Antonov An-225 Mriya
The Antonov An-225 Mriya is a strategic airlift cargo aircraft, designed by the Antonov Design Bureau in the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union during the 1980s. It is powered by six turbofan engines and is the heaviest aircraft built, with a maximum takeoff weight of 640 tonnes, it has the largest wingspan of any aircraft in operational service. The single example built has the Ukrainian civil registration UR-82060. A second airframe with a different configuration was built, its construction was halted in 1994 because of lack of funding and interest, but revived in 2009, bringing it to 60–70% completion. On 30 August 2016, Antonov agreed to complete the second airframe for Aerospace Industry Corporation of China as a prelude to AICC commencing series production; the Antonov An-225 developed for the task of transporting the Buran spaceplane, was an enlargement of the successful Antonov An-124. The first and only An-225 was completed in 1988. After fulfilling its Soviet military missions, it was mothballed for eight years.
It was refurbished and re-introduced, is in commercial operation with Antonov Airlines carrying oversized payloads. The airlifter holds the absolute world records for an airlifted single-item payload of 189,980 kilograms, an airlifted total payload of 253,820 kg, it has transported a payload of 247,000 kg on a commercial flight. The Antonov An-225 was designed to airlift the Energia rocket's boosters and the Buran orbiter for the Soviet space program, it was developed as a replacement for the Myasishchev VM-T. The An-225's original mission and objectives are identical to that of the United States' Shuttle Carrier Aircraft; the An-225 first flew on 21 December 1988 with a 74-minute flight from Kiev. The aircraft was on static display at the Paris Air Show in 1989 and it flew during the public days at the Farnborough air show in 1990. Two aircraft were ordered, it can carry ultra-heavy and oversize freight, up to 250,000 kg internally, or 200,000 kg on the upper fuselage. Cargo on the upper fuselage can be 70 m long.
A second An-225 was built during the late 1980s for the Soviet space program. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the cancellation of the Buran space program, the lone operational An-225 was placed in storage in 1994; the six Ivchenko-Progress engines were removed for use on An-124s, the second uncompleted An-225 airframe was stored. When it became clear that a cargoliner bigger than the An-124 was needed, the first An-225 was re-engined and put back into service. By 2000, the need for additional An-225 capacity had become apparent, so the decision was made in September 2006 to complete the second An-225; the second airframe was scheduled for completion around 2008 delayed. By August 2009, the aircraft had not been completed and work had been abandoned. In May 2011, the Antonov CEO is reported to have said that the completion of a second An-225 Mriya transport aircraft with a carrying capacity of 250 tons requires at least $300 million, but if the financing is provided, its completion could be achieved in three years.
According to different sources, the second aircraft is 60–70% complete. In April 2013, the Russian government announced plans to revive Soviet-era air launch projects that would use a purpose-built modification to the An-225 as a midair launchpad. In August 2016, representatives from Ukraine's Antonov and Airspace Industry Corporation of China, an import-export company operating out of Hong Kong, signed an agreement to recommence production of the An-225, with China now planning to procure and fly the first model by 2019; the aviation media cast doubt on the production restart, indicating that due to the ongoing Russia–Ukraine conflict needed parts from Russia are unavailable, although they may be made in China instead. AICC's president, Zhang You-Sheng, told a BBC reporter that AICC began to contemplate cooperation with Antonov in 2009 and contacted them in 2011. AICC intends to modernize the second unfinished An-225 and develop it into an air launch to orbit platform for commercial satellites at altitudes up to 12,000 m.
Based on Antonov's earlier An-124, the An-225 has fuselage barrel extensions added fore and aft of the wings. The wings received root extensions to increase span. Two more Progress D-18T turbofan engines were added to the new wing roots, bringing the total to six. An increased-capacity landing gear system with 32 wheels was designed, some of which are steerable, enabling the aircraft to turn within a 60-metre-wide runway. Like its An-124 predecessor, the An-225 has nose gear designed to "kneel" so cargo can be more loaded and unloaded. Unlike the An-124, which has a rear cargo door and ramp, the An-225 design left these off to save weight, the empennage design was changed from a single vertical stabilizer to a twin tail with an oversized, swept-back horizontal stabilizer; the twin tail was essential to enable the plane to carry large, heavy external loads that would disturb the airflow around a conventional tail. Unlike the An-124, the An-225 was not intended for tactical airlifting and is not designed for short-field operation.
The An-225 had a maximum gross weight of 600 t, but from 2000 to 2001 the aircraft underwent modifications at a cost of US$20M such as the addition of a reinforced floor, which increased the maximum gross weight to 640 t (710 short tons.
The Antonov An-12 is a four-engined turboprop transport aircraft designed in the Soviet Union. It has many variants; the first prototype An-12 flew in December 1957. Over 900 had been built when Soviet production ended in 1973; the An-12BP entered Soviet military service in 1959. In terms of configuration and capability, the aircraft is similar to the United States-built Lockheed C-130 Hercules. Soviet military and former-Soviet An-12s have a defensive tail gun turret. In the 1960s, China purchased several An-12 aircraft from the Soviet Union, along with a license to assemble the aircraft locally. Due to the Sino-Soviet split, the Soviet Union withdrew its technical assistance and the first flight of a Chinese-assembled An-12 was delayed until 1974; the Xi'an Aircraft Company and Xi'an Aircraft Design Institute worked to reverse-engineer the An-12 for local production. In 1981, the Chinese version of the An-12, designated Y-8, entered production. Since the Y-8 has become one of China's most popular military and civilian transport/cargo aircraft, with many variants produced and exported.
A Tu-16/H-6 bomber navigator cockpit design was chosen for the Y-8 instead of the original An-12 shorter navigator cockpit design, as the H-6 bomber had been in serial production for some time. Although the An-12 is no longer in production either in Russia or in Ukraine, the Y-8 is upgraded and produced in China; the latest Y8-F600 is a joint venture between the Shaanxi Aircraft Company, Antonov Aeronautical Scientific Technical Complex, Pratt & Whitney Canada. The Y8-F600 has a redesigned fuselage, western avionics, PW150B turboprop engines with an R-408 propeller system, a two-crew glass cockpit; the An-12 is popular with cargo operators those in the CIS, Africa and the Indian subcontinent. On 12 January 2009, the United Arab Emirates issued a temporary ban of the An-12 from flying over their airspace following runway incursions at Sharjah International Airport and the GCAA has advised operators to stop using the aircraft; the ban was made permanent in Feb 2010. Data from Global Aircraft, Airliners.netGeneral characteristics Crew: five: two pilots, flight engineer, radio operator Payload: 20,000 kg Length: 33.10 m Wingspan: 38.00 m Height: 10.53 m Wing area: 121.7 m² Empty weight: 28,000 kg Useful load: 60 paratroopers Max.
Takeoff weight: 61,000 kg Powerplant: 4 × Ivchenko AI-20L or AI-20M turboprops, 4,000 ehp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 777 km/h Cruise speed: 670 km/h Range: ** With maximum fuel: 5,700 km With maximum load: 3,600 km ) Service ceiling: 10,200 m Rate of climb: 10m/s Armament Guns: 2× 23 mm Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23 cannons in a tail turret Military transport aircraftRelated development Antonov An-22 Shaanxi Y-8Aircraft of comparable role and era Lockheed C-130 Hercules Transall C.160 Related lists List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS Endres, Günter G.. World Airline Fleets 1979. Hounslow, UK: Airline Publications and Sales Ltd. ISBN 978-0-905117-53-9.. Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 188 no. 5517. Pp. 26–53. ISSN 0015-3710. List of all An-12 aircraft used by Polish Air Force Pictures of An-12 Hundreds of An-12 photos Y-8 Transporter Intro, AirForceWorld.com Russianplanes.net
The Tupolev Tu-124 was a 56-passenger short-range twinjet airliner built in the Soviet Union. Developed from the medium-range Tupolev Tu-104, the Tu-124 was meant to meet Aeroflot's requirement for a regional airliner to replace the Ilyushin Il-14 on domestic routes. Resembling a 75% scaled-down Tu-104, the two were hard to tell apart at a distance but it was not a complete copy of the Tu-104; the Tu-124 had a number of refinements, including double-slotted flaps, a large centre-section airbrake and automatic spoilers. Unlike the Tu-104, the wing trailing edge inboard of the undercarriage was unswept; the Tu-124 retained a drogue parachute to be used in an emergency landing or landing on a slippery surface and had low pressure tires to aid operation from unpaved airfields. As on the Tu-104 the engines were integrated into the wings, but the turbofan engines were more fuel efficient; the placement of the engines amplified vibrations, which affected the comfort of the passenger cabin, the fatigue lifetime of the wing assembly.
The standard seating of the basic version was 44 seats. The first of two prototype, SSSR-45000 made its first flight from Zhukovsky airfield on 24 March 1960; the second prototype, SSSR-45001, followed in June 1960. Two other airframes served as a static test cells. Testing was successful, the aircraft entered production at Factory 135 at Kharkov, replacing the Tu-104 in production. Deliveries to Aeroflot began in August 1962, with the type operating its first scheduled passenger service, between Moscow and Tallinn in Estonia, on 2 October 1962. Aeroflot was impressed with the flight performance of the Tu-124 and used it on domestic routes from the end of 1962; the improved Tu-124V, which could seat 56 passengers instead of the 44 of the original model, which had increased range and maximum takeoff weight, came into service in 1964. An Aeroflot Tu-124V was exhibited at the 1965 Paris Air Show. Despite the aircraft's low purchase price and low operating costs, few were exported, with Československé Státní Aerolinie and the East German airline Interflug being the only airlines other than Aeroflot that bought the Tu-124 new, although ČSA sold its surviving Tu-124s to Iraqi Airways for use on VIP flights in 1973.
Interflug used its three Tu-124s as an alternative to the Ilyushin Il-62, when the Il-62s were grounded due to mechanical issues. All three were sold back to the Soviet Union in 1975. Three airframes were completed in 1966 in a VIP configuration, designated Tu-124K. However, Aeroflot never placed them into service, they were purchased by the Indian Air Force. A number were sold to military users, including the Soviet Air Force, which used them as navigational trainers, to the Chinese Air Force. A total of 164 Tu-124s were built. Issues with the safety of the Tu-104 affected the fate of the Tu-124, although the reliability of the Tu-124 was better. Production ended in 1965 and Aeroflot decommissioned its last twelve Tu-124s on 21 January 1980; the Tu-124 continued in operation for some years with the Soviet Air Force and in Iraq, but all aircraft were withdrawn before and in 1990, The ones in Iraq military and Iraqi Airways were destroyed in early 1990s during the Gulf War. Several Tu-124s have been preserved.
One is in the museum of the Kharkiv State Aircraft Manufacturing Company, another is in China's Datangshan aviation museum in Beijing, another at the Central Air Force Museum at Monino outside Moscow. A Tu-124K is on display at New Delhi Airport and next to the State Museum at Lucknow Zoo. A sixth one is located at Ulyanovsk Aircraft Museum located in Ulyanovsk Oblast Russia; the German Democratic Republic attempted to compete within the COMECON trade bloc with its own four-engined design called the Baade 152. The design was unsuccessful, leading Interflug to buy a rear-engined development of the Tu-124, the Tupolev Tu-134. Tu-124/Tu-124V The first production variant. International demand was small, as most foreign airlines were waiting to buy the improved Tupolev Tu-134 Tu-124B Three prototypes with D-20P-125 engines, built in 1963 Tu-124K/Tu-124K2 VIP configuration operated by the militaries of Iraq and China, by the Indian Air Force Tu-124Sh-1 Military version used as navigator trainer Tu-124Sh-2 Military version used as navigator trainer Tu-127 Proposed military transport version, not built.
CzechoslovakiaČSA East GermanyInterflug IraqIraqi Airways Soviet UnionAeroflot ChinaPeople's Liberation Army Air Force CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakian Air Force East GermanyEast German Air Force IndiaIndian Air Force IraqIraqi Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force A total of fifteen Tu-124s were written off in crashes during the type's operational career. Data from Soviet Transport Aircraft since 1945General characteristics Crew: three Capacity: 56 passengers Length: 30.58 m Wingspan: 25.55 m Height: 8.08 m Wing area: 119.4 m² Empty weight: 22,900 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 37,500 kg Powerplant: 2 × Soloviev D-20P turbofans, 53.1 kN eachPerformance Maximum speed: 970 km/h at 8,000 m Cruise speed: 800–870 km/h Range: 2,100 km Service ceiling: 11,700 m Rate of climb: 12.0 m/s Related development Tupolev Tu-104 Tupolev Tu-110 Tupolev Tu-134Aircraft of comparable role and era BAC One-Eleven Sud Aviation Caravelle Related lists List o
The Yakovlev Yak-40 is a small, three-engined jet airliner. The maiden flight was made in 1966, it was in production from 1967 to 1981. Introduced in September 1968, the Yak-40 has been exported since 1970. By the early 1960s, Soviet international and internal trunk routes were served by Aeroflot, the state airline, using jet or turboprop powered airliners, but their local services, many of which operated from grass airfields, were served by obsolete piston-engine aircraft such as the Ilyushin Il-12, Il-14 and Lisunov Li-2. Aeroflot wanted to replace these elderly airliners with a turbine-powered aircraft, with the Yakovlev design bureau being assigned to design it. High speed was not required, but it would have to be able to operate safely and reliably out of poorly equipped airports with short unpaved runways in poor weather. Yakovlev studied both turboprop and jet-powered designs to meet the requirement, including Vertical Take-Off and Landing designs with lift jets in the fuselage or in wing-mounted pods, but they settled on a straight-winged tri-jet carrying 20 to 25 passengers.
The engines were to be the new AI-25 turbofan being developed by Ivchenko at Zaporozhye in Ukraine. The Yak-40 is a low-winged cantilever monoplane with unswept wings, a large T-tail and a retractable tricycle landing gear; the passenger cabin is ahead of the wing, with the short rear fuselage carrying the three turbofan engines, with two engines mounted on short pylons on the side of the fuselage and a third engine in the rear fuselage, with air fed from a dorsal air-intake by an "S-duct", as is an auxiliary power unit, fitted to allow engine start-up without ground support on primitive airfields. The three AI-25 engines are two-shaft engines rated at 14.7 kN. The engines have no jetpipes, no thrust reversers; the pressurized fuselage has a diameter of 2.4 metres. Pilot and co-pilot sit side-by-side in the aircraft's flight deck, while the passenger cabin has a standard layout seating 24 to 27 passengers three-abreast, although 32 passengers can be carried by switching to four-abreast seating.
Passengers enter the aircraft via a set of ventral airstairs in the rear fuselage. The wing is fitted with large trailing-edge slotted flaps, but has no other high-lift devices, relying on the aircraft's low wing loading to give the required short-field take-off and landing performance; the wings join at the aircraft centerline, with the main spar running from wingtip to wingtip The wings house integral fuel tanks with a capacity of 3,800 litres. The aircraft has a large fin, swept back at an angle of 50 degrees to move the tailplane rearwards to compensate for the short rear fuselage; the horizontal tailplane. The Yak-40 was the first Soviet-built airliner designed to Western airworthiness requirements; the first of five prototypes made its maiden flight on 21 October 1966, with production being launched at the Saratov Aviation Plant in 1967 and Soviet type certification granted in 1968. The type carried out its first passenger service for Aeroflot on 30 September 1968. In the 1972 version, a tailspin was removed.
In 1974, new version was introduced, with non-stop flight distance increased. The forward door on the right side of the fuselage changed its place – it was located together with the sixth window. In 1975, the last upgrade of Yak-40 took place – the number of cabin windows on the right side changed from nine to eight. By the time production ended in November 1981, the factory at Saratov had produced 1,011 or 1,013 aircraft. By 1993 Yak-40s operated by Aeroflot had carried 354 million passengers; as well as being the backbone of Aeroflot's local operations, flying to 276 domestic destinations in 1980, the Yak-40 was an export success. More than this, Yak-40 became the first Russian/Soviet aircraft to get flying certificates from Italy and West Germany, it was demonstrated in 75 countries of the world, including the USA, where orders on Yak-40 were made. A total of 130 were exported to Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Germany, Honduras, Italy, Madagascar, Poland, Vietnam and Zambia.
Yak-40 – The first production model. Yak-40-25 Military conversion with the nose of a MiG-25R and SRS-4A Elint installation. Yak-40 Akva – Military conversion with nose probe, pylon-mounted sensors, a fuselage dispenser and underwing active jammer pods. Yak-40D – with non-stop flight distance enlarged. Yak-40EC – Export version. Yak-40 Fobos – Military conversion with two dorsal viewing domes and a removable window on each side. Yak-40K – cargo / convertible / combi version with a large freight door. Produced in 1975–81. Yak-40 Kalibrovshchik – Military Elint conversion with a "farm" of blade and planar antennas. Yak-40L – Proposed version with two Lycoming LF507-1N turbofans, a joint program between Skorost and Textron Lycoming; the original design would have had a swept wing. Yak-40 Liros – Military conversion with nose probe carrying air-data sensors. Yak-40M – Proposed 40-seat stretched passenger version. Yak-40 M-602 – Flying testbed with a Czechoslovak M 602 turboprop installed in the nose. Yak-40 Meteo – Military conversion with multipole dipole antennas and fuselage dispenser.
Yak-40P – Yak-40L with large nacelles projecting ahead of the wings. Yak-40REO – Military conversion with large ventral canoe for IR linescan. Lateral observation blister on right side. Yak-40 Shtorm – Military conversion with multiple probes and sensors on the forward sidewalls. Yak-40TL – Proposed upgraded version, to be powered by three Lycoming LF 507 turbofan en
Military transport aircraft
Military transport aircraft or military cargo aircraft are fixed wing and rotary wing cargo aircraft which are used to airlift troops and other military equipment by a variety of methods to any area of military operations around the surface of the planet outside the commercial flight routes in uncontrolled airspace. Derived from bombers, military transport aircraft were used for delivering airborne forces during World War II and towing military gliders; some military transport aircraft are tasked to perform multi-role duties such as aerial refueling and rescue missions, tactical and strategic airlifts onto unprepared runways, or those constructed by engineers. Fixed-wing transport aircraft are defined in terms of their range capability as strategic airlift or tactical airlift to reflect the needs of the land forces which they most support; these correspond to the commercial flight length distinctions: Eurocontrol defines short-haul routes as shorter than 1,500 km, long-haul routes as longer than 4,000 km and medium-haul between.
A more specialised role of a cargo aircraft is that of transporting fuel in support of other aircraft with more limited flight endurance such as fighters or helicopters. Smaller cargo aircraft, known as "utility", are used to transport military communications equipment as temporary or permanent platforms, in the command role by providing airborne command post or as an air ambulance. Military transport helicopters are used in places where the use of conventional aircraft is impossible. For example, the military transport helicopter is the primary transport asset of US Marines deploying from LHDs and LHA; the landing possibilities of helicopters are unlimited, where landing is impossible, for example densely packed jungle, the ability of the helicopter to hover allows troops to deploy by abseiling and roping. Transport helicopters are operated in assault and heavy classes. Air assault helicopters are the smallest of the transport types, designed to move an infantry squad or section and their equipment.
Helicopters in the assault role are armed for self-protection both in transit and for suppression of the landing zone. This armament may be in the form of door gunners, or the modification of the helicopter with stub wings and pylons to carry missiles and rocket pods. For example, the Sikorsky S-70, fitted with the ESSM, the Hip E variant of the Mil Mi-8 can carry as much disposable armament as some dedicated attack helicopters; the assault helicopter can be thought of as the modern successor to the military glider. There is the generic term utility helicopter, which refers to medium-lift designs. Not all militaries are able to operate a full range of transport helicopters, so the medium transport type is the most useful compromise and the most common specialist transport type. Medium transport helicopters are capable of moving up to a platoon of infantry and are capable of being able to transport towed artillery or light vehicles either internally or as underslung roles. Unlike the assault helicopter they are not expected to land directly in a contested landing zone, but are used to reinforce and resupply landing zones taken by the initial assault wave.
Examples include the unarmed versions of the Mil Mi-8, Super Puma, CH-46 Sea Knight. Heavy lift helicopters are the largest and most capable of the transport types limited in service to the CH-53 Sea Stallion and related CH-53E Super Stallion, CH-47 Chinook, Mil Mi-26, Aérospatiale Super Frelon. Capable of lifting up to 80 troops and moving small Armoured fighting vehicles, these helicopters operate in the tactical transport role in much the same way as small fixed wing turboprop air-lifters; the lower speed and increased fuel consumption of helicopters are more than compensated by their ability to operate anywhere. Cargo aircraft Loadmaster Airlift Troop ship Richard Aboulafia. "Opinion: Why Military Transports Are Less Popular Than You'd Expect". Aviation Week & Space Technology
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
The Antonov An-28 is a twin-engined light turboprop transport aircraft, developed from the Antonov An-14M. It was the winner of a competition against the Beriev Be-30, for use by Aeroflot as a short-range airliner, it first flew in 1969. A total of 191 were built and 16 remain in airline service as at August 2015. After a short pre-production series built by Antonov, it was licence-built in Poland by PZL-Mielec. In 1993, PZL-Mielec developed the PZL M28 Skytruck; the An-28 is similar to the An-14 in many aspects, including its wing structure and twin rudders, but features an expanded fuselage and turboprop engines, in place of the An-14's piston engines. The An-28 first flew as a modified An-14 in 1969; the next preproduction model did not fly until 1975. In passenger carrying configuration, accommodation was provided for up to 15 people, in addition to the two-man crew. Production was transferred to PZL-Mielec in 1978; the first Polish-built aircraft did not fly until 1984. The An-28 received its Soviet type certificate in 1986.
An-14A The original Antonov designation for an enlarged, twin-turboprop version of the An-14. An-14M Prototype. An-28 Twin-engined short-range utility transport aircraft, three built. An-28RM Bryza 1RM Search and rescue, air ambulance aircraft. An-28TD Bryza 1TD Transport version. An-28PT Variant with Pratt & Whitney engines first flown 22 July 1993. Major operators of the 16 Antonov An-28 aircraft remaining in airline service include: ArmeniaSkiva Air RussiaVostok Airlines TajikistanTajik Air KazakhstanAvluga-Trans KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan Airlines MoldovaTepavia Trans SurinameBlue Wing Airlines GeorgiaGeorgian Air Force – two as of December 2016. TanzaniaTanzania Air Force Command – one as of December 2016. DjiboutiDjibouti Air Force one retired. PeruPeruvian Army two in storage EstoniaAir Livonia Enimex Soviet UnionAeroflot Soviet Air Force 23 November 2001: ELK Airways flight 1007, An-28 ES-NOV operated by Enimex, crashed into trees about 1.5 km from the airport while attempting to land in bad weather at Kärdla Airport, Estonia.
Of the 14 passengers and 3 crew on board, 2 passengers were killed. 25 May 2005: A chartered Maniema Union Antonov An-28 aircraft, owned by Victoria Air, crashed into a mountain near Walungu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 30 minutes after takeoff. All of the 22 passengers and five crew members were killed. 3 April 2008: An Antonov An-28 operated by Blue Wing Airlines crashed upon landing near Benzdorp in Suriname. All 19 on board were killed. On 15 October 2009, an Antonov An-28 of Blue Wing Airlines departed the runway on landing at Kwamelasemoetoe Airstrip and hit an obstacle; the aircraft was damaged and four people were injured, one seriously. 15 May 2010: An Antonov An-28 operated by Blue Wing Airlines crashed over the upper-marowijne district three miles north-east of Poketi, Suriname. The two pilots and six passengers died. On 30 January 2012, A TRACEP-Congo Aviation An-28 crashed while on a domestic cargo flight from Bukavu-Kamenbe Airport to Namoya Airstrip, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing three of the five crew.
On 12 September 2012, an An-28 operated by Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Air Enterprise as Flight 251 crashed while on a domestic flight from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to Palana Airport, killing ten of 14 people. Data from Airliners.netGeneral characteristics Crew: one–two Capacity: 18 passengers Length: 12.98 m Wingspan: 22.00 m Height: 4.6 m Wing area: 39.7 m² Empty weight: 3,900 kg Loaded weight: 5,800 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 6,100 kg Powerplant: 2 × Glushenkov TVD-10B or Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65B turboprops, 960 shp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 355 km/h Range: 510 km Service ceiling: 6000 m Rate of climb: 12.0 m/s Wing loading: 146 kg/m² Power/mass: 250 W/kg Related development Antonov An-14 Antonov An-38 PZL M-28 SkytruckAircraft of comparable role and era CASA C-212 Aviocar De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter Dornier 228 GAF Nomad Harbin Y-12 IAI Arava LET L-410 Turbolet Shorts SC.7 Skyvan Related lists List of civil aircraft Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International.
Vol. 190 no. 5566. Pp. 22–53. ISSN 0015-3710. List of all PZL M28 aircraft used by Polish Air Force An-28/M28/M28B production list