National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
2019 NFL season
The 2019 NFL season will be the 100th season of the National Football League. The season will begin on September 5, 2019 with the NFL Kickoff Game with the Chicago Bears hosting the Green Bay Packers; the season will conclude with Super Bowl LIV, the league's championship game, tentatively scheduled for February 2, 2020, at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami, Florida. The 2019 NFL League year and trading period began on March 13. On March 8, teams were allowed to exercise options for 2019 on players who have option clauses in their contracts submit qualifying offers to their pending restricted free agents and submit a Minimum Salary Tender to retain exclusive negotiating rights to their players with expiring 2018 contracts and who have fewer than three accrued seasons of free agent credit. Teams were required to be under the salary cap using the "Top 51" definition On March 11 clubs were allowed to contact and begin contract negotiations with the agents of players who were set to become unrestricted free agents.
Free agency began on March 13. Notable players to change teams include: Quarterbacks Blake Bortles, Ryan Fitzpatrick, Nick Foles. Running backs CJ Anderson, Le'Veon Bell, Tevin Coleman, Frank Gore, Kareem Hunt, Mark Ingram Jr.. Wide receivers Danny Amendola, Cole Beasley, John Brown, Randall Cobb, Cordarrelle Patterson, Golden Tate. Tight end Charles Clay Offensive linemen Jamon Brown, Trent Brown, Ja'Wuan James, Mitch Morse, Rodger Saffold. Defensive linemen Trey Flowers, Malik Jackson, Sheldon Richardson, Cameron Wake. Linebackers Kwon Alexander, Vontaze Burfict, Thomas Davis, Jordan Hicks, Justin Houston, Clay Matthews, CJ Mosley, Preston Smith, Za'Darius Smith, Terrell Suggs. Defensive backs Adrian Amos, Ha Ha Clinton-Dix, Landon Collins, Lamarcus Joyner, Tyrann Mathieu, Earl Thomas, Eric Weddle. Kicker Jason Myers. March 13: Baltimore traded QB Joe Flacco to Denver for their 2019 fourth round selection. March 13: Denver traded QB Case Keenum and a 2020 seventh round selection to Washington for their 2020 sixth round selection.
March 13: The New York Giants traded WR Odell Beckham Jr. and DE Olivier Vernon to Cleveland for G Kevin Zeitler, SS Jabrill Peppers, their 2019 first round selection, their 2019 third round selection March 13: Pittsburgh traded OT Marcus Gilbert to Arizona for their 2019 sixth round selection. March 13: Philadelphia traded DE Michael Bennett and a 2020 seventh round selection to New England for their 2020 fifth round selection. March 13: Pittsburgh traded WR Antonio Brown to Oakland for their 2019 third round selection and their 2019 fifth round selection. March 13: Oakland traded G Kelechi Osemele and their 2019 sixth round selection to the New York Jets for their 2019 fifth round selection. March 13: Tampa Bay traded WR DeSean Jackson and their 2020 seventh round selection to Philadelphia for their 2019 sixth round selection. March 13: Kansas City traded OLB Dee Ford to San Francisco for their 2020 second round selection. March 15: Miami traded QB Ryan Tannehill and their 2019 sixth round selection to Tennessee for their 2019 seventh round selection and their 2020 fourth round selection.
March 28: Miami traded DE Robert Quinn to Dallas for their 2020 sixth round selection. March 28: Chicago traded RB Jordan Howard to Philadelphia for their 2020 sixth round selection. April 1: Cleveland traded DE Emmanuel Ogbah to Kansas City for SS Eric Murray. Tight end Rob Gronkowski - Five-time Pro Bowl selection, three-time Super Bowl champion. Played for the New England Patriots for his entire nine-year career. Center Ryan Kalil - Five-time Pro Bowl selection and three-time All Pro. Played for the Carolina Panthers for his entire twelve-year career. Punter Shane Lechler - Seven-time Pro Bowl selection and nine-time All-Pro. Played for the Raiders and Texans during his 18-year career. Defensive tackle Haloti Ngata - Five-time Pro Bowl selection, five-time All-Pro. Played nine years of his 13-year career with the Ravens, with shorter stints with the Lions and Eagles. Linebacker Brian Orakpo - Four-time Pro Bowl selection. Played for the Redskins and Titans over a ten-year career. Defensive end Julius Peppers - Nine-time Pro Bowl selection and six-time All-Pro.
Played for the Panthers and Packers during his 17-year career. Guard Josh Sitton - Four-time Pro Bowl selection, three-time All-Pro (one first-team
A field goal is a means of scoring in American football and Canadian football. To score a field goal, the team in possession of the ball must place kick, or drop kick, the ball through the goal, i.e. between the uprights and over the crossbar. American football requires that a field goal must only come during a play from scrimmage, while Canadian football retains open field kicks and thus field goals may be scored at any time from anywhere on the field and by any player; the vast majority of field goals, in both codes, are place kicked. Drop kicked field goals were common in the early days of Gridiron football but are never done in modern times. In most leagues, a successful field goal awards three points. A field goal may be scored through a fair catch kick, but this is rare. Since a field goal is worth only three points, as opposed to a touchdown, worth six points, it is only attempted in specific situations; the goal structure consists of a horizontal crossbar suspended 10 feet above the ground, with two vertical goalposts 18 feet 6 inches apart extending vertically from each end of the crossbar.
In American football, the goals are centered on each end line. As a field goal is worth only three points, while a touchdown scores at least six, teams will attempt a field goal only in the following situations: It is fourth down if the offense is more than a yard or two from a new first down, within about 45 yards of the goal posts. In the first half, there is enough time remaining to execute only one more play. In the second half, there is enough time remaining to execute only one more play, the team on offense needs three points to win or tie. Except in desperate situations, a team will attempt field goals only when keeping a drive alive is unlikely, its kicker has a significant chance of success, as a missed field goal results in a turnover at the spot of the kick or at the line of scrimmage. In American high school rules and Canadian football, where a missed field goal is treated the same as a punt, most teams still opt not to attempt field goals from long range since field goal formations are not conducive to covering kick returns.
Under ideal conditions, the best professional kickers had difficulty making kicks longer than 50 yards consistently. If a team chooses not to attempt a field goal on their last down, they can punt to the other team. A punt cannot score any points in American football unless the receiving team touches the ball first and the kicking team recovers it, but it may push the other team back toward its own end; the longest field goal kick in NFL history is 64 yards, a record set by Matt Prater on December 8, 2013. The previous record was 63 set by Tom Dempsey and matched by Jason Elam, Sebastian Janikowski, David Akers, Graham Gano. High school and most professional football leagues offer only a three-point field goal. NFL Europe encouraged long field goals of 50 yards or more by making those worth four points instead of three, a rule since adopted by the Stars Football League; the sport of arena football sought to repopularize the drop kick by making that worth four points. The overall field goal percentage during the 2010 NFL season was 82.3.
In comparison, Jan Stenerud, one of only two pure kickers in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, had a career field goal percentage of 66.8 from 1967 to 1985. When a team decides to attempt a field goal, it will line up in a tight formation, with all but two players lined up along or near the line of scrimmage: the placekicker and the holder; the holder is the team's punter or backup quarterback. Instead of the regular center, a team may have a dedicated long snapper trained to snap the ball on placekick attempts and punts; the holder lines up seven to eight yards behind the line of scrimmage, with the kicker a few yards behind him. Upon receiving the snap, the holder holds the ball against the ground vertically, with the stitches away from the kicker; the kicker begins his approach during the snap, so the snapper and holder have little margin for error. A split-second mistake can disrupt the entire attempt; the measurement of a field goal's distance is from the goalpost to the point where the ball was positioned for the kick by the holder.
In American football, where the goalpost is located at the back of the end zone, the ten yards of the end zone are added to the yard line distance at the spot of the hold. Until the 1960s, placekickers approached the ball straight on, with the toe making first contact with the ball; the technique of kicking the ball "soccer-style", by approaching the ball at an a
The 2,000-yard club is a group of seven National Football League running backs who have rushed for 2,000 or more yards in a regular season. These seven rushing seasons rank as the highest single-season rushing totals in NFL history, reaching the 2,000-yard mark is considered a significant achievement for running backs. No running back has yet achieved this feat twice; the first 2,000-yard season was recorded in 1973 by Buffalo Bills running back O. J. Simpson. Simpson is the only player to have surpassed 2,000 yards in a 14-game season, as all others occurred in 16-game seasons. Los Angeles Rams running back Eric Dickerson, who had broken the single-season rookie rushing record in 1983, recorded the second 2,000-yard season in 1984. Dickerson rushed for 2,105 yards, the current NFL rushing record, averaged 131.6 rushing yards per game. Detroit Lions running back Barry Sanders recorded the third 2,000-yard season in 1997, rushing for 2,053 yards. At the age of 29, Sanders was the oldest back. Sanders had opened the season with only 53 yards through two games, but ran for 100 yards or more in each of the last 14 games of the season and averaged 6.1 yards per carry during the season.
In 1998 Denver Broncos running back Terrell Davis became the fourth player to rush for over 2,000 yards, running for 2,008 yards. Davis recorded 21 rushing touchdowns in his 2,000-yard season, the only 2,000 yard rusher to do so. Davis had reached the 1,000-yard mark only seven games into the season. Baltimore Ravens running back Jamal Lewis surpassed 2,000 yards in the 2003 season, recording 2,066 yards over the course of the season. 500 of these yards were recorded in two games against the Cleveland Browns, with Lewis rushing for a then-NFL record 295 yards in the first and recording 205 rushing yards in the second. Tennessee Titans running back Chris Johnson ran for 2,006 yards in 2009, averaging 5.6 yards per carry, recorded an NFL-record 2,509 yards from scrimmage. Minnesota Vikings back Adrian Peterson is the most recent player to have surpassed 2,000 yards rushing, having finished the 2012 season with 2,097 yards rushing, just 8 yards short of Dickerson's record. Peterson had torn two ligaments in his left knee the previous year, making him the only player to have surpassed 2,000 yards after having reconstructive knee surgery the prior season.
Out of the seven players to have recorded a 2,000-yard rushing season, all but one won the AP NFL Offensive Player of the Year Award the year that they rushed for 2,000 yards. Dickerson would go on to win the award though after the 1986 NFL season. Simpson, Sanders and Peterson won the AP Most Valuable Player award. Simpson, Dickerson and Davis are each members of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, which "honor individuals who have made outstanding contributions to professional football". Notes Footnotes "AP MVP winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Archived from the original on March 5, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. "AP Offensive Player of the Year winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Archived from the original on March 5, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. National Football League 250 best American Football League and NFL rushing seasons