could be launched against approaching enemy fleets from coastal or island airfields; the Kh-22 weapon was developed by the Raduga design bureau and used to arm the Tupolev Tu-22M. The Kh-22 uses an Tumanski liquid-fuel rocket engine, fueled with TG-02 and IRFNA, giving it a maximum speed of Mach 4.6 and a range of up to 600 km.
It can be launched in either low-altitude mode. In high-altitude mode, it climbs to an altitude of 27,000 m and makes a high-speed dive into the target, with a terminal speed of about Mach 4.6. In low-altitude mode, it climbs to 12,000 m and makes a shallow dive at about Mach 3.5, making the final approach at an altitude under 500 m. The missile is guided by a gyroscope-stabilized autopilot in conjunction with a radio altimeter. Soviet tests revealed that when a shaped charge warhead weighing 1,000 kg was used in the missile, the resulting hole measured 5 m in diameter, was 12 m deep. By August 2016, Russia was finalizing the trials of the Kh-32 cruise missile, a derivative of the Kh-22. Designed for use by the Tu-22M3 bomber, the missile is designed to climb to 40 km to the stratosphere after launch, transition to level flight perform a steep dive to the target; the advanced cruise missile is designed to target enemy ships, "radio-contrast targets" like bridges, military bases, electric power plants, others.
The Kh-32 has an inertial navigation system and radar homing head, making it independent of GPS/GLONASS navigation satellites. It has a range of 1,000 km and a speed of at least 5,000 km/h; the missile entered service in the same year. 32 Kh-22 missiles will be modernized to the Kh-32 level in 2018-2020. The first service-ready missiles were ready in 1962; the main launch platform is the Tu-22M'Backfire'. It was used by Soviet and Russian air forces on the Тu-22К and Tu-95К22. Two initial versions were built, the Kh-22 with a large conventional warhead and the Kh-22N with a 350–1000-kiloton nuclear warhead. In the mid-1970s this was supplemented by the Kh-22P, an anti-radiation missile for the destruction of radar installations. In the 1970s the Kh-22 was upgraded to Kh-22M and Kh-22MA standard, with new attack profiles, somewhat longer range, a datalink allowing mid-course updates. Kh-22E — a conventional variant for export. Kh-22M/MA — upgraded variants with Mach 3.3 speed and 600 km range. Weighs 5,780 kilograms, contains 960 kilograms of RDX.
Kh-32 — a radically upgraded conventional/nuclear variant of Kh-22 with Mach 5 speed and 1,000 km range. It features a new seeker head. Produced for the Tu-22M3 launch platform. Warhead weight has been reduced to 500 kg to improve range. RussiaRussian Air Force Iraq Soviet Union Ukraine423 scrapped after Ukrainian Tu-22M fleet's decommission. Gordon, Yefim. Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-188-1. Http://airwar.ru/weapon/kr/x22.html New Kh-32 Antiship Missile Becomes Operational in Russia - part 1 Navy Recognition New Kh-32 Antiship Missile Becomes Operational in Russia - part 2 Navy Recognition
The Kh-58 is a Soviet anti-radiation missile with a range of 120 km. As of 2004 the Kh-58U variant was still the primary anti-radiation missile of its allies, it is being superseded by the Kh-31. The NATO reporting name is "Kilter", after a pixie in the 1902 book The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus by L. Frank Baum; the Bereznyak design bureau had developed the liquid-fuelled Kh-28 and the KSR-5P anti-radiation missiles. They merged with Raduga in 1967, so Raduga was given the contract in the early 1970s to develop a solid-fuel successor to the Kh-28 to equip the new Su-24M'Fencer-D' attack aircraft; the project was designated the Kh-24, before becoming the Kh-58. During the 1980s a longer-range variant was developed, the Kh-58U, with lock-on-after-launch capability. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Raduga have offered several versions for export, it was designed to be used in conjunction with the Su-24's L-086A "Fantasmagoria A" or L-086B "Fantasmagoria B" target acquisition system. The range achieved depends on the launch altitude, thus the original Kh-58 has a range of 36 km from low level, 120 km from 10,000 m, 160 km from 15,000 m.
Like other Soviet missiles of the time, the Kh-58 could be fitted with a range of seeker heads designed to target specific air defence radars such as MIM-14 Nike-Hercules or MIM-104 Patriot. The Kh-58 was deployed in 1982 on the Su-24M'Fencer D' in Soviet service; the Kh-58U entered service in 1991 on the Su-24M and Mig-25BM'Foxbat-F'. The Kh-58E version can be carried on the Su-22M4 and Su-25TK as well, whilst the Kh-58UshE appears to be intended for Chinese Su-30MKK's. Kh-58 - original version for the Su-24M Kh-58U - improved version with longer range and lock-on-after-launch Kh-58E - export version first offered in 1991, a downgraded Kh-58U Kh-58EM - another version offered for export in the 1990s Kh-58UShE - new wideband seeker in new radome, intended for Su-30MK. Kh-58UShKE - version shown at MAKS 2007 with folding fins for internal carriage in the Sukhoi Su-57. Kh-58UShKE - version shown at MAKS 2015 with an added imaging infrared UV seeker; some Western sources have referred to a Kh-58A, either optimised for naval radars or has an active seeker head for use as an anti-shipping missile - it represents another name for the Kh-58U.
Russia India Malaysia Algeria Iran Peru Former Soviet republics and Warsaw Pact countries Soviet Union Ukraine Iraq Kh-28 - liquid-fuelled predecessor to the Kh-58 Martel missile - Anglo-French collaboration with 60 km range AGM-88 HARM - Current US Air Force anti-radar weapon, range of 150 km Gordon, Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two, England: Midland Publishing, ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Tuomas Närväinen's Homepage - useful details
The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile. It is known by its export designation RVV-AE, it is intended as the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile. The R-77 was marked by a protracted development. Work was not completed before the Soviet Union fell. For many years, only the RVV-AE model was produced for export customers. Production was further disrupted when the Russian intervention in Ukraine resulted in a Ukrainian arms embargo against Russia, severing supply chains; the Russian Air Force entered the R-77-1 into service in 2015. It was subsequently deployed by Su-35S fighters in Syria on combat air patrols. Work on the R-77 began in 1982, it represented Russia's first multi-purpose missile for both tactical and strategic aircraft for fire-and-forget use against a range of aircraft from hovering helicopters to high-speed, low-altitude aircraft. Gennadiy Sokolovski, general designer of the Vympel Design Bureau, said that the R-77 missile can be used against medium and long range air-to-air missiles such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM and AIM-54 Phoenix, as well as SAMs such as the Patriot.
The munition has a laser-triggered proximity fuze and an expanding rod warhead that can destroy variable sized targets. It can be used against precision-guided munitions. First seen in 1992 at the Moscow Airshow 1992, the R-77 was nicknamed Amraamski by Western journalists; the basic R-77 is known as the izdeliye 170, while the export variant is known as the izdeliye 190, or RVV-AE. The R-77 and RVV-AE have a range of 80 km. Vympel did not have adequate funding during the 1990s and the first part of the following decade to support further evolution of the R-77, either for the Russian air force or the export market; the basic version of the R-77 is not thought to have entered the Russian air force inventory in significant numbers. The R-77 can be used by upgraded Su-27, MiG-31 variants in Russian Air Force service; some variants of the Su-27 in China's People's Liberation Army Air Force, including the domestically produced J-11 variants, can employ the missile. The newer Su-30MKK has a N001 with a digital bypass channel incorporating a mode allowing it to use R-77s.
The export RVV-AE has been sold with China and India placing significant orders for the munition, as was the case for the R-73. The baseline R-77 was designed in the 1980s, with development complete by around 1994. India was the first export customer for the export variant, known as the RVV-AE, with the final batch delivered in 2002. There are other variants under development. One has an upgraded motor; this variant uses a solid-fuel ramjet engine. Its range is equivalent in range to the AIM-54 Phoenix. In another version of the R-77, a terminal infrared; this is in line with the Russian practice of attacking targets by firing pairs of missiles with different homing systems. This complicates end-game defensive actions for the target aircraft, as it needs to defeat two homing systems. If a radar-guided medium-range missile is fired at an enemy jet aircraft outside the non-escape attack zone, the target aircraft may be able to escape through emergency maneuver, but at this moment, in fact, the infrared guidance has an advantage: once the jet aircraft turns to escape, the engine nozzle is exposed, the infrared characteristics are exposed.
This method of attack may not always be available as IR seekers have less range and less resistance to poor weather than radar seekers, which may limit the successful use of mixed seeker attacks unless the IR missile is directed by radar or some other means. Another improvement program was designated the R-77M, which made the missile longer and heavier, making use of a two-stage motor as well as an improved seeker. A further product-improvement of the R-77, designated the R-77M1 and the R-77-PD, was to feature a ramjet propulsion device; this missile was destined for the MiG 1.44 that for the MFI program. The munition has a laser fuse and an expanding rod warhead that can destroy the variable sized targets. However, due to funding shortage and eventual cancellation of the MiG 1.44, development of this model may have stopped by 1999. Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation known as TRV, unveiled the RVV-SD and RVV-MD missiles for the first time at the Moscow Air Show in August 2009; the RVV-SD is an improved version of the R-77, while the RVV-MD is a variant of the R-73.
The RVV-SD includes the upgrades associated with the izdeliye 170-1, or R-77-1. The RVV-SD, along with the RVV-MD, seem to be part of Russia's bid for India's medium multirole combat aircraft competition. Both designations were included by MiG on a presentation covering MiG-35 Fulcrum armament during Aero India Air Show in February; the initial RVV-SD offering is no more than a stopgap to try to maintain its position, to provide a credible radar-guided weapon to offer as part of fighter export packages and upgrade programs. According to specifications, the R-77-1 and its export variant RVV-SD is 15 kg heavier than the basic R-77 / RVV-AE, weighing 190 kg rather than 175 kg. Maximum range is increased to 110 km from 80 km; the missile is slightly longer at 3.71 m, rather than the 3.6 m of the basic variant. Additional improvemen
The Bisnovat R-40 is a long-range air-to-air missile developed in the 1960s by the Soviet Union for the MiG-25P interceptor, but can be carried by the MiG-31. It is the largest air-to-air missile in the world to go into production; the development of the Mach 3+ North American XB-70 Valkyrie threatened to make the entire interceptor and missile force of the Voyska PVO obsolete at one stroke, thanks to its incredible speed and altitude performance. In order to counter this new threat, the MiG-25 was designed, but new air-to-air missiles were required to enable the MiG-25 to engage its intended targets at the high speeds and altitudes dictated by the requirements; the Bisnovat design bureau began development of the long-range air-to-air missile in 1962. The resulting R-40 was matched with the Smerch-A radar of the MiG-25, it was built in Infrared homing versions. In order to guarantee a kill at such high speeds and in the thin air, a large warhead was needed in order to have a sufficient blast effect.
Large control fins were required to give the missile enough maneuvrability at high altitude. All this necessitated a large missile and as a result, the R-40 is the largest air-to-air missile to enter production, it is larger than the MIM-23 Hawk surface-to-air missile. Following the defection of Soviet Air Defence Forces pilot Viktor Belenko in 1976 and the compromising of the MiG-25P's systems and the associated R-40s, Vympel developed an improved version of the missile with a better infrared countermeasures resistance and more sensitive seekers; the upgraded missiles were designated with the suffix -D. -D1 versions were developed. Production of the R-40 ended in 1991, but it remains in limited service arming surviving MiG-25 and some MiG-31 interceptors. In Soviet service, the R-40 was never fired in anger. Standard PVO procedure was to fire a 2-missile salvo at a target; as the MiG-25 has been exported to various states in the Middle East, the R-40 has been used in combat by Iraq and by Syria and Libya too.
Author Tom Cooper claims that Syrian Air Force achieved an air victory on 29 June 1981 when Syrian MiG-25PD shot down an Israeli F-15. This has not been confirmed. A declassified document of the CIA reports that in the first night of Desert Storm, on 17 January 1991, Scott Speicher's F/A-18C was shot down by an R-40 fired from an Iraqi MiG-25. Algeria Russia Retired in 2008, but recent photographs suggest the MiG-31 still operates with these missiles. India Iraq Retired. 660 missiles delivered. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Syria Soviet Union Passed on to successor states. Gordon, Yefim. Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-188-1. Federation of American Scientists page GlobalSecurity.org page