Project 677 or Lada class is the new advanced class of diesel-electric attack submarine designed by the Russian Rubin Design Bureau. A program to develop a "fourth generation" diesel-electric submarine, it aimed to produce a improved version of the Project 636 Kilo class with much quieter, new combat systems, air-independent propulsion; the lead ship of the class, named Sankt Peterburg, was launched in October 2004 and began sea trials in November 2005. The submarine was transferred to the Russian Navy in April 2010. Another two vessels were under construction at the Admiralty Shipyard with plans to launch four to six submarines by 2015; the Russian Navy had set out a requirement for a total of eight St. Petersburg-class submarines. However, in November 2011 the Russian Navy decided that this class of submarines would not be accepted into service, as the lead boat had fallen far short of requirements during tests; the lead boat was retained as a test vessel to experiment with various systems.
The construction of the remaining boats of the class was frozen. On 27 July 2012, the Russian Navy commander-in-chief announced the resumption of the construction of the St. Petersburg-class submarines, having undergone extensive design changes. In 2013 and 2015, two further boats were re-laid and commissioning was expected in 2017 and 2018; the first serial diesel-electric submarine of the newest project 677 "Lada" is planned to be launched at the St. Petersburg shipyard "Admiralteiskie Verfi" in 2018. Indonesia had once indicated its interest in acquiring two St. Petersburg-class submarines, but the deal has fallen through due to financing issues. In June 2017, the Russian Navy revealed; the project 677. The submarine is designed for anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare, defense of naval bases and sea lanes, as well as for conducting reconnaissance; the class marks the first usage of a mono-hull design by the Russian navy for an attack submarine since the 1940s. Displacement is 25% lower than that of its predecessor, the Kilo-class submarine, but its capabilities are enhanced.
Top submerged speed is 21 knots, up from 19 knots for the Kilo class. The class is designed for an endurance of 45 days with a complement of 34; the submarine is equipped with automated combat control system Litiy. A variant designated as the project 1650 Amur-class submarine is offered as an export model. List of Soviet and Russian submarine classes Future of the Russian Navy List of submarine classes in service Cruise missile submarine Attack submarine "ЦКБ МТ Рубин: Главная". Ckb-rubin.ru. Retrieved 29 November 2017. Project-677 class submarine set for final sea trials John. "Amur / Lada Class - Project 677". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 29 November 2017. Завершаются ходовые испытания подводной лодки "Санкт-Петербург" 24 января 2007 Russian version of the above translation Video about Sankt Petersburg
The Yankee class was a class of Soviet nuclear ballistic missile submarines, constructed from 1967 onward. 34 units were produced under Project 667AU Nalim. 24 were built at Severodvinsk for the Northern Fleet while the remaining 10 built in Komsomolsk-na-Amurye for the Pacific Fleet. Two Northern Fleet units were transferred to the Pacific; the lead unit K-137 Leninets, receiving its honorific name 11 April 1970, two and one half years after being commissioned. The Yankee-class nuclear submarines were the first class of Soviet ballistic missile submarines to have thermonuclear firepower comparable with that of their American and British Polaris submarine counterparts; the Yankee class were quieter in the ocean than were their Hotel-class predecessors, had better streamlining that improved their underwater performance. The Yankee class were quite similar to the Polaris submarines of the U. S. Navy and the Royal Navy; these boats were all armed with 16 submarine-launched ballistic missiles with multiple nuclear warheads as nuclear deterrents during the Cold War, their ballistic missiles had ranges from 1,500–2,500 nautical miles.
The Yankee-class SSBNs served in the Soviet Navy in three oceans: the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean beginning in the 1960s. During the 1970s about three Yankee-class were continually on patrol in a so-called "patrol box" in the Atlantic Ocean just east of Bermuda and off the US Pacific coast; this forward deployment of the SSBNs was seen to balance the presence of American and French nuclear weapons kept in Western Europe and on warships in the surrounding Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Eastern Atlantic. One Yankee-class submarine, K-219, was lost on 6 October 1986 after an fire on board; this boat had been at sea near Bermuda, she sank from loss of buoyancy because of flooding. Four of her sailors died. At least one other boat in this class was involved in a collision with a U. S. Navy nuclear submarine; because of their increasing age, as negotiated in the SALT I treaty, the START I treaty, the START II treaty, that reduced the nuclear armaments of the United States and the Soviet Union, all of the boats of the Yankee class, all Polaris missile and Poseidon missile submarines were disarmed and sent to the nuclear ship scrapyards.
There were eight different versions of the Yankee subs: Yankee I: The baseline configuration, these were ballistic missile submarines that first saw service in 1968. The subs carried 16 SS-N-6 missiles, had 6 torpedo tubes, carried 18 Type 53 torpedoes, they were the first Soviet SSBNs to carry their ballistic missiles within the hull. Yankee II: A single-ship class, this was a Yankee I submarine converted to carry 12 SS-N-17 missiles, the Soviet Navy's first solid-fuelled SLBM; the existence of this individual prototype led to several theories about the Yankee II having a unique role in the Soviet arsenal that justified maintaining a single ship with such a unique weapon. One theory suggested. Subsequently, it was proposed that the SS-N-17 may have had a retargeting capability to allow strikes on aircraft carrier battle groups. Yankee Notch: These converted subs were attack submarines and first appeared in 1983, they incorporated a "notch waisted" center section, which replaced the old ballistic missile compartment, featuring eight 533-millimetre torpedo tubes for up to 40 SS-N-21 missiles or additional torpedoes.
The forward torpedo tubes were retained as well, with some reports suggesting that the vessels may have been able to fire 650 mm Type 65 torpedoes. The emphasis on additional SS-N-21 missile carriage suggested a tactical role for these submarines, or as second-strike nuclear submarines, their configuration was a combination of SALT treaty limitations and a typical Soviet unwillingness to discard any military hardware that might still have some use. The conversion increased the overall length by 12 metres to 141.5 m, with a displacement of up to 11,500 tons submerged. While classed as SSNs, these boats might be considered SSGNs by virtue of their heavy missile armament. Yankee Sidecar Also known as Yankee SSGN, this was another single-ship class converted into an SSGN, it appeared in 1983, carrying 12 SS-NX-24 nuclear-tipped cruise missiles instead of the original ballistic missiles. The SS-NX-24 was an experimental cruise missile, with a supersonic flight regime and twin nuclear warheads, it was meant as a tri-service strategic weapon, thus would have filled a rather different role than the tactically-oriented Oscar-class SSGNs of the same era.
In the end, the missile was not adopted, K-420 became a weapon system without a weapon. It was 13,650 tons displacement, was longer than the Yankee Notch to accommodate the massive cruise missiles. Yankee SSN 16 of this type were converted from the basic Yankee I specification; some were not converted, although they cannot carry ballistic missiles, so they were called Yankee SSNX. They retained only their forward torpedo tubes, with the central missile sections having been removed; some are being scrapped. Yankee Pod The Yankee Pod (also known a
The Delta class is a common name for a set of four types of submarines which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since their introduction in 1973. They carry nuclear ballistic missiles of the R-29 Vysota family, with the Delta I, Delta II, Delta III and Delta IV classes carrying the R-29, R-29D, R-29R and R-29RM respectively; the Delta I class carried 12 missiles, while the Delta II class which are lengthened versions of the Delta I class carry 16 missiles. The Delta III and Delta IV classes carry 16 missiles with multiple warheads and have improved electronics and noise reduction; the R-27 Zyb missile carried by the Project 667s of the late 1960s had a range of 2,500–3,000 km, so the earlier submarines were forced to patrol close to the North American coast, whereas the Deltas could launch the over 7,700 km -range R-29s from the relative safety of the Arctic Ocean. In turn the Deltas were superseded by the larger Typhoon-class submarines; the early Deltas remained in service until the 1990s with treaties such as START I.
High running costs and the retirement of the Typhoons' R-39 missiles meant that some Delta III-class submarines were reactivated in the 2000s to replace the Typhoons. In December 2010 Pavel Podvig and russianforces.org estimated the strength of the Russian strategic submarine fleet at one Typhoon-class submarine, four Delta III, six Delta IV class, one Borei class. They will be replaced by the new Borei-class submarines. In the 1960s the Soviet Navy wanted new submarine-launched nuclear missiles that could threaten targets in North America without their launch platforms needing to pass the SOSUS sensors in the GIUK gap to be within range; the Delta-class submarines could deploy on alert patrols in the marginal ice-seas of the Soviet Arctic littoral, including the Norwegian and Barents Seas. Unlike their predecessors, they no longer needed to pass through Western SOSUS sonar barriers to come within range of their targets. To improve the accuracy of the missiles, the Delta I-class submarines carry the Tobol-B navigation system and the Cyclone-B satellite navigation system.
After authorization of the development of the class in 1965, the first Delta I, K-279, was commissioned into the Soviet Northern Fleet on 22 December 1972. A total of 18 submarines of this class were built, all served Soviet Navy, under the designation Project 667B Murena. In 1991, nine Delta I-class submarines were still in active service, their decommissioning began in 1994, with removal of the missile compartments scheduled by 1997. All submarines of this class were taken out of service by 1998 and were scrapped by 2005; the Delta II-class submarine was a large ballistic missile submarine designed to remedy shortcomings in the Delta I-class submarine. The design was the same, however the submarine was lengthened in the fourth and fifth compartments by 16 meters to allow the installation of four more missile tubes; the new type of Delta received additional quieting measures including having the steam turbines mounted on shock absorbers, having all pipes and hydraulics separated from the hull through rubber insulation, a special hydroacoustic coating being applied to the hull.
The NATO reporting name, Delta II indicates this submarine as a visually distinguishable new class. The Soviet designation, 667BD Murena-M indicates this submarine is an improved Delta I. Only four submarines of this class were built in favor of building the following class, the Delta III, all Delta IIs were out of service by 1996; the 667BDR Kal'mar Delta III-class submarine is a large ballistic missile submarine. Like the earlier Delta-class submarines the Delta III class is a double-hulled design with a thin, low magnetic steel outer hull wrapped around a thicker inner pressure hull. Development began in 1972 at the Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering; the submarine was the first that could launch any number of missiles in a single salvo the first submarine capable of carrying ballistic missiles with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles. The submarine carried 16 of the R-29R missiles each carrying 3 to 7 MIRVs, with a range of 6,500 to 8,000 km, depending on the number of re-entry vehicles.
The Delta III class was equipped with a new battle management system the Almaz-BDR for the fire control of torpedoes in deep-water a new inertial navigation system Tobol-M-1, the Tobol-M-2. A hydroacoustic navigational system called Shmeľ allows the submarine to determine its position from hydroacoustic buoys. A new sonar system called Rubikon was fitted. On 30 September 2008 a Russian Navy spokesman reported that Ryazan had completed a 30-day transit from a base in northern Russia under the Arctic ice cap to a base on the Kamchatka Peninsula; the Navy added that Ryazan will soon be assigned to patrol the Pacific Ocean. In July 2008, six Delta III-class boats were active, of which two were believed to be in the process of decommissioning. K-433 Svyatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets was involved in a collision with a fishing vessel on 22 September 2011; the submarine did not sustain serious damage. Seven Delta IV-class submarines were built; the submarines, based at the Sayda Guba Naval Base, operate in the Northern Fleet.
The Severodvinsk Shipyard built these vessels between 1981 and 1992. The last vessel was K-407 Novomoskovsk; the design of the Delta IV class resemble
The Soviet/Russian Navy Project 705 was a class of hunter/killer nuclear-powered submarines. The class is known by the NATO reporting name of Alfa, they were the fastest class of military submarines built, with only the prototype K-222 exceeding them in submerged speed. The Lira was a unique design among submarines. In addition to the revolutionary use of titanium for its hull, it used a powerful lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor as a power source, which reduced the size of the reactor compared to conventional designs, thus reducing the overall size of the submarine, allowing for high speeds. However, it meant that the reactor had a short lifetime and had to be kept warm when it was not being used; as a result, the Liras were used as interceptors kept in port ready for a high-speed dash into the North Atlantic. Project 705 was first proposed in 1957 by M. G. Rusanov and the initial design work led by Rusanov began in May 1960 in Leningrad with design task assigned to SKB-143, one of the two predecessors of the Malakhit Design Bureau, which would become one of the three Soviet/Russian submarine design centers, along with Rubin Design Bureau and Lazurit Central Design Bureau.
The project was innovative in order to meet demanding requirements: sufficient speed to pursue any ship. A special titanium alloy hull would be used to create a small, low drag, 1,500 ton, six compartment vessel capable of high speeds and deep diving; the submarine would operate as an interceptor, staying in harbor or on patrol route and racing out to reach an approaching fleet. A high-power liquid-metal-cooled nuclear plant was devised, kept liquid in port through external heating. Extensive automation would greatly reduce the needed crew numbers to just 16 men; the practical problems with the design became apparent and in 1963 the design team was replaced and a less radical design was proposed, increasing all main dimensions and the vessel weight by 800 tons and doubling the crew. A prototype of a similar design, the Project 661 or K-162 cruise missile submarine, was built at the SEVMASH shipyard in Severodvinsk and completed in 1972; the long build time was caused by numerous design difficulties in manufacture.
Extensively tested and reconfigured, she was taken out of service following a reactor accident in 1980. She had a top speed of 44.7 knots and a claimed dive depth of 800 m. This combined with other reports created some alarm in the U. S. Navy and prompted the rapid development of the ADCAP torpedo program and the Sea Lance missile programs projects; the creation of the high-speed Spearfish torpedo by the Royal Navy was a response to the threat posed by the reported capabilities of the Lira. Production started in 1964 as Project 705 with construction at both the Admiralty yard, Leningrad and at Sevmashpredpriyatiye, Severodvinsk; the lead unit was a Project 705 design and all subsequent were 705K. The first vessel was commissioned in 1971. Project 705 boats were intended to be experimental platforms themselves, to test all innovations and rectify their faults, that would afterwards found a new generation of submarines; this experimental nature predetermined their future. In 1981, with the completion of the seventh vessel, production ended.
All vessels were assigned to the Northern Fleet. Displacement: 2,300 tons surfaced, 3,200 tons submerged Length: 81.4 m Beam: 9.5 m Draft: 7.6 m Depth: Usual operation: 350 m Test depth: 400 m Crush depth: over 1300 m, depth figure contradicted by an authoritative Russian publication. Compartments: 6 Complement: 27 officers, 4–18 NCOs; such reactors have a number of advantages over older types: Due to higher coolant temperature, their energy efficiency is up to 1.5 times higher. Lifetime without refueling can be increased more in part due to higher efficiency. Liquid lead-bismuth systems can't cause an explosion and solidify in case of a leak improving safety. LCFRs are much lighter and smaller than water-cooled reactors, the primary factor when considering power plant choice for Lira. Though 1960s technology was sufficient to produce reliable LCFRs, which are today considered challenging, their advantages were considered compelling. Two power plants were developed independently, BM-40A by OKB Gidropress in Leningrad and OK-550 by the OKBM design bureau in Nizhniy Novgorod, both using a eutect
Project 955 or Borei alternate transliteration Borey is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine produced by Russia and operated by the Russian Navy. The class is intended to replace the Delta III, Delta IV and Typhoon classes in Russian Navy service; the class is named after the North wind. Despite being a functional replacement for many types of submarines, the Borei-class submarines are much smaller than those of the Typhoon class in both volume and crew, are in terms of class more a follow-on to a replacement for the Delta IV-class SSBNs; the first design work started in the mid-1980s, the construction of the first unit of the Borei class started in 1996. A new submarine-launched ballistic missile was developed in parallel, called the R-39UTTH "Bark". However, the work on this missile was abandoned, a new missile called the Bulava was designed; the submarine needed to be redesigned to accommodate the new missile, the design name was changed to Project 955. The vessels are being built at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise in Severodvinsk, were designed by the Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau.
Because of the repeated failures during Bulava test launches, some experts suggested that the Borei submarine could instead be armed with R-29RMU Sineva missiles. The Sineva is in active duty on the Delta IV-class submarine. Advances include a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first use of pump-jet propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine; the noise level is to be five times lower when compared to the third-generation nuclear-powered Akula-class submarines and two times lower than that of the U. S. Virginia-class submarines; the Borei submarines are 170 metres long, 13 metres in diameter, have a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 kilometres per hour. They are equipped with a floating rescue chamber designed to fit in the whole crew. Smaller than the Typhoon class, the Boreis were initially slated to carry 12 missiles but are able to carry four more due to the decrease in mass of the 36-ton Bulava SLBM over the proposed R-39UTTH Bark.
Cost is some ₽23 billion, in comparison the cost of an Ohio-class SSBN was around USD$2 billion per boat. A fifth generation successor/supplement is in development; the launch of the first submarine of the class, Yury Dolgorukiy, was scheduled for 2002 but was delayed because of budget constraints. The vessel was rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 in a ceremony attended by many senior military and industrial personnel. Yuriy Dolgorukiy was the first Russian strategic missile submarine to be launched in seventeen years since the end of the Soviet era. There are three more Borei-class submarines under construction, named Alexander Nevsky, Vladimir Monomakh and Knyaz Vladimir; the planned contingent of eight strategic submarines is expected to be commissioned within the next decade. Although Yuriy Dolgorukiy was rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 the submarine was not put into the water until February 2008. By July 2009 it had yet to be armed with Bulava missiles and was therefore not operational, although ready for sea trials on 24 October 2008.
On 21 November 2008 the reactor on Yuriy Dolgorukiy was activated and on 19 June 2009 began its sea trials in the White Sea. In August 2009 it was reported that the submarine would undergo up to six trials before being commissioned but the problem with the Bulava missile could delay it more. On 28 September 2010 Yuriy Dolgorukiy completed company sea trials. By late October the Russian Pacific Fleet was prepared to host Russia's new Borei-class strategic nuclear-powered submarines, it is expected that four subs will be deployed in the Northern fleet and four subs in the Pacific fleet. On 9 November 2010 Yuriy Dolgorukiy passed; the plan was to conduct the first torpedo launches during the ongoing state trials in December 2010 and in the same month conduct the first launch of the main weapon system, R-30 Bulava missile. The plan was postponed to mid-summer 2011 due to ice conditions in the White Sea. On 2 December 2010 the second Borei-class submarine, Alexander Nevskiy, was moved to a floating dock in Sevmash shipyard.
There the final preparations took place. The submarine was launched on 6 December 2010 and began sea trials on 24 October 2011. On 28 June 2011 a Bulava missile was launched for the first time from the Borei-class submarine Yuriy Dolgorukiy; the test was announced as a success. After long delays the lead vessel, Yuriy Dolgorukiy, joined the Russian Navy on 10 January 2013; the official ceremony raising the Russian Navy colors on the submarine was led by Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoygu. It was deployed in 2014 after a series of exercises. On 17 November 2017, the fourth Borei-class submarine and the first of the improved Project 955A, the Knyaz Vladimir was moved out of the construction hall at the SEVMASH shipyard; the submarine was launched a year and subsequently started its factory trials. It has been reported that the a
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, attacking other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions the following: "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by the Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, the Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, the Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kroehl incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
In 1866, the Flach was built at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl Flach, a German engineer and immigrant
The Project 627 class submarine was the Soviet Union's first class of nuclear-powered submarines. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization used the standard radio communication phonetic alphabet to denote submarine classes. November class was the designation for this initial series of Soviet nuclear-powered torpedo attack submarines, which were in service from 1958 through 1991. All but one have been disposed of, with Submarine K-3, the first nuclear submarine built for the Soviet Navy being preserved as a memorial. More than 135 Soviet organizations participated in the design and construction of this new type of submarine in 1952–1958; the chief designer was V. N. Peregudov and the research supervisor was academician A. P. Alexandrov; the class was tasked with entering American naval bases and using the battery-powered T-15 torpedo with thermonuclear warhead, to destroy them once in range. However, after expert opinions of Soviet naval specialists were considered, the role of the class changed to torpedo attacks on enemy warships and transport ships during actions along the ocean and distant sea routes.
Reflecting this change of mission, the final design of Project 627 was developed with eight 533 mm torpedo tubes instead of the initial plan for one 1,550 mm and two 533 mm torpedo tubes. Project 627/627A submarines could launch torpedoes from 100 m depth. By 1963 this class was still in service but had been overtaken by technology; the November class were double-hulled submarines with nine compartments. Three compartments equipped with bulkheads to withstand 10 atm pressure could be used as emergency shelters; the November class attack submarines were noisier than diesel submarines and the early American nuclear-powered submarines, despite the streamlined torpedo-like hull, limited number of holes in the hull, special low-noise variable-pitch propellers, vibration dampening of main equipment, antisonar coating of the hull. Soviet reactors were superior to American ones in compactness and power-to-weight ratio, but the vibrations of Soviet reactors were much more pronounced. Novembers detected submarine targets during active service.
The Soviet hydroacoustic equipment on the Novembers was not intended for submarine hunting, had limited capabilities. The reliability of the first Soviet nuclear-powered submarines was low because of the short service life of the steam generators in the main propulsion machinery, which caused an increase of the radioactivity level in the second loop of the reactor after several hundred hours of reactor operation. Machinery problems were the main reason why Project 627/627A submarines were not used during the Cuban Missile Crisis in autumn 1962; the reliability of the steam generators became better over the course of construction development, handling technical problems and training of crews, so Novembers began to perform Arctic under-ice cruises and patrol missions to trace nuclear delivery vessels in Atlantic Ocean in the 1960s. Despite the common opinion about the dangers of radiation in the first Novembers, the background radiation levels in the compartments was normal because of effective iron-water radiation protection of the reactor compartment and radiation monitoring.
The first submarine of the class, K-3 "Leninskiy Komsomol" was first underway under nuclear power on 4 July 1958 and became the first Soviet submarine to reach the North Pole in July 1962, 4 years after the USS Nautilus. Project 627 had much better performance specifications than the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine USS Nautilus; the first commander of K-3 was Captain 1st Rank L. G. Osipenko. All other Novembers except K-3 belonged to modified project – project 627A; the main visual differences of project 627A were a bow sonar dome in the keel and a hydrophone antenna over the torpedo tubes. The Project P627A design armed with nuclear cruise missile system P-20 was developed in 1956–1957 but not finished and mechanisms were used for building the usual attack submarine of project 627A. A single vessel, submarine K-27, was built as project 645 to use a pair of liquid metal-cooled VT-1 reactors. K-27 was launched on 1 April 1962 and had some additional differences from Novembers: cone-shaped hull head, new antimagnetic strong steel alloys, somewhat different configuration of compartments, a rapid loading mechanism for each torpedo tube.
A liquid metal-cooled reactor had better efficiency than the water-cooled VM-A reactor, but technical maintenance of liquid metal cooled reactors in naval base was much more complicated. The November class served in the Soviet Navy with the Northern Fleet. Four of the class were transferred to the Soviet Pacific Fleet in the 1960s: K-14, K-42 and K-115 performed Arctic under-ice voyages whereas K-133 transferred to Far East on south route via Drake Strait; the surviving vessels were decommissioned between 1986 and 1990. Several of them have been scrapped already. All of the survivors